Mussaf (also spelled Musaf) is an additional service that is recited on Shabbat, Yom Tov, Chol Hamoed, and Rosh Chodesh. The service, which is traditionally combined with the Shacharit in synagogues, is considered to be additional to the regular services of Shacharit, Mincha, and Maariv.
During the days of the Holy Temple, additional offerings were offered on these festive days. Mussaf is presently recited in lieu of these offerings.
Mussaf refers to both the full service (which includes the Amidah and all prayers that follow that are normally recited during Shacharit) and the Amidah itself that is recited for Mussaf. The main addition is a fourth recitation of the Amidah specially for these days. It is permissible to recite the Mussaf prayer at any time during the day on these days. Nevertheless, the tradition is that it be recited immediately following Shacharit as a combined service.
The name "Mussaf" refers to addition, since it is an additional prayer service recited on festive days that is taking the place of additional offerings that were once made on these days. It is related to the name Joseph (Yosef).
Beliefs of movements
Orthodox Judaism is most active at reciting Mussaf, including it as part of the regular prayer service on the days it is recited.
In Conservative Judaism, Mussaf is recited but has been adapted. The liturgy has been changed, identifying the State of Israel as the Jewish homeland, but recognizing the Temple only as historical and not as a structure that will one day be restored.
Reform Judaism completely omits Mussaf. There are two reasons why the Reform movement has decided not to include Mussaf. One is that it would involve reciting some prayers four times in a row. The other is their lack of belief in sacrifices as a legitimate way to become close to G-d.
Mussaf by day
On most days Mussaf is recited, the Amidah contains seven blessings - the three at the beginning and three at the end of every Amidah, and one in the middle in regards to the particular day. But on Rosh Hashanah, the Amidah contains nine blessings. The three middle blessings are in reference to Kingship, Remembrance, and the Shofar blowings.
On most Jewish holidays in the Diaspora, Birkat Kohanim is recited during the chazzan's repetition during Mussaf. But on Simchat Torah, it is recited during Shacharit. This is because there is a tradition to drink prior to Mussaf, and Birkat Kohanim cannot be performed by drunk Kohanim
The Mussaf service starts with the silent recitation of the Amidah. It is followed by a second public recitation that includes an additional reading known as the Kedushah. This is followed by the Tikanta Shabbat reading on the holiness of Shabbat, and then by a reading from the biblical Book of Numbers about the sacrifices that used to be performed in the Temple in Jerusalem. Next comes Yismechu, "They shall rejoice in Your sovereignty"; Eloheynu, "Our God and God of our Ancestors, may you be pleased with our rest"; and Retzei, "Be favorable, our God, toward your people Israel and their prayer, and restore services to your Temple."
After the Amidah comes the full Kaddish, followed by Ein ke'eloheinu. In Orthodox Judaism this is followed by a reading from the Talmud on the incense offering called Pittum Haketoreth and daily psalms that used to be recited in the Temple in Jerusalem. These readings are usually omitted by Conservative Jews, and are always omitted by Reform Jews.
The Musaf service culminates with the Rabbi's Kaddish, the Aleinu, and then the Mourner's Kaddish. Some synagogues conclude with the reading of An'im Zemirot, "The Hymn of Glory", Mourner's Kaddish, The psalm of the Day and either Adon Olam or Yigdal.
Do women recite Mussaf?
There is a debated over whether, in Orthodox Judaism, women are required to recite Mussaf, being that it is a time-bound commandment, and that women are only obligated to pray once a day. The Mussaf service contains only a commemorative mention of the sacrifices, and does not contain any personal requests, thereby making there be no special reason for women to recite it.
Sefardic authorities feel a woman should come to the synagogue and listen to Mussaf, but not recite it.
The verses recited during the Mussaf Amidah (which are also read for the Maftir on the corresponding days) are all derived from the Book of Numbers chapters 28 and 29 (Parshat Pinchas). The following additional offerings are commanded on each day Mussaf is recited. Due to the fact that Jewish holidays are observed two days in the Diaspora rather than the one day commanded in the Torah, the schedule for recitation is modified.
Day Offerings Biblical verses Other notes Shabbat Two lambs
2/10 meal offering of fine flour and olive oil
- When Shabbat coincides with Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed, the Yom Tov Mussaf Amidah is recited with Shabbat verses inserted.
- When Shabbat coincides with Rosh Chodesh, a special Shabbat-Rosh Chodesh Amidah is recited, beginning with the verse "Ata Yatzarta" and containing verses for the offerings of both.
Rosh Chodesh Elevation offering
Two young bulls
Numbers 28:9-11 Passover
Two young bulls
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:16-19 Recited days 1-2 in Diaspora
Two young bulls
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:19 Recited on days 3-8 in Diaspora
Shavuot Elevation offering
Two young bulls
Seven male lambs
Numbers 28:26-27 Recited two days in Diaspora
Rosh Hashanah Yom Kippur Sukkot
13 young bulls
Numbers 29:12-13 Recited on first two days of Sukkot in Diaspora
12 young bulls
Numbers 29:17 Recited on the first day of Chol Hamoed (third day of Sukkot) in the Diaspora Sukkot
11 young bulls
Numbers 29:20 Recited on the first and second days of Chol Hamoed (third and fourth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora Sukkot
10 young bulls
Numbers 29:23 Recited on the second and third days of Chol Hamoed (fourth and fifth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora Sukkot
9 young bulls
Numbers 29:26 Recited on the third and fourth days of Chol Hamoed (fifth and sixth days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora Sukkot
8 young bulls
Numbers 29:29 Recited on the fourth and fifth days of Chol Hamoed (sixth and seventh days of Sukkot) in the Diaspora Sukkot
7 young bulls
Numbers 29:32 Shemini Atzeret/
- ^ Tosefta Berachot: Translated into English with a Commentary By Eliyahu Gurevich, page 113
- ^ These are the words: a vocabulary of Jewish spiritual life, page 100
- ^ My People's Prayer Book: Shabbat morning : Shacharit and Musaf By Lawrence A. Hoffman, page 138
- ^ Explaining Reform Judaism By Eugene B. Borowitz, Naomi Patz, page 23
- ^ Halakhic positions of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, Volume 3 By Aharon Ziegler
- ^ Rosh Hashanah--Its Significance, Laws, and Prayers: A Presentation ... By Nosson Scherman, Hersh Goldwurm, Avie Gold, page 101
- ^ Rosh Hashanah--Its Significance, Laws, and Prayers: A Presentation ... By Nosson Scherman, Hersh Goldwurm, Avie Gold, page 62
- ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume I By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 45
- ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume II By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 104
- ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume II By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 141
- ^ Halichos Bas Yisrael, Volume I By Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Fuchs, page 46
Jewish prayers List of Jewish prayers and blessingsShacharitPreparationCore prayersConclusion Mincha Maariv Shabbat / Holiday additions Seasonal additions Other prayers
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Mussaf — (hebr., »Zusatz«), das an Sabbat , Neumonds und Festtagen zu dem Morgengebet (s. Schacharit) hinzugefügte Gebet … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Amidah — The Amidah (Hebrew: תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah The Standing Prayer ), also called the Shmona Esre (שמנה עשרה, Shmonah Esreh The Eighteen [Blessings] ), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy. As Judaism s prayer par excellence , the… … Wikipedia
Jewish prayer — Part of a series on … Wikipedia
Aleinu — (Hebrew: עָלֵינוּ, it is our duty ) or Aleinu leshabei ach ( [it is] our duty to praise [ God ] ), meaning it is upon us or it is our obligation or duty to praise God, is a Jewish prayer found in the siddur, the classical Jewish prayerbook. It is … Wikipedia
Yom Kippur — Day of Atonement redirects here. For other uses, see Day of Atonement (disambiguation). For the war, see Yom Kippur War. Yom Kippur Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb (1878) … Wikipedia
Rosh Hashanah — ).] Rosh Hashanah is observed as a day of rest () for a good year, or shana tova umetukah for a good and sweet year. Because Jews are being judged by God for the coming year, a longer greeting translates as may you be written and sealed for a… … Wikipedia
Kaddish — This article is about the Jewish prayer. For other uses, see Kaddish (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Kiddush or Kedusha. Part of a series of articles on … Wikipedia
Temple in Jerusalem — Main articles: Solomon s Temple, Second Temple, and Third Temple A model of Herod s Temple adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem … Wikipedia
Maariv — For the newspaper, see Maariv (newspaper). Ma ariv minyan in a Jaffa Tel Aviv flea market shop … Wikipedia
Rosh Chodesh — Rosh Chodesh, ( he. ראש חודש; trans. Beginning of the Month ; lit. Head of the Month ), is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the appearance of the New Moon. It is considered a minor holiday, akin to the… … Wikipedia