Parama Kamboja


Parama Kamboja

Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. The great epic Mahabharata sufficiently attests two main divisions of the Kambojas which were named as "Kamboja" and the Parama-Kamboja. Besides Mahabharata, there are other ancient texts/sources which also indirectly support the existence of two Kamboja divisions in ancient times.

Mahabharata Evidence

Kamboja

In Arjuna's Digvijaya campaign against the tribes of north, in the "direction presided over by the lord of treasures", Pandava hero Arjuna reduces the Bahlika (north-west Punjab) country, and then meets the Daradas (Gilgit) and the Kambojas (Paropamisadae to Rajauri) and obtains tribute from them [

:tatah.parama.vikranto Bahlikan.kurunandanah || II.27.22|| :.................................................................... :Daradan.saha Kambojai.rajayat.paka.shasanih || II.27.23||.]

This settlement of the Kambojas was in neighborhood of the Daradas and is located on the southern side of Hindu Kush in the region, which later formed parts of the Greek strapy of "Paropamisadae". In the east, it is known to have extended as far as Rajapura (Rajauri) located in west Kashmir, as attested by Mahabharata [.

Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava || VII.4.5 ||.]

The capital city of Kamboja was at Rajauri (Dr B. C. Law, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury).

Parama-Kamboja

Mahabharata attests that after settling with the Daradas and the Kambojas, Arjuna fights with the robber tribes of the mountainous frontiers and dasyus (barbarians) of the woods, and thereafter, taking select forces, Arjuna goes across Hindukush to fight with the allied tribes of the "Lohas, Parama-Kambojas and northern Rishikas" [Mahabharata II.27.25 of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: Translated Into English Prose, 1962, p 66, Pratap Chandra Roy; The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva, section XXVI, p 58, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, trans. [1883-1896] ; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Moti Chandra - India.] .

The Lohas, Param-Kambojas and the "northern Rishikas" were all cognate tribes, and all were located in trans-Himalayan (i.e trans-Hindukush) territories. The distant northerly section of the northern Rishikas were known as "Parama Rishikas" [ Mahabharata 2.27.25-27.] . Another settlement of the Rishikas somewhere between river "Tapti" and Godavari, in western India is also attested in Puranic and epic literature. They were probably located on or south of river Tapti, west of Vidarbhas, north of the Mulakas, east of Soparka and south of "Anupadesa" (in modern Maharashtra).

The northern Rishikas were apparently located towards Sogdiana/Fargana territories. According to classical writings, the vast region beyond Mount Hemodos (i.e north of Hindukush/Himalaya) was known as Scythia [Diodorus: II.35] . The same was known as "Sakadvipa" in ancient Sanskrit literature.

Scholars like Jayachandra Vidyalankar, Moti Chandra etc locate Kambojas in Badakshan, as neighbors to Bahlikas and say that the Daradas had come as allies of Kambojas in the Badakshan battle with Arjuna. After defeating the Kambojas, Arjuna meets the forces of Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas, in north-easterly territories. Mahabharata attests the Lohas, Parama Kambojas and Rishikas as allied ("sahitan") tribes [The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: Translated Into English Prose, 1962, p 66, Pratap Chandra Roy; The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva, section XXVI, p 58, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, trans. [1883-1896] ; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Moti Chandra - India.] .

Jayachandra Vidyalankar identifies Parama Kamboja with Ghalcha speaking Yaghnobi regions at the head waters of Zerafshan river, in old Sogdiana, a tract of country considerably to the north of the Pamirs and separated from them by the hill states subordinate to Bokhara [See refs: Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankara; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Dr Moti Chandra; Asoka and His Inscriptions, 1968, p 95, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan); Cf: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. Note: Kirpal Singh surmises that the Kommdei of Ptolemy was the Parama Kamboja of the epic Mahabharata (The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 59, 92, Kirpal Singh).] . H. C. Seth identifies the mountainous region between the Oxus and Jaxartes ("old Sogdiana") as the locale of the ancient Kambojas [Central Asiatic Provinces of the Mauryan Empire", p 403, H. C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, 1937, No 3, p. 400; Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1940, p 37, (India) Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asia; cf: History and Archeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries from the ... , 176, p 152, Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science; Cf: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi.] . This primarily forms the Parama Kambojas of the Mahabharata.

The Parama-Kambojas were located in Pamirs/Badakshan and as far as Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana (See: Kamboja Location). Since this region was beyond "Mount Hemados/Himaos", it apparently fell in Scythic cultural belt. The Parama Kambojas, therefore, were pure Iranians following Irano-Scythian culture and customs rather than the Indo-Aryan. The capital city of the Parama-Kamboja was probably at "Darwaz" in Pamirs.

Further References to Parama-Kamboja

There are several more references in the "Drona Parava", "Sauptika Parava" and "Karana Parava" of Mahabharata, which amply attest the excellent breed of horses from Parama-Kamboja. The Following is one illustrative example, picked up from "Sauptikaparava" of Mahabharata, which sufficiently attests the Parama-Kamboja people as well as their foremost breed of war steeds [

:yuktam Parama. Kambojaisturagairhemamalibhih ||10.14.1-2||.] .

It is interesting to note that like Madras/Uttara Madras, Kurus/Uttara Kurus, Kambojas/ Parama Kambojas, there were also two settlements of the Yonas (Yavanas)--- the "Yona" and the "Parama Yona" [See: Mahaniddesa, pp 155, 415.] . Further, there is also an ancient reference to "China" and "Parama China" in Valmiki Ramayana [The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume 4: Kiskindhakanda, p 151, Rosalind Lefeber.] .

The "Yona" probably referred to "Archosian" Yavanas while the "Parama-Yona" to the "Bactrian" Yavanas. Similarly "China" probably referred to "little Tibet", while the "Parama China" (also known as "Maha-China": see "Manasollasa") referred to the main China.

Etymology of Parama-Kamboja

The prefix "Parama-" can be interpretted in the sense of (1) "Uttara or northern" (2) "Furthest" or "beyond" and (3) "Greater/supreme".

The "Parama-" with a sense of "northern/Uttara" [Development of Hindu Polity and Political Theories, 1927, p 227, Narayanchandra Banerjee - Political science; Journal, Dept. of Letters, University of Calcutta, University of Calcutta Dept. of Letters - Buddhism - 1920; Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 85, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit; Foundations of Indian Culture, 1984, p 20, Dr Govind Chandra Pande - India.] sounds logical since the "Parama- branch of the Kambojas was located in Uttara or north direction to Kambojas". Moreover, it also sounds similar to "Uttara-Madra" and "Uttara-Kuru". The "Parama-" in the sense of "Greater" also makes good sense since the trans-Hindukush branch the Kambojas was original and perhaps the Greater or bigger section of the Kambojas [ Chandra Chakraverty translates "Parama" in the sense of "Great" and locates the Parama Kambojas with Rishikas & Parama Rishikas. He also, accordingly calls the the Parama Rishikas as the Great Yuechis (See: Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic Affiliations, 1952, p 148, Chandra Chakraberty - Vedas.] . Some scholars like Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi have interpretted "Parama-" in the sense of "beyond", which also looks senseful since "Parama-Kamboja" was located "beyond" the Kamboja, when seen from India. Dr J. Muir interprets "Parama Kamboja" as the "Furthest" Kamboja [Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India ..., 1874, p 365,John Muir.] while others call it "Distant Kamboja" [Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 117.] . Some writers however, translate it as Eastern Kamboja [Foundations of Indian Culture, 1990, p 20, Govind Chandra Pande - India.] .

More evidence on two Kamboj settlements

Evidence from Dasam-Granth

While referring to the invasion of Alexander of Macedon, "Dasasam Granth" a seventeenth century text of Punjab refers to "Kambuj" and "Kamboj" obviously two distinct settlements [

:Kashmir Kashkar "Kabuj" (=Kambuj) Kabul ko keenu,:Kashtwar Kulu-Kehlur Kaihal kaho leeno,:Kamboj Kilmak kathin pal mei kat darey, :Hai kote Cheen ke katak hano kar kop karare.:— "(See: Charytropakhyana, "Triyachritra 217/verse 14", Dasam Granth 2024, Narain Singh, Dr Ajit Singh Aulakh, Publiushrs M/S Bhai Chatter Singh ji & Co)."] The text obviously refers to Kambuj (Kabuj) as neighbors to the Kabulis and then the Kamboj as neighbors to the "Kilmaka" and China (Cheen ke) people. Kilmakas probably refers to the Mongol "Kalmucks" who lived in Central Asian Steppes. After Kilmaks, follows the destruction of countless forces of China (Cheen ke). Then it refers to Macheen (Manchuria).

"Thus, the Dasam-Granth authors seem to be aware of the existence of two ancient Kamboja settlements."

Evidence from Ptolemy

Ptolemy refers to a region located on the southern bank of Oxus in Badakshan or Bactria [Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold.] , and calls it Tambyzoi. According to scholars like Dr S Levi, Tambyzoi is a Greek transliteration of Sanskrit Kamboja [Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54; Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India, 1993, p 122, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Dr Jean Przyluski, Jules Bloch, Asian Educational Services; Cities and Civilization, 1962, p 172, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye; Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, K. D. Sethna; Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1956, p 37; Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-208; Journal of the Asiatic Society , 1956, p 88, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal); Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 165, Dr M. R. Singh; Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, p 99, edited by Richard J.A. Talbert - History; Neuro-ophthalmology, 2005, p 99 Leonard A. Levin, Anthony C. Arnold; Purana-vimar'sucika -: Bibliography of Articles on Puranas, 1985, p 133, P. G. Lalye.]

Ptolemy also refers to another people/region which he calls Ambautai [Geography 6.18.3.] which he locates on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae [See more Refs: Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, Vol. 5,1999, issue 1 (September), Dr. M. Witzel; Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, 2005, p 257, Laurie L. Patton, Edwin Bryant; The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, 1995, p 326, George Erdosy; Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory, Part I, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See Link: [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/articles/aid/keaitlin1.html] ; The official pro-invasionist argument at last, A review of the Aryan invasion arguments in J. Bronkhorst and M.M. Deshpande: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia, Dr. Koenraad Elst, See link: [http://koenraadelst.bharatvani.org/reviews/hock.html] .] .

Ptolemy refers yet to another people/region he calls Komoi, whom he locates in the mountains of Sogdiana north of Bactria/Badakshan. It has been suggested that the "Komoi" of Ptolemy also indicate the same people as the Kambojas of the Sanskrit texts. The Komoi is Ptolemian transtliteration of Kamboi. Kamboi comes from Kamboika or Kamboyka which is corruption of Kambojika ["Kambojika => Kamboyika => Kamboika =Kamboi".] . Kambojika is Pali equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja. Pali texts numerously write Kamboja as well as Kambojaka/Kambojika. Scholars like Dr H. C. Seth observe: "The mountainous highlands where Jaxartes and many other rivers which meet this great river arise, are called by Ptolemy as the "the Highlands of Komdei". Ammianus Marcellinus also call these Sogdian mountains as Komedas. The word Komedai and Komedas suggest Kom-desa or land of Kome. We learn from Ptolemy that a tribe variously called by him as Komaroi, Komedai, Khomaroi and Komoi was wide spread in the Highlands of Bactriana and Sogdiana. It is difficult to say, at present, how far the vast tracts of land on either side of Oxus called as Kyzyl Kum or Kizil Kum, Kok-kum and Kara Kum may yet bear the traces of the name of this once a great and powerful people" [Central Asiatic provinces of the Maurya Empire, p 403, Dr H.C. Seth; See also: Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol XIII, 1937, p 400-403; cf: History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries, from Earliest Times to 300 B.C., 1976, p 152, Shashi Asthana; For Kamboja Nomads in Central Asia, Cf also: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi.] . These scholars have placed the ancient Kambojas in a vast area, in the doab of Oxus and Jaxartes, in the southern tip of "Sakadvipa" or Scythia. The Komdei of Ptolemy or the "Kumudadvipa" of the Puranic texts, obviously represents the "Parama Kambojas" [Mahabharata 2.27.25.] of the Mahabharata [ See also: The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 92, Kirpal Singh.] .

Thus, it looks likely that the Kamboja clans were spread in Kabol valley in Paropamisadae, in Badakshan/Pamir as well as up to the highlands of Sogdiana. The Yagnobi, a dialect of the modern Galcha language spoken in/around the head waters of river Zeravshan (in Zeravshan valley), up in Sogdiana still contains the relics of ancient Kamboji verb "Shavti" used in the sense "to go" [Proceedings & Transations of 6th A.I.O Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Linguistic Survey of India, G. A. Grierson.] .

Parama Kamboja connections with Rishikas/Tukharas/Yue-chis?

The Rishikas are said to be same people as the Yuezhi. ["India as Known to Panini", p. 64, V. S. Aggarwala.] The Kushanas or Kanishkas are also the same people. ["Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha", 1941, J. C. Vidyalnkara] Aurel Stein says that the Tukharas (Tokharois/Tokarais) were a branch of the Yuezhi. ["Rajatarangini of Kalhana", I, p 6, Trans. by M. A. Stein.] P. C. Bagchi holds that the Yuezhi, Tocharioi and Tushara were identical. ["India and Central Asia", 1955, p 24.] Thus, the Rishikas, Tusharas/Tukharas ("Tokharoi/Tokaroi"), Kushanas and the Yuezhi were probably either a single people, or members of a confederacy. George Rawlinson observes that: "The Asii or Asiani were closely connected with the Tochari and the Sakarauli (Saracucse?) who are found connected with both the Tochari and the Asiani" [See: The Project Gutenberg EBook of "The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World", Vol 6. (of 7): "Parthia", by George Rawlinson). [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16166/16166-8.txt] ] . "Sabha Parva" of Mahabharata states that the Parama Kambojas, Lohas and the Rishikas were "allied tribes" [Mahabharata 2.26.25: See: Trans by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m02/m02026.htm] .] . Like the "Parama Kambojas", the Rishikas of the Transoxian region are similarly styled as "Parama Rishikas" [taraka maya sankashah Parama Rishika parthayoh || 26 ||.] . Based on the syntactical construction of the Mahabharata "verse 5.5.15" [:Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah | :Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15|| Trans: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Daradas, and the Kamboja-Rishikas live in the west in the Anupa region.] and "verse 2.27.25-26" [:LohanParamaKambojanRishikanuttaran api |
:sahita.nstanmahAraja vyajayatpakashasanih || 25 |
:Rishikeshu tu sangramo babhuvAtibhaya.n karah || :taraka maya sankashah Parama Rishika parthayoh || 26 || ::(Mahabharata 2.27.25-26).
] , the outstanding Sanskrit scholar Ishwa Mishra believes that the Rishikas were a section of the Parama Kambojas. Dr V. S. Aggarwala too, relates the Parama Kambojas of the Trans-Pamirs to the Rishikas of the Mahabharata [See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.] and also places them in the Sakadvipa (or Scythia) [India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ..., 1953, p 62, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India.] . According to Dr B. N. Puri, the Kambojas were a branch of the Tukharas. ["Buddhism in Central Asia", p. 90.] . Based on the above Rishika-Kamboja connections, some scholars also claim that the Kambojas were a branch of the Yuezhi themselves ["Journal of Tamil Studies", 1969, pp 86, 87, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Tamil philology.] . Dr Moti Chander also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas and the Yuezhi [Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 19, Dr Moti Chandra - India.] ["The Cultural Heritage of India" also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas, the Tukharas (=Rishikas = Yue-chis) and the modern Tajik race. It calls the modern Tajik race to be descendants of the Tukharas and Kambojas, thus assuming Kambojas as a component of the Tukharas or vice-versa (The Cultural Heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, 1936, p 151). Cf: "The Kambojas indicate the people of Tajikistan speaking Ghalcha..." (See: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Dr Moti Chandra). For Kambojas as the ancestors of the Tajiks, Cf: Bhart Bhumi Aur Unke Nivasi, p 313-314, 226, Bhartya Itihaas Ki Mimansa, p 335 by Dr J. C. Vidyalanka; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 164-65, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.] .

Epilogue

The foregoing references sufficiently demonstrate that the Kambojas were living "on either side of the Hindukush" [Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh.] [Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 1, Seq., K. D. Sethna.] [Purana, Vol VI, No 2, Jan 1964, pp 207-214 .] [Asoka and His Inscriptions: By Beni Madhab Barua. 3d Ed, 1968, p 95, Beni Madhab Barua, Ishwar Nath Topa.] [Mahabharata 2.27.23;. Mahabharata 2.27.25.] . The cis-Hindukush division was called Kamboja. The trans-Hindukush Kamboja division was known as Parama Kamboja. Thus, like the Uttara-Kurus and Uttara-Madras, the Parama-Kambojas were also located in the "trans-Himalayan" ("paren himavantam"..) regions, and were neighbors both to the Uttara Kurus as well as the Uttara Madras. "The author of Vayu Purana uses the name Kumuda-dvipa for Kusha-dvipa [Vayu I.48.34-36] . 'Kumuda is also a Puranic name of a mountain forming the northern buttress of the Mount Meru (i.e. Pamirs). In anterior Epic Age, Kumuda was the name given to high table-land of the Tartary located to north of the Himalaya range from which the Aryan race may have originally pushed their way southwards into Indian peninsula and preserved the name in their traditions as a relic of old mountain worship"' (Thompson) [ O. Thompson, A History of Ancient Geography (London 1965) .] . Thus, the Kumuda-dvipa lay close north to the Pamirs. Lying in the Transoxiana (in Saka-dvipa), this Komuda or Kumuda-dvipa of the Puranic texts is often identified as the ancient Kamboja land which corresponds to the Parama Kamboja referred to in the Sabha Parava of Mahabharata [Dr Buddha Prakash maintains that, based on the evidence of Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, Raghu defeated the Hunas on river Vamkshu (Raghu vamsha 4.68), and immediately after them he marched against the Kambojas (4.69-70). These Kambojas were of Iranian affinities who lived in Pamirs and Badakshan. Hiun Tsang calls this region "Kiu.mi.to" which is thought to be "Komdei" of Ptolemy and "Kumadh" or "Kumedh" of Muslim writers (See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 300, Dr J. L. Kamboj).] .

Ptolemian Komdei is Komed or Komdesh or Kamdesh (?); from "Kambodesh" (?), probably "Kambojdesh". It is Kiumito or Kumito of Hiun Tsang and Kumed or Kumadh of the Muslim writers, Kiumiche of Wu'kong, Kumi of T'ang and Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of Greek writers. Al-Maqidisi in his book Al-Muqhni calls the people of this territory as Kumiji which apparently is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboj [See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 46-47, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 59, S Kirpal Singh.] . The root Kam of the Sanskrit name Kamboja is also reflected in the Kama valley, a region lying between the Khyber Pass and Jalalabad; in the place names like Kama-daka, Kamma-Shilman, Kama-bela of Kabol; in the Kamdesh or Kambrom, Kamich, Kama and Kamu & Kamatol of the Kunar and Bashgul valleys; and "also" in the vast expanses of region called Kazal-Kam and Kara-Kam lying on either side of the Oxus, north of Hindukush in parts of Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan. Thus, the Ptolemian terms Kamoi and Komdei or Hiun Tsang's "Kiumito" exactly also refer to the Trans-Hindukush territories which region is what Mahabharata [ Mahabharata 2.27.25.] refers to as Parama Kamboja i.e a Kamboja lying beyond the Kamboja of Kabol valley ["The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 159, 92, 59, S Kirpal Singh; cf: These Kamboj People, 1979, 67, K. S. Dardi; cf: History of Punjab, Vol I, p 182, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh".] .

Aitareya Brahmana [Aiterya Brahmana VIII/14] further attests that the trans-Himalyan Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru nations were republican. As the Param-Kamboja (i.e the original Kamboja) was a close neighbor both to the Uttaramadras as wel as the Uttarakurus in trans-Himalyan territories, it can, therefore, be fairly conjectured that the Parama-Kambojas were also a republican people, most probably following a "Rajashabdopajivin" (king consul) type of republicanism, where the king was only a title for the "commander-in-chief" of the military confederation [Hindu Polity, p 52, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 260-66, Dr J. L. Kamboj.] . Several "republics" of the Kambojas are attested in the Mahabharata ["Kambojana cha ye ganah"...Mahabharata(7/91/39).] . Kautiliya also attests the Kamboja Sanghas and Corporations [:i.e Kambhoja. Sauraastra.ksatriya.shreny.adayo vartta.shastra.upajivinah ||11.1.04||" .] . The Kambojas were also a self-governing political unit (republic) under the Maurya Emperors. [Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc] [A History of Zoroastrianism, 1991, p 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet.] .

References

ee also

*Kambojas

*Mahajanapadas
*Kamboja Kingdom
*Parama Kamboja Kingdom
*Rishikas

Books and Periodicals

*Geographical Data in early Puranas, 1972, Dr M. R. Singh.
*Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna.
*The Puranas, Vol VI, , No 1, 1964.
*Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
*These Kamboj People, 1979, K. S Dardi
*Mahabharata
*Ramayana
*Ptolemy’s Geography
*Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory (2 Volume Set) , 2000, Richard J. A. Talbert.
*Foundations of Indian Culture, 1984, Govind Chandra Pande - History
*Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India ..., 1874, p 365, John Muir
*Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 11, Dr Moti Chandra
*Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118
*Inscriptions of Asoka: Translation and Glossary, 1990, p 86, Beni Madhab Barua, Binayendra Nath Chaudhury - Inscriptions, Prakrit
*Studies in Indian History and Civilization, 1962, p 300, Dr Buddha Prakash - India
*The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala
*Geography of the Mahabharata, 1986, Bhagwan Singh Suryavanshi - India
*The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History, Or, the North-West India...1973, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan - India


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  • Parama Kamboja Kingdom — was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata to be on the far north west along with the Bahlika, Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru countries. It is thought to be modern day Tajikistan, a Central Asian Republic. [ The author of Vayu Purana uses the name… …   Wikipedia

  • Kamboja Kingdom — Kamboja or Kamvoja is one of the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. Western kingdoms were cold countries and people used blankets. They also reared sheep and drank sheep milk. Kamboja Horses were of excellent quality. Their horses and even …   Wikipedia

  • Kamboja colonists of Sri Lanka — Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon or Lanka) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent, about 31 kilometres (18.5 mi) south of India. Lanka in Sanskrit means island ( Tapu ). [ Pre Aryan and Pre dravidian in… …   Wikipedia

  • Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal — The Kamboja Pala Dynasty ruled parts of Bengal in the 10th to 11th centuries CE, gradually gaining independence from their former liege lords, the Palas.OriginsDuring the last centuries BCE, many clans of the Kambojas entered India in alliance… …   Wikipedia

  • Kamboja cavalry — The Kambojas had been famous throughout all periods of history for their excellent breed of horses as well as as famous horsemen or cavalry [The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 239, Dr B. C …   Wikipedia

  • Location of the Kamboja Kingdom — Kamboja was the name of an ancient country and the Indo Iranian warrior tribe settled therein. The country is listed as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas or great nations in ancient Buddhist texts. The Kambojas are attested to have both Indian as… …   Wikipedia

  • Term Kamboja and its variants — Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. The country is listed as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas or great nations in ancient Buddhist texts, and was… …   Wikipedia

  • Komedes — is the classical name applied to the people, who, as the scholars believe, had followed Scythian culture. They were located around Mt Kumuda as well as within/and beyond the Mt Hemodos and were a widely spread tribe. They were called Komedes… …   Wikipedia

  • Saka — Infobox Ethnic group group=Tnavbar header|Sakas|Scythians poptime=Unknown popplace=Eastern Europe Central Asia Northern India langs=Scythian language rels=Animism related= *Sarmatians *Dahae *Sakas *Indo Scythians *Massagetes The Sakas (English… …   Wikipedia

  • Kambojas — The Kambojas were a Kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in ( post Vedic ) Sanskrit and Pali literature, making their first appearance in the Mahabharata and contemporary Vedanga literature (roughly from the 7th century BCE).… …   Wikipedia