Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

Movement for the Restoration of Democracy

The Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) (Urdu: اتحاد برائے بحالی جمہوریت) was a major alliance formed by Secular-Socialist democratic political forces aiming to end the General Zia-ul-Haq's martial law and military dictatorship in the country. It was formed in February 1981. The alliance was aimed at restoring democracy and ousting the then military ruler of Pakistan General Zia ul Haq. The MRD coalition comprised Socialist democratic and secular forces such as Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (MAI), National Democratic Party, Sindhi Awami Tahreek, Awami National Party, Tehrik-e-Istiqlal, Pakistan Muslim League, Qaumi Mahaz-e-Azadi, Pakistan Mazdoor Kissan Party, Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam, (Pakhtoonkhwa); MRD demanded withdrawal of martial law and immediate elections.

At the time of the formation of the Movement for Restoration of Democracy in 1982, the PML split into two factions, one led by Pir Pagara and the other by Malik Qasim. The PPP, though reluctantly, agreed to form the MRD with the very parties which had paved the way for the ouster of the Zulfikar Ali Bhutto government in 1977. This alliance had launched a potent struggle against Zia-ul Haq's rule, especially in Sindh. Military force was used against agitators and the movement was crushed.[1] However, it mounted pressure on General Zia to hold the elections. Convinced that party-based elections would not bring the ‘positive results’ he had been talking of, he decided to hold non-party elections in 1985. But before doing so, he secured his election as president through a referendum.

The PML and the JI were the only parties which contested. All parties in the MRD boycotted the polls.

MRD, in fact, was an uprising against military rule in Pakistan with its epicenter in Sindh. During the decade long existence of the movement, twice the people of Sindh (in 1983 and 1986) went for armed struggle against the military junta, in which hundreds of the civilians and military personnel were killed especially in Dadu, Noaushehro Feroz and Nawabshah districts.

According to the political analysts, MRD in Sindh was an ‘spontaneous’ nationalist uprising to the greater extent and a culmination of reaction against the injustices due to ill federalism in Pakistan against Sindh. The judicial murder of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, ex President and Prime Minister of Pakistan hailing from Larakana district of Sindh became a reason of antagonism between the military and civilians in Sindh and rest of Pakistan.[2] [3]

The prominent leaders of MRD were Ms. Nusrat Bhutto, Ms. Benazir Bhutto, Mr. Rasool Bux Palijo, Khan Abdul Wali Khan, Mr. Fazil Rahu and others. Thousands of the activists were jailed across the country especially in Sindh. hj


  1. ^ Martyrs of MRD Movement 1983 Frontier Post retrieved September 29 2008
  2. ^ Interview of Asif baladi, Monthly Sanjah
  3. ^ Monthly Paroor, 1988

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Forum for the Restoration of Democracy — was a political party and a movement against one party system in Kenya. However, it split before the 1992 General elections, the first multiparty elections held in Kenya.The original FORD split into three political parties:* Forum for the… …   Wikipedia

  • National Movement for the Development of Society — National Movement for the Society of Development Nassara Mouvement National pour la Société du Développement Nassara Seyni Oumarou (President) Albadé Abouba (Secretary General) …   Wikipedia

  • Movement of restoration of Democracy — Movement for the restoration of democracy was an alliance of opposition parties formed in 1982 in Pakistan. The movement did not prove to be a force, as the constituent parties were disunited due to a deep suspicion between Benazir Bhutto and… …   Wikipedia

  • Movement for Democratic Renewal and Development — The Movement for Democratic Renewal and Development (French: Mouvement pour le Renouveau Démocratique et le Développement), (Arabic: لحركة التجديد الديموقراطي والتنمية‎) is a political party in Djibouti. It was originally known as the Party for… …   Wikipedia

  • Movement for Multi-Party Democracy — (MMD) Movement for Multi Party Democracy (MMD) Leader Rupiah Banda Ideology Center left, social democracy, trade unionism The Movement for Multi party Democracy (MMD) is a political party in …   Wikipedia

  • Movement for Restoration of Democracy — (MRD) (Urdu: اتحاد برائے بحالی جمہوریت ) formed in February 1981 was a multi party political alliance in Pakistan. MRD coalition comprisied of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), National Democratic Party, Tehrik e Istiqlal, Pakistan Muslim League,… …   Wikipedia

  • THE EVENTS — introduction European Jewry in the Early 1930s Germany in the Early 1930s the expansion of the reich …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • The People's Library — in November 2011 Country United States …   Wikipedia

  • The Renaissance —     The Renaissance     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► The Renaissance     The Renaissance may be considered in a general or a particular sense, as     (1) the achievements of what is termed the modern spirit in opposition to the spirit which… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • The Age of Reform — is a 1955 Pulitzer Prize winning book by Richard Hofstadter. The book is an American history that traces events from the Populist Movement of the 1890s through the Progressive Era ending with the New Deal in the 1930s. The Age of Reform stands… …   Wikipedia