- Musical quotation
Musical quotation is the practice of directly quoting another work in a new composition. The quotation may be from the same composer's work (self-referential), or from a different composer's work (appropriation).
Sometimes the quotation is done for the purposes of characterization, as in Puccini's use of The Star-Spangled Banner in reference to the American character Lieutenant Pinkerton in his opera Madama Butterfly, or in Tchaikovsky's use of the Russian and French national anthems in the 1812 Overture, which depicted a battle between the Russian and French armies.
Quotation vs. variation
Musical quotation is to be distinguished from variation, where a composer takes a theme (their own or another's) and writes variations on it. In that case, the origin of the theme is usually acknowledged in the title (e.g., Johannes Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Haydn). In the case of quotations, there is usually no explicit acknowledgment.[original research?] However, it sometimes appears in the score. For example, in Schumann's Carnaval, in the section "Florestan" he quotes a theme from his earlier work Papillons, Op. 2, and the inscription "(Papillon?)" is written underneath the notes. In the final section "Marche des Davidsbündler contre les Philistins", he again quotes the same theme, but without acknowledgement. In that final section, he also quotes another theme first used in Papillons, the traditional Grossvater Tanz (Grandfather Dance), but this time the inscription is "Thème du XVIIème siècle".
Examples of musical quotations in classical music include:
- Arnold Bax quoted a theme from Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde in his 1919 symphonic poem Tintagel
- Alban Berg quoted Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale Es ist genug (It is enough) at the end of his Violin Concerto
- Georges Bizet used a song "El Arreglito" by Sebastián Iradier as the basis for the "Habanera" (L'amour est un oiseau rebelle) in his opera Carmen, believing it to be an anonymous folk song. When he discovered its true author, who had died only ten years earlier, he made an acknowledgment in the vocal score.
- Johannes Brahms quotes Gaudeamus igitur and other popular university songs in his Academic Festival Overture.
- Benjamin Britten quoted many other works (e.g., Wagner's "Tristan chord") in his opera Albert Herring
- Brett Dean's work for violin and orchestra, The Lost Art of Letter Writing (2006), includes two quotations from Johannes Brahms: the slow movement of the Fourth Symphony and the Variations on a Theme of Robert Schumann.
- Claude Debussy quoted the opening of Tristan und Isolde disparagingly in the Golliwogg's Cakewalk from his Children's Corner suite for piano
- Sir Edward Elgar quoted The First Nowell and some of his own earlier music in The Starlight Express
- Manuel de Falla quoted the opening of Beethoven's 5th Symphony in his ballet The Three-Cornered Hat.
- Alberto Franchetti quoted widely from German popular songs and from the work of several German composers in his opera Germania, in order to lend the score a German color
- Umberto Giordano quoted the French national anthem La Marseillaise in his opera Andrea Chénier
- Charles Ives was particularly fond of quoting other composers' themes in his works. They can be found in works such as Three Places in New England and his Piano Sonata No. 2
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart quoted a theme by his recently deceased mentor Johann Christian Bach in his Piano Concerto No. 12
- Giacomo Puccini quoted the U.S. national anthem The Star-Spangled Banner in his opera Madama Butterfly
- Sergei Rachmaninoff based his song "Fate" on the first two measures of the opening movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
- Robert Schumann quoted La Marseillaise in his song The Two Grenadiers and his Carnival Jest from Vienna; he also quoted two themes from his Papillons, Op. 2 in his later work Carnaval, Op. 9 (one of which was the traditional Grossvater Tanz); further, he quoted Beethoven's An die ferne Geliebte and Schubert's Impromptu in G flat in his Fantasie in C, Op. 17
- Dmitri Shostakovich - various examples, for instance the Can-Can from Jacques Offenbach's opera Orpheus in the Underworld.
- Richard Strauss quoted the funeral march from Beethoven's Eroica symphony (No. 3) in his Metamorphosen for 23 solo strings
- Strauss used many quotes from his own works in his symphonic poem A Hero's Life
- Strauss quoted Luigi Denza's song Funiculì, Funiculà in his symphonic poem Aus Italien, believing it was a folk song
- Igor Stravinsky quoted a theme from Franz Schubert's Marche Militaire No. 1 in D in his Circus Polka.
- Sir Arthur Sullivan did quote actual melodies by Franz Schubert and Johann Sebastian Bach, but he was more adept at deliberately imitating the styles of other composers without actually quoting their works. The styles of Bellini, Bizet, Donizetti, Dvořák, Gounod, Handel, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Rossini, Verdi, Wagner and others can all be found in his works.
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky quoted the Russian national anthem (God Save the Tsar!), La Marseillaise, a Russian Orthodox plainchant (God Preserve Thy People), and some Russian folk songs, in his 1812 Overture. He used folk material in other compositions, such as the 4th Symphony and the 1st Piano Concerto. He quoted the traditional Grossvater Tanz in Act I of The Nutcracker. And in Act 2, Scene 2 of The Queen of Spades, he has the Countess sing Laurette's aria "Je crains de lui parler la nuit" from André Grétry's opera Richard Coeur-de-Lion.
- Ralph Vaughan Williams quoted the theme from the Epilogue of the third movement of Arnold Bax's Symphony No. 3 in his Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra.
- Henryk Wieniawski quoted Alexander Egorovich Varlamov's song The Red Sarafan in his fantasy for violin and piano, Souvenir de Moscow, Op. 6 (possibly believing it was a folk song).
The Gregorian plainchant melody Dies Irae has been quoted by Charles-Valentin Alkan, Johannes Brahms, Benjamin Britten, Joseph Haydn, Franz Liszt, Modest Mussorgsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Igor Stravinsky and many other composers in their works.
American Rock band Brand New quoted The Cure's song Close to Me in the song Logan To Government Center with the lyrics "I never thought this day would end; I never thought tonight could ever be this close to me."
Quotation is also a tradition in jazz performance, especially of the bebop era. Charlie Parker, for instance, quoted Stravinsky's Rite of Spring in his solo on "Repetition", and "Country Gardens" on his Verve recording of "Lover Man"; Dizzy Gillespie quotes David Raksin's "Laura" on "Hot House" during the Massey Hall concert. Dexter Gordon and Sonny Rollins are especially famed among jazz fans for their addiction to quotation. Often the use of musical quotation has an ironic edge, whether the musician is aiming for an amusing juxtaposition or is making a more pointed commentary (as when a youthful Rollins, playing alongside Charlie Parker on Miles Davis's Collector's Items, throws in a snippet of "Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better," or when the avant-garde saxophonist Ornette Coleman rebuffs a skeptical heckler at the Croydon Hall concert with a snippet of the jazz standard "Cherokee").
- Nicolas Slonimsky, Richard Kassel eds., Webster's New World Dictionary of Music
- Variation (music)
- List of Variations on a Theme by another composer
- Sampling (music)
- Composer tributes (classical music)
Appropriation in the Arts By fieldIn musicAppropriation (music) · Contrafact · Cover version · Interpolation (music) · List of musical medleys · Mashup (music) · Musical plagiarism · Musical quotation · Parody music · Pasticcio · Plunderphonics · Potpourri (music) · DJ mix · Quodlibet · Remix · Sampling (music) · Sound collage · Trope (music) · Variation (music)Literature, TheatrePainting, Comics,
blocks and forms
General concepts Related
Theorization Related non
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Musical historicism — signifies the use of historical materials, structures, styles, techniques, media, conceptual content, etc., whether by a single composer or those associated with a particular school, movement, or period. Musical historicism is evident to a… … Wikipedia
Quotation — This article is about quoting text. For information about the punctuation mark, see Quotation mark. For the non English usage, see Quotation mark, non English usage. For market data relating to a security or commodity, see Financial quote. For… … Wikipedia
Musical plagiarism — Music plagiarism is the use or close imitation of another author s music while representing it as one s own original work. Plagiarism in music now occurs in two contexts – with a musical idea (that is, a melody or motif) or sampling (taking a… … Wikipedia
quotation — ► NOUN 1) a passage or remark repeated by someone other than the originator. 2) the action of quoting. 3) a short musical passage or visual image taken from one piece of music or work of art and used in another. 4) a formal statement of the… … English terms dictionary
Musical works of Franz Liszt — The sound of the fountains of the famous garden of Villa d Este inspired Liszt to write a piano piece called Jeux d eau à la Villa d Este . The villa and the portrait of the composer can be seen in the same image made by István Orosz Although… … Wikipedia
quotation — noun 1》 a group of words from a text or speech repeated by someone other than the originator. ↘a short musical passage or visual image taken from one piece of music or work of art and used in another. ↘the action of quoting from a text,… … English new terms dictionary
List of musical medleys — In music, a medley is a piece composed from parts of existing pieces, usually three, played one after another, sometimes overlapping. They are common in popular music, and most medleys are songs rather than instrumental. A medley which is a… … Wikipedia
Non-English usage of quotation marks — A Non English usage of quotation marks Punctuation apostrophe ( … Wikipedia
Happy End (musical) — Happy End Music Kurt Weill Lyrics Bertolt Brecht Book Elisabeth Hauptmann Productions 1929 Berlin 1956 Munich 1957 Hamburg 1965 West End … Wikipedia
Perchance to Dream (musical) — Infobox Musical name = Perchance to Dream subtitle = caption = music = Ivor Novello lyrics = Ivor Novello book = Ivor Novello basis = productions = 1945 West End, Many local revivals. awards = Perchance to Dream is a musical romance with book,… … Wikipedia