Bids for the 2018 Winter Olympics


Bids for the 2018 Winter Olympics
Bids for the
2018 Winter Olympics

Overview · Pyeongchang
Munich · Annecy

Logo of the campaign.
2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics
Details
Committee IOC
Election venue Durban
123rd IOC Session
Important dates
Decision July 6, 2011
Decision
Winner Pyeongchang (63 votes)
Runner-up Munich (25 votes)

Three cities applied with bids to host the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics (also known as XXIII Olympic Winter Games and XII Paralympic Winter Games) in October 2009. The International Olympic Committee, under the leadership of Jacques Rogge, received three bids on October 15, 2009. The cities of Annecy, France in the French Alps, Munich, Germany (host of the 1972 Summer Olympics), and Pyeongchang, South Korea, a two-time previous bidder, are vying for the hosting rights to the event. This is the lowest number of bidding cities since the 1988 Winter Olympics. The winning bid was announced on July 6, 2011 at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa by IOC President Jacques Rogge at 5.22 pm local time[1] Pyeongchang beat Munich in the first round of votes with 63 of the 95 total votes.[2][3]

Contents

Election results

2018 Winter Olympics bidding results
City NOC Round 1
Pyeongchang  South Korea 63
Munich  Germany 25
Annecy  France 7

Pyeongchang's first round victory was one of the most decisive victories in Olympic voting history.[4] Pyeongchang's 63 vote count is the highest votes ever recorded for a first round bid for a hosting of an IOC Olympic Game. Previous record was held by Salt Lake City with 54 votes for the 2002 Winter Olympics.

Calendar

  • July 31, 2009 — IOC to officially invite bid applicants from NOCs.
  • October 15, 2009 — Application Deadline
  • December 2–5, 2009 — Applicant City Seminar - IOC Headquarters - Lausanne, Switzerland
  • March 15, 2010 — Application Files Due
  • June 22, 2010 — Candidate City Selection
  • January 11, 2011 — Submission of candidature files and guarantees
  • February - March, 2011 — Evaluation Commission Site Visits
  • May 10, 2011 — Evaluation Commission Report Released
  • May 18–29, 2011 - Bid cities briefing, Lausanne
  • July 6, 2011 — Winner Announced at 123rd IOC Session - Durban, South Africa

Candidate cities overview

All three cities have suggested hosting the Games between February 9–25, 2018. The Paralympics will be held from March 9–18.

Annecy

Annecy
Overview
Annecy 2018 Winter Olympics bid logo.
Details
Score 0.0
Country  France

At first, the French Olympic Committee (CNOSF) was quite reluctant in bidding for a Winter Games, preferring to focus on a bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics.[5] However, four cities (Annecy, Grenoble, Nice and Pelvoux) expressed interest in hosting the 2018 games. On September 24, 2008, the Olympic Committee announced it had granted these wishes and would bid in 2011.[6] Annecy was elected as the official candidate city by the French NOC on March 18, 2009.[7] The CNOSF acknowledges its tough competition, but it intends to learn from the failure of Paris to secure the Summer Olympics recently with victory in Annecy,[8] maintaining a humble approach.[9]

Previous bid head Edgar Grospiron, Olympic skiing champion, stated, "we have exceptional, spectacular scenery with Mount Blanc, economic strength with one million tourists every year, and so we believe that our bid is credible. We want to invite the world to a party in a world famous resort". Grospiron was being assisted by IOC members and former Olympians Jean-Claude Killy and Guy Drut.[10] However, his demission on December 12, 2011 has raised questions on the viability of the bid.[11] On January 10, 2011, Charles Beigbeder was named as the new CEO for the Annecy bid. In addition, Olympic champions Jean-Pierre Vidal and Pernilla Wiberg were appointed as Vice Presidents of the bid. Beigbeder says he will seek more financial support for the bid from the private sector. Also announced with Beigbeder's appointment was the selection of Pierre Mirabaud as Director General of the bid. Mirabaud has been a regional government prefect, experience which Beigbeder says is needed by the bid.[12]

Mt. Blanc, near Annecy

On February 12, 2011, the IOC evaluation commission completed its four-day inspection of the Annecy bid. During a brief press conference, commission chair Gunilla Lindberg was cautious in her praise of Annecy. On a positive note, she told reporters: "We have during our visit witnessed very strong governmental support which the bid enjoys and this was highlighted by the presence of the President Sarkozy and many members of his cabinet throughout the visit. I think the bid committee of Annecy has listened to the comments made by the IOC [criticism of the spread-out venues in June] and there has been a big improvement, especially not having so many competition venues as was proposed." But there was no glowing assessment of the Annecy bid from Lindberg. The Swedish IOC member also gave no clue about any concerns that had arisen during the inspection team's four-day stay in the French Alpine town.[13]

French President Nicolas Sarkozy also travelled to Annecy to meet with the IOC Evaluation Commission inspecting the city's bid for the 2018 Winter Olympic Games. "The government will do everything possible, you can be sure, so that Annecy, applicant for the 2018 Winter Olympics, will be chosen," Sarkozy said. "Annecy's victory will be the victory of the entire nation, standing behind you."[14] While pledging his support for the bid he said "you are trying hard. It's difficult. Your opponents are extremely powerful but I'm with you. If we win the Games it will be fantastic. And if we don't win, all we did will be useful for your cities and your region".[15]

The territory proposed to host the Games is concentrated in Annecy and Mont Blanc where 65% of the venues are already built and "the world's leading winter sports destination". In a reference to difficult snow conditions at the 2010 Winter Olympics, organizers made a guarantee of snow in Pays de Savoie where the average snowfall in February is 80 cm.[16] Annecy is a smaller city, so the whole department of Haute-Savoie will be used, including world famous ski resorts like Chamonix, Megève, La Clusaz, Morzine and Le Grand Bornand. Spread over an area with a 50 km radius, everything is within an hour of Annecy,[10] and two Olympic villages are planned.,[17] Of the 13 venues, six venues will require permanent upgrades, two new venues are already planned to be built, and four other venues will be built if the Games are hosted in Annecy.[18] Sliding events will be at La Plagne, the same facilities that were used for the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville which have been upgraded in 2008.[17]

However, in June 2010, the IOC criticized Annecy's bid stating that the competition venues were excessively dispersed. The IOC report was highly critical over the original venue plan, saying it would "present major operational and financial challenges" that would "affect the Games experience for all client groups, particularly athletes". On October 4, 2010 Annecy's leaders unveiled a new "ultra-compact" venue concept in response to the IOC concerns. Under the reworked venue plans, all ice and snow events would take place within a 21 mile radius at two main bases, Annecy and Chamonix, which are less than an hour apart and linked by motorway and the "Games Train". All alpine skiing will take place in Chamonix, which will also host ice hockey. All freestyle skiing and snowboard are now centered on Annecy. Curling has been relocated to Annecy, the hub of most ice sports, meaning that the Olympic Village will be a little bigger than previously, to accommodate 2,500 athletes and officials. The bid has moved the second Olympic Village (1,500 beds) from the Mont Blanc valley into the center of Chamonix.[19]

On March 28, 2011, the CAO (Annecy Anti-Olympic Committee) stated that it wants to tell people about what "not only the excesses of the Olympics, the sport business, the financial stakes of multinationals and unacceptable demands of the IOC, but also on adverse impacts on the environment and on uncontrolled public spending with long-term debt for the Olympic city". The group says it has collected 13,140 names for its petition opposing plans to bring the Winter Olympics to Annecy. In a press release issued on the 28th, the opposition group cited information reported exclusively by media outlet Around the Rings that an IOC poll shows only 51 percent of the local population supports the Annecy candidacy.[20]

Bid costs are US$ 21 million. Venue construction is set for $419 million and transport/infrastructure costs (including some already planned and some dependent on the Games) is $2.1 billion.[18] Among the transport costs are a new high-capacity gondola connection between Flaine and Mont-Blanc,and a train link. The nearest airport service will be in Lyon and Geneva (35 minutes by car).[17] Public support for the bid was 88% across France and 81% in the Annecy region.[21]

Annecy's logo features the French Alps, specifically Mt. Blanc, as well as suggesting the letter "A" for Annecy.

Munich

Munich
Overview
Munich 2018 Winter Olympics bid logo.
Details
Score 0.0
Country  Germany

Munich hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, and if selected would be the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Games.[22] Berlin and Hamburg were considering a summer games bid for 2024 or 2028, but the German Olympic Committee is putting the Munich bid first.[23] After Salzburg's failure to capture the 2014 bid,[24] Germany feels it has a better chance and would prefer the Olympics sooner rather than later.[25] Munich's bid head is figure skating superstar Katarina Witt, replacing skiing star/filmmaker/entrepreneur Willy Bogner, Jr.[26] who had to step down due to health reasons.

Munich is stressing an environmental approach and will use existing venues in Munich (some from the 1972 Games), and existing venues in the Bavarian mountain resorts of Garmisch-Partenkirchen (location of the 1936 Winter Olympics) and Schönau am Königssee, an hour away by car.[27] Fifteen competition venues are proposed – eight exist, three require construction and four are temporary. To take environmental responsibility, new venue construction will be on existing sites in order to minimize land use. Ice events will be held in Munich in addition to the existing Olympic Stadium for ceremonies. The Olympic swimming pool will be adapted into a curling venue, figure skating and short track will be at Olympic hall, a hockey arena will be on the site of the old cycling stadium, and a second ice hockey arena and a speed skating oval that will be dismantled and used elsewhere after the Games. Garmisch-Partenkirchen Snow Park will house nine snow venues, Both locations will have Olympic villages. In the district of Berchtesgadener Land, located in close proximity of the border to Salzburg, Austria, the historic Koenigssee Sliding Center which will be renovated for the World Championships in 2011 for hosting bobsleigh, luge and skeleton.[28]

Central Munich with the Olympicpark in the far background

The Green party and several ecological associations oppose the bid. Arguments include the lack of natural snow, the environmental costs of artificial snow, using greenland for temporary sites, road construction projects that will cause a lasting increase of transit traffic, the financial risk, and the imposition of unnegotiable clauses by the IOC.[29] As these points are getting increasing attention, public support for the bid is diminishing. While a 2009 poll gave 75.5% support of Munich residents and 68% across Germany, in spring 2010 these numbers were down to 69% and 64%, respectively.[30] The bid proved highly divisive in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, where more than 50 farmers refuse to allow the use of their grounds.[31] Before, similar refusal of farmers to cooperate had forced the planners to abandon Oberammergau as site of the Nordic competitions. As a replacement, a state-owned stud near Ohlstadt was chosen, which is located 200 meters lower than Oberammergau and more often than not snow free in February.[29]

On February 22, 2011, land owners in Garmisch-Partenkirchen supporting the 'Nolympia' initiative began collecting signatures under efforts to force a vote to decide whether the town will back the bid. "The Olympic Winter Games are too big for Garmisch-Partenkirchen. With more than fifty events in the snow cluster there are almost five times as many events as the world ski championships," said Nolympia backer Axel Doering. "Our goal is to win a referendum, so that the contracts be reviewed. Another goal is to finally show that the alleged "huge majority" [of support] for the Olympic Winter Games is a myth," he added. Munich's bid plans call for the leasing of land from private land owners for the Games.[32] German Olympic committee President Thomas Bach says complaints by landowners in Garmisch-Partenkirchen are not a problem for the bid. "It's not a problem at all because for the field of play, it's one piece of land with 800 square meters. The piece of land was there for the alpine world championships six weeks before," says Bach. He added "we have seen this at the world championships they were all going down on this very slope and they will go down in 2018, hopefully."[12]

On February 28, 2011 the IOC evaluation commission traveled to Munich and to the other cities, in which competitions would be held. The 1972 Olympic Stadium in Garmisch-Partenkirchen was the high point of the IOC's tour. IOC Evaluation Commission chair Gunilla Lindberg says her inspection team has "absolutely felt the atmosphere and passion" for the Olympics at the end of its four-day inspection of the Munich bid. "The general impression is that it is a strong bid with strong governmental support. It is a good team on the bid committee and Germany is a big winter sports country used to organizing competitions." IOC vice president Thomas Bach insisted that 2018 was a good time for the IOC and Olympic Movement to bring the Games to the traditional winter sports city of Munich to "recharge the batteries after having been to new regions, with 2014 to Sochi and 2016 to Rio".[33] German chancellor Angela Merkel says Munich has a "very good chance" of winning the race to host the 2018 Winter Olympics. She added, "The world can look forward to Germany hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games 2018."[34]

In addition to its historical strength as a passionate winter sports nation,[35] figure skating superstar Katarina Witt is promoting the bid,[8] as well as 2010 Winter Olympics star alpine skier Maria Riesch and Olympic champion Bavarian biathlete Magdalena Neuner.[36] Within the IOC, Munich has a strong ally with IOC vice president Thomas Bach, who could swing the vote to Munich, even though the 2014 Games will have been held in Europe as well.[37] Nevertheless, Munich is already considering a bid for 2022 if this bid fails.[23]

Organizers have budgeted USD$42 million for the bid and USD$331 million for venues with $143 million budgeted for an ice hockey arena. $743 million is allotted for new and planned transportation improvements.

The slogan of the Games is Die Spiele im Herzen (The games at heart) and it is also being tagged as "the friendly Games". The logo is a stylized M, reminiscent of the Bavarian mountain silhouettes as well as the awnings in Munich's Olympic Park.[38]

Pyeongchang

Pyeongchang
Overview
Pyeongchang 2018 Winter Olympics bid logo.
Details
Score 0.0
Country  South Korea

After losing the bids for the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, Gangwon Province Gov. Jin-sun Kim announced in September 2007 that Pyeongchang would bid a third time. He cited increased knowledge of the bidding process and the enthusiasm of residents as reasons to keep trying.[39][40] According to a survey by The Chosun Ilbo on 23 December 2009, 91.4% of Koreans, 93.4% of Pyeongchang and Jeongseon residents, and 93% of Gangwon residents supported the 2018 Winter Olympics bid.[41] South Korea's figure skating superstar and 2010 Olympic champion Kim Yuna and IOC member and Samsung Group chairman Lee Kun-hee promoted the bid.[42][43] The Samsung Chairman and principal owner Lee Kun-hee, given a 3-year suspended sentence for tax evasion and illegal bond dealing, was reportedly pardoned by the South Korean president Lee Myung-bak with the hope that his connections and financial support would boost the chances of Pyeongchang.[44]

On February 16, 2011, the IOC Evaluation Commission arrived in Korea for inspection of Pyeongchang’s bid. "We have seen great progress in the bid from the two previous bids," commission chairwoman Gunilla Lindberg said. "We have also seen progress in Korean winter sports during the last four years." Speaking at the IOC news conference following the inspection of Pyeongchang and venues in Gangwon Province, Lindberg said "I must also mention the passionate support of Gangwon residents. During our site visits it has been wonderful to see so many people to show their support to bring the Olympic Movement to Korea."[45]

Skiing in Pyeongchang

Seven venues had been built since the previous bids, including ski jumping slopes, and biathlon and cross country skiing courses.[46][47] Pyeongchang would be a compact Olympic Games,[48] with travel times of less than 30 minutes between the main accommodation in Alpensia resort and the venues and 10 minutes between venues.[49] A new 250 km per hour KTX line will be built between Seoul and Wonju via Pyeongchang putting Pyeongchang within 50 minutes of Seoul.[50]

German reporter Dietmar Gessner from Sport Bild said that "in Asia including Korea you can create more customers. You can make lots of money for winter sports.."[51]

Pyeongchang’s slogan is “New Horizons.” The bid's logo suggests the winter scenery of Pyeongchang with snow on the mountains. The curve implies a will to win and symbolizes a snowboard and slope of winter sports.[52]

Potential cities overview

These cities launched bids or indicated interest, but ultimately did not bid to the IOC.

Predicting indices

Two websites, GamesBids.com and Around the Rings, feature predicting indices which specialize in evaluations of Olympic Games bids. They periodically release analysis of the candidates and assigns them a score between 0 and 100, or 0 and 110 respectively. The score produces a number that can be used to rate a bid relative to past successful bids - and possibly gauge its potential future success. GamesBids.com's scale is called BidIndex,[89] ATR's is called the Power Index.[90][91]

PowerIndex predicted that Munich would win, while BidIndex predicted that PyeongChang would win. Annecy was at a distant third, lagging behind 13 points in the BidIndex and 10 points behind in the PowerIndex. Ratings for the BidIndex are from April 2011 and rating for the PowerIndex are from June 2011.

Olympic rings. Unofficial indices
Candidate BidIndex[a] PowerIndex[b]
Germany Munich 64.99 83
South Korea Pyeongchang 66.29 79
France Annecy 53.85 69

Notes

  1. ^ "Pyeongchang named as host city for 2018 Winter Olympics". Daily Telegraph. 6 July 2011. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/olympics/8620658/Pyeongchang-named-as-host-city-for-2018-Winter-Olympics.html. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  2. ^ SKorea's Pyeongchang Awarded 2018 Winter Olympics : CBS
  3. ^ "Pyeongchang will host the 2018 Winter Olympics". BBC Sport. 6 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/winter_sports/8753631.stm. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  4. ^ 63 Votes for PyeongChang: Official Ballot Count for 2018 Olympic Winter Games Bid. GamesBids.com (6 July 2011). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  5. ^ Voeux du CNOSF - Pas de candidature française aux JO avant 2024 (French)
  6. ^ a b Feu-vert pour les Jeux d'hiver 2018 (French)
  7. ^ Annecy, candidate pour les Jeux d'hiver de 2018 Le Monde
  8. ^ a b Application Deadline For 2018 Winter Olympics Looms - Who Will Bid?
  9. ^ Annecy 2018 Won't Repeat Paris' Mistakes - French NOC Head
  10. ^ a b Exclusive Interview With Edgar Grospiron, Annecy 2018 Olympic Winter Games Bid Chief (Part 1 of 2)
  11. ^ Annecy 2018 : Grospiron démissionne
  12. ^ a b Munich Ready for IOC, Bach Refutes Landowner Issue
  13. ^ IOC Inspection Chief Cautious in Praise for Annecy 2018 Winter Olympic Bid
  14. ^ Secret 2018 Panel; Sarkozy for Annecy; Lillehammer YOG
  15. ^ "Annecy 2018 IOC Inspection - Day Three". GamesBids.com. http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/winter_olympic_bids/annecy_2018/1216135555.html. Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  16. ^ "We Want To Invite The World To A Party" - Annecy 2018 Olympic Winter Games Bid
  17. ^ a b c Annecy 2018 Proposes Historical Venues and Innovative Construction For Olympic Winter Games: Bid Book Reveals
  18. ^ a b Annecy 2018 Transport Costs Exceed $2 Billion: Olympic Bid Book Cost Breakdown
  19. ^ Annecy Confident New Venue Plan Will Impress
  20. ^ Bidding for the Games- 100 Days to 2018 Decision; Annecy Protests; Kenya Bidding
  21. ^ Annecy bid book, page 13
  22. ^ Munich Invests In 2018 Olympic Bid Application
  23. ^ a b Hamburg’s Olympic Bid Delayed Until 2030
  24. ^ Munich to bid for 2018 if Salzburg loses 2014 - mayor
  25. ^ Germany’s Olympic Association Endorses A Munich 2018 Winter Bid
  26. ^ Munich 2018 Names Bogner Head
  27. ^ Munich 2018 Takes Environmental Approach
  28. ^ Munich 2018 Proposes Unique Winter and Summer Games Legacy - More Inside Olympic Bid Book
  29. ^ a b http://www.nolympia.de/
  30. ^ http://www.sueddeutsche.de/muenchen/umfrage-olympia-bewerbung-die-begeisterung-schmilzt-1.937699
  31. ^ http://www.faz.net/s/Rub9CD731D06F17450CB39BE001000DD173/Doc~E56B7C33296134A5EB6B915729C56BF65~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html
  32. ^ Munich 2018 Opponents Seek Referendum to Halt Bid
  33. ^ IOC Praises Passion for Munich 2018 Winter Olympic Bid
  34. ^ German Chancellor Merkel Backs Munich 2018 Olympic Bid
  35. ^ Massive TV Ratings In Germany Boost Munich 2018 Bid
  36. ^ World Cup Showcases Munich 2018 Bid
  37. ^ IOC Member Assesses Olympic Bids
  38. ^ Munich Launches 2018 Olympic Bid With New Logo, Website
  39. ^ "Pyeongchang Will Bid Again For The 2018 Olympic Games". Gamesbids.com. http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1188786454. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  40. ^ Pyeongchang Could Be Third Time Lucky GamesBids
  41. ^ "(강원) 국민 91% "동계오륜 평창 유치 찬성"" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. 23 December 2009. http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/12/22/2009122201416.html. 
  42. ^ "Yu-na Backs Pyeongchang's Bid for Winter Olympics". Koreatimes.co.kr. 13 April 2009. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/03/136_43086.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  43. ^ "IOC inspects Pyeongchang venues". Koreatimes.co.kr. 17 February 2011. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/sports/2011/02/136_81601.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  44. ^ Government pardons former Samsung chairman. Joongangdaily.joins.com (29 December 2009). Retrieved on 6 July 2011.
  45. ^ On the Scene: Citizen Passion Praised by IOC Commission. Aroundtherings.com (19 February 2011). Retrieved on 6 July 2011.
  46. ^ "IOC assures upgraded Pyeongchang". Koreatimes.co.kr. 20 February 2011. http://koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/sports/2011/02/136_81729.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  47. ^ "IOC 실사단 "진전된 평창을 봤다" – 1등 인터넷뉴스 조선닷컴". News.chosun.com. http://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2011/02/20/2011022001257.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  48. ^ "'S-N tensions won't affect Pyeongchang's bid'". Koreatimes.co.kr. 18 February 2011. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/sports/2011/02/136_81643.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  49. ^ "Pyeongchang to submit bid file to IOC". Koreatimes.co.kr. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/art/2011/01/136_79277.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  50. ^ "PyeongChang2018 Candidate File - Volum 3: 15 Transport" (PDF). © PyeongChang 2018 Bid Committee. http://www.pyeongchang2018.org/upload/volume/volume3%2015_Transport_low.pdf. Retrieved 05 Sept. 2011. 
  51. ^ "Pyeongchang: 'great potential in sports market growth'". Koreatimes.co.kr. 18 February 2011. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/sports/2011/02/136_81679.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  52. ^ "Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic Bid Logo Unveiled". Gamesbids.com. http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/winter_olympic_bids/pyeongchang_2018/1216134945.html. Retrieved 4 March 2011. 
  53. ^ Almaty Kazakhstan To Bid For 2018 Winter Games, GamesBids.com
  54. ^ Almaty Considers 2018 Winter Games Bid
  55. ^ Ukraine May Bid For 2018 Winter Olympic Games
  56. ^ a b 2018 Winter Games – Sofia To Bid, Bukovel Prepares
  57. ^ Bursa2018 | Haydi BURSA, Haydi TÜRKİYE!
  58. ^ "China's Harbin considering bid for 2018 Winter Games". ESPN. December 25, 2008. http://sports.espn.go.com/oly/news/story?id=3792789. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  59. ^ No 2018 Winter Olympics Bid from China
  60. ^ Annecy is French Choice for 2018 Olympic Winter Games
  61. ^ Geneva To Bid For 2018 Winter Games
  62. ^ "Communiqué de presse du Conseil d'État, Jeux Olympiques d'hiver". République et Canton de Genève. December 8, 2008. http://www.ge.ch/dcti/presse/2008-12-08_com2.pdf. Retrieved March 22, 2009.  (French)
  63. ^ Geneva Wants 2018 Winter Games
  64. ^ Geneva Wants 2018 Games, Swiss NOC Opposed
  65. ^ "Quebec City Should Bid For Winter Olympics". Games Bids Inc.. November 12, 2008. http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/winter_olympic_bids/future_bids_2018/1216133893.html. Retrieved October 3, 2009. 
  66. ^ http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/winter_olympic_bids/2018_bid_news/1216134596.html
  67. ^ Winter games NZ
  68. ^ "Division Three World Ice Hockey Champs About To Start In Dunedin". Channel 9, Dunedin Television. April 9, 2009. http://www.ch9.co.nz/node/11381. Retrieved October 3, 2009. 
  69. ^ World Senior Curling Championships 2009
  70. ^ New Zealand Wants To Host A Winter Olympics
  71. ^ Det kan bli en svensk OS-ansökan 2018 - Sveriges Radio P4 Jämtland (Swedish)
  72. ^ [1]
  73. ^ BULGARIA AND SERBIA TO APPLY JOINTLY FOR WINTER OLYMPICS HOST
  74. ^ Is Tromsø Norway Suitable for a 2018 Winter Olympic Games
  75. ^ Could Funding Tromso 2018 Bid Affect Youth Sports?
  76. ^ Tromso 2018 Bid Opposition Remains Firm - Poll
  77. ^ "Tromsø's application withdrawn". Aftenposten. October 6, 2008. http://www.aftenposten.no/english/sports/article2695284.ece. Retrieved October 6, 2008. 
  78. ^ Upper Carniola for 2018 Winter Olympics (Slovene)
  79. ^ Colorado Governor Considers 2018 Winter Games Bid
  80. ^ Reno-Taho 2018 Bid Competitive-GamesBids.com 9.20.07
  81. ^ Jones, Jay (December 27, 2007). "Olympic flames An effort to bring the 2018 Winter Olympics to the region may bring home the gold (again)". CHICO COMMUNITY PUBLISHING. http://www.newsreview.com/reno/content?oid=608892. Retrieved October 3, 2009. 
  82. ^ Kersten Swinyard (February 18, 2006). "Salt Lake in 2018 or 2022? '02 success spurring a new Games bid". http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,635185415,00.html. 
  83. ^ Gomez, Brian (January 7, 2009). "USOC will not bid for 2018 Winter Olympics". The Gazette. http://www.gazette.com/sports/bid_45849___article.html/olympic_olympics.html. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  84. ^ Nevada Plans For 2018 Winter Bid
  85. ^ Lissavetzky dice que la idea de optar a los Juegos es "interesante" y que la estudiará (Spanish)
  86. ^ Olympic Zaragoza? (Spanish)
  87. ^ Belloch se compromete a que la proeza de la Expo no sea un episodeo "efímero" (Spanish)
  88. ^ Belloch retrasa la candidatura olímpica a 2022 porque "2018 tiene el inconveniente de la rotación (Spanish)
  89. ^ "PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Bid Continues to lead BidIndex; Annecy Gains Ground". GamesBids.com. January 10, 2011. http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/bidindex/1216135505.html. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  90. ^ Around the Rings
  91. ^ "ATR Olympic Bid Power Index - One Month To Go, Munich Edges Ahead". Around the Rings. June 6, 2011. http://aroundtherings.com/articles/view.aspx?id=37142. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 

External links

Bid books

Eliminated candidates

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