Moscow International Business Center


Moscow International Business Center
Moscow International Business Center, March 2010

Moscow International Business Center (Russian: Московский Международный Деловой Центр, Moskovskiy Mezhdunarodniy Delovoy Tsentr; ММДЦ, MMDTs ), also referred to as Moscow-City[1][2] (Russian: Москва-Сити, Moskva Siti) is a commercial district of central Moscow, Russia. Located near the Third Ring Road in Presnensky District of western Moscow, the Moscow-City area is currently under development.

The Moscow IBC is expected to become the first zone in Russia to combine business activity, living space and entertainment in one single development.[3] The Moscow government first conceived the project in 1992.[4] An estimated 250,000 – 300,000 people will be working, living, or visiting the complex at any given time.[3]

The construction of Moscow IBC is taking place on the Presnenskaya embankment of the Moscow River approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) west of Red Square, and just east of the Third Ring Road. The project occupies an area of 60 hectares,[3] the territory chosen being the only area in central Moscow that can accommodate such a project[citation needed]. Before construction began, the area represented an old stone quarry where most of the buildings were old factories and industrial complexes that had been closed or abandoned. The total cost of the project is estimated at $12 billion.[4]

Contents

Layout

The plots of Moscow-City
Legend
Number of plot
Name Name
Cb Construction began
Cc Construction completed
Bld Number of buildings in complex
Hr Roof height
Hm Max height (s - spire; a - antenna)
Fl Amount of floors
tArea Total area (square meters)
Current status of construction
Completed Under construction On-hold Canceled Proposed
Name Cb Cc Bld Hr Hm Fl tArea Notes
0 Tower 2000 and Bagration Bridge 1996 2001 1 104 104 34 61 057 In use
1 Expocenter -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
2,3 Evolution Tower 2007 2014 1 250 334,75 48 169 000 Fill the foundation[5]
4 Imperia Tower 2006 2011 1 239 239 60 287 723 Dome and aquapark are U/C
6,7,8 Central core 2005 2014 1 90 90 7 450 000 --
9 City of Capitals 2003 2010 3 306[6] 306 73 288 680 1st Europe's supertall; Inside works
10 Naberezhnaya Tower 2004 2007 3 268[7] 268 61 254 000 In use
11 Transport Terminal (Moscow) 2005 2015 -- -- -- 42 228 000 --
12 Eurasia Tower 2004 201x 1 309 309 72 207 542 Stopped on 48 floor
13 Federation Tower 2004 2013 3 380[8] 506[9] 94 423 000 Completed part of complex[10]
14 Mercury City Tower 2006 2012 1 335.7[11] 335.7 77 158 528 U/C on 65 level, 285m.
15 City Hall and City Duma 2005 never 4 308 308 72 622 000 Underground floors completed
16 16 IBC Towers -- 2012 3 330 330 87 429 600 --
17,18 - - - - - - - 250 000[12] Using as parking now
19 Northern Tower 2005 2007 1 108 132(а) 27 73 800 In use
20 Exhibition-business complex -- never 1 228 228 54 180 000 --
21 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
22 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
23 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
24 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
25 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
29,30 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Using as parking now
31 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Buildings

Bagration Bridge and Tower 2000
The stone symbolizing beginning of construction

Tower 2000

The Tower 2000, a 30-story office building with four floors underground, is located on the south bank of the Moscow River. The tower is connected to the MIBC by the Bagration pedestrian bridge, which was the first completed structure of the MIBC, finished in 1999. It is located on the opposite side of the river from the main development. There is also underground parking, restaurants, and other entertainment and attractions in the tower. The tower is 106 meters high,[13] and the total floor area of the complex is 60,000 square meters. Construction began in 1996 and the building was completed in late 2001.[4]

City Palace

City Palace under construction, 17 October 2008

The foundation of the City Palace (former Wedding Palace) was built by BAUER Technologii, the Russian branch of BAUER Spezialtiefbau GmbH. The foundation was successfully completed in December 2008. Currently, the City Palace is on-hold, the height is planned to be 250 m.

  • Total area of a plot: 2.549 ha
  • Total area 200,000 m2 (2,152,782 sq ft)
  • Height: 250 m (820 ft)
  • Floor count: 48
  • Construction began: 2007
  • Construction completed: 2013

Imperia Tower

Imperia Tower, March 2010

Imperia Tower is a multipurpose complex located on plot 4 of the Moscow International Business Center. It will consist of 2 buildings, the mixed-use Building A and the water park entertainment complex in Building B.

Building A, totaling 60 floors (239 m), will incorporate over 70,110 square meters (750,000 sq ft) of office space, 45,000 m2 (480,000 sq ft) of apartments, a 280 room hotel (30,000 m2/320,000 sq ft), and assorted retail outlets. The construction was completed in 2010.

Building B (currently on hold) is planned to incorporate the water park and will be a focus of entertainment for the MIBC Complex. It will also house a shopping mall, restaurants and cafés, and will be open year-round.

Central core

One of the most difficult structures to build in the MIBC, the Central Core, is located on plots 6, 7 and 8. The Central Core consists of two main sections – the above-ground and underground.

The underground part includes three metro stations. One is opened as a part of Filyovskaya Line branch. Second is planned to open as a part of Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya Line in 2014. The complex will also be connected to Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo airports via a high-speed transport system. Underground, parking is provided for up to 2750 vehicles, as well as central control rooms for maintenance, security, and other operations in the centre. The underground space also houses a shopping centre, which also functions as a lobby for the underground part of the complex, with walkways and passages for travel between other buildings in the MIBC. VIP parking will be available and is located on the western side of the Central Core.

The above-ground section is divided into three functional zones: a hotel on plot 8а, a retail-entertainment complex on plots 8b and 7, and a cinema/concert hall with a capacity of 6000 people on a plot 6. The hotel is still under construction, and the volume of capital investments will top USD $50–55 million[citation needed]. The hotel has 5 blocks of elevators connecting upper floors of the hotel with the underground parking places and retail enterprises. Plans are to include apartments, restaurants, winter gardens and terraces, as well as technical and auxiliary rooms.

The retail-entertainment complex is located in the central part of a building on sites 8b and 7. It is divided into four zones conceptually reflecting the seasons. The complex is formed by four 5-floor modular units and incorporates retail and exhibition zones, entertainment attractions, a park, restaurants, and galleries. A glass dome covers the main recreational space.

The film-concert hall is located on plot 6 and will host significant entertainment attractions such as gala concerts, forums, and large celebrations. The total amount of capital investments is estimated at over USD $120–140 million[citation needed].

  • Total area: 450,000 m2 (4,843,760 sq ft)
  • Construction began: Q1 2005
  • Construction completed: Q3 2010
  • Total investment $300 million

City of Capitals

The City of Capitals complex, symbolizing Moscow and St.Petersburg, is located on plot 9. The tower Moscow has become the first super tall skyscraper in Europe.

More than half of the top floors are taken up to an entertainment complex, office suites, and large apartments. The Сity of Capitals consists of two towers – the 73-floor "Moscow Tower" and the 62-floor "St.-Petersburg Tower", reaching heights of 306 and 255 meters, respectively. Floors 17 and 18 of both towers are offices. The entire complex sits on a main lobby consisting of 6 underground floors and 4 aboveground floors of public space. The upper floors of the base structure will contain shops, a fitness centre, presentation halls, and restaurants.[14]

To create the concept for the offices in the City of Capitals, other business complexes and business centres from other parts of the world were studied.

The spatial structure of the complex with steps of columns 9 meters high enables the organization of offices with open layouts from 500 up to 3,500 square meters. An entrance to the office section of the complex is situated near a quay, leading from underground parking to retail galleries.

  • Total area: 288,680 m2 (3,107,326 sq ft)
  • Height: 306 m (1,004 ft) and 255 m (837 ft)
  • Total area of a trading part: 10,000 m2 (107,639 sq ft)
  • Total area sports parts (fitness): 2,480 m2 (26,694 sq ft)
  • Total area of a public part, including restaurants and cinemas: 10,800 m2 (116,250 sq ft)
  • Total area of office part: 80,000 m2 (861,113 sq ft)
  • Total area of apartments: 101,440 m2 (1,091,891 sq ft)
  • Parking capacity: 2000 cars
  • Total investment: $450 million
  • Construction completed: 2010

Naberezhnaya Tower

The “Naberezhnaya Tower” complex was completed in August 2007. It includes three buildings of heights of 17, 27 and 60 floors. In October 2004, the 17-story building was fully completed. In October 2005 the second, 27-story building was put into operation. Construction of the third skyscraper began in January 2005. Three plazas, one for each building, are at the first level below ground, and they are connected by a central pier.

A first class office complex, including one underground floor, which will be reserved for retail trade, will be located in the tower. The other underground floors will be used as parking space.

  • Height: 268 m (879 ft)
  • Total area of the site: 1,6 ha
  • Total area of Tower A: 39,718 m2 (427,521 sq ft)
  • Total area of Tower B: 53,994 m2 (581,187 sq ft)
  • Total area of a building in 61 floor: 160,200 m2
  • Construction began: October 2003
  • Construction completed: November 2007
  • Total investment: $500 million
  • The developer/owner: City Center Investment B.V. (100% subsidiary of Enka Insaat & Sanayi A.S.)
  • The contractor: Enka Insaat & Sanayi A.S.
  • The design architect : RTKL & ENKA Architectural Office
  • The structural engineers : Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers & ENKA Design Office

Transport Terminal

A transport terminal, located on plot 11, will be the transfer point between different subway lines and light rail lines and other public systems. There will also be offices, hotels, a clinic, and parking.

There will be a transfer station between the metro and a high-speed transport system, which is planned to extend from Moscow-city, eventually ending at the three local airports. The multilevel terminal will connect the underground zones of Moscow-city to the metro stations and to other municipal transportation, lighted by means of light wells, with retail space, living and office areas.

The complex will contain 106 office suites, 3 hotels with 342 rooms, a main hospital, points of retail trade, and parking for up to 1250 vehicles.

  • Territory of a building site: 1,137 ha
  • Territory of a site under construction of objects: 1 025 m
  • Total area: 201,430 m2 (2,168,174 sq ft) m2
  • Construction began: January 2005
  • Construction will be completed: Q4 2015

Eurasia Tower

Eurasia Tower, March 2010

The Eurasia Tower, located on plot 12, is an office/recreational space with a total area of 207542 square meters. It will be situated on a three-tier podium in which will be placed a fitness centre, entertainment, restaurants, and shops. Other areas will be distributed as follows: 106 231 square meters will be reserved for office space, and residential apartments will occupy 21185 square meters. On the bottom, there will be parking for more than 1000 cars. The external design of the building is a combination of classical and modernist style. On the outside of the building, a scenic elevator will run up and down for views of the entire city. While two thirds of the tower has been built, the current status is 'on hold'

  • Architect: Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
  • Number of floors: 67
  • Height: 305 m (1,001 ft)
  • Total investment: $250 million
  • Total area: 207,542 m2 (2,233,963 sq ft)
  • The area of office premises: 106,231 m2 (1,143,461 sq ft)
  • The area of premises: 21,185 m2 (228,033 sq ft)
  • Parking capacity: 1000
  • Developer: Mos City Group

Federation Tower

Federation Tower, March 2010
  • Tower A: 93 floors – 360 m (1,181 ft)
  • Tower B: 62 floors – 243 m (797 ft)
  • Tower C: spire – 506 m (1,660 ft)

Upon completion, this will be the tallest building in Europe, at the height of 506 meters.

Office complex "Federation" is on plot 13 MIBC "Moscow-city". The structure represents a design of two tri-hedral towers with heights of 360 and 243 meters above the ground, located on a common base of 10 floors. Between them is the spike, with a height of 506 meters. A restaurant is planned in the towers, along with office suites and residential apartments divided by technical floors. In the spike, elevators with panoramic views and an evacuation stairway will be placed. In the base of the towers a full complex of retail and household services is planned. The underground part includes parking places, technical premises, and the walkway connecting the complex with the central part of a Business Center, northern departure and a complex 12 site.

  • Developer: ZAO Mirax-City, Russia
  • Employer: ZAO Mirax-City, Russia
  • Architect: Prof. P. Schweger and S. Tchoban (Germany)
  • Total investment: $500 million
  • Total area: 425,000 m2 (4,574,662 sq ft)
  • Total area of a plot: 1,07 ha
  • Height: over 506 m (1,660 ft)
  • Construction began: 2004
  • Construction completed: 2011

Mercury City Tower

Mercury City Tower, August 2011

The Mercury City Tower is a multipurpose building with housing, offices and shops.[15] The tower is located on plot 14 of the MIBC. The structure's height is 322 meters (380 with spire)[16] above ground, with five underground floors[citation needed]. Architect Frank Williams says that it is the first environmentally-friendly building in Russia, and it is designed to collect melting snow water, as well as provide 70% of the workplaces with access to daylight.[16][17]

  • Architect: M.M. Posohin, Frank Williams (USA), G.L. Sirota
  • Total area of a plot: 0,4975 ha
  • Total area: 158,000 m2 (1,700,698 sq ft)
  • Height: 380 m (1,247 ft)
  • Floor count: 70
  • The area of offices: 86,000 m2 (925,696 sq ft)
  • The area of apartments: 24,000 m2 (258,334 sq ft)
  • The area of fitness center: 5,000 m2 (53,820 sq ft)
  • The area of restaurants: 3,500 m2 (37,674 sq ft)
  • Trading premises: 6,200 m2 (66,736 sq ft)
  • Those a premise: 16,900 m2 (181,910 sq ft)
  • Parking place: 18,000 m2 (193,750 sq ft)
  • Construction completed: Q4 2011

City Hall and City Duma

The City Hall and City Duma will house the Moscow government and duma. The structure will consist of four, 308.4-metre towers. Currently, most of the administration's buildings are scattered all over the city. This complex will bring them together, which will provide better organization.

Spatial construction from 4 vertical structural elements, formed by 4 70 floor towers with the grouped around of communication "kernels"; 4 horizontal 8 floor "bridges" uniting towers in the top part and twenty "bridges" in height in a floor, "tieing up" all volume through everyone 8 floors on a vertical. Communication "kernels" come to the end with helicopter platforms and evacuation of a ladder, high-speed passenger, load-lifting, cargo (technical) lifts, channels of engineering communications, technical premises include. Each circle of horizontal bridges has a winter garden on a maintained roof. Favorable temperature humidity the mode, sufficient light exposure of all functional zones and "trailing" winter gardens is reached closing by glass of "apertures" between vertical both horizontal structural elements and a transparent covering of the central space of a construction.

The complex will include a commercial part accommodating public, entertainment and business facilities as well as underground parking space. Apart from the government offices, the bottom part would be open to visitors around the clock.

  • Architects: M. D.Hazanov, A.A.Nagavitsyn
  • The designer: Nodar V. Kancheli
  • Total area of a plot: 1.07 ha
  • Total area 397,831 m2 (4,282,217 sq ft)
  • Total area of an underground part: 77,059 m2 (829,456 sq ft)
  • Building volume: 876,803 m2 (9,437,829 sq ft)
  • Height: 308.4 m (1,012 ft)
  • Construction began: 2006
  • Construction completed: 2012

Russia Tower

Construction began in September 2007, and was planned to be completed by 2011. Upon reaching its final height of 612.2 meters (2,009 ft), it would have been the tallest building in Europe and the second tallest in the world.[18][19][20]

The total area of the structure was to cover 520,000 m² (5,597,233.4 sq ft), of which 38% (200,000 m² (2,152,782.1 sq ft)) were to be located underground. The tower was to contain 118 floors, 101 lifts, and underground parking to accommodate 3,680 cars. Commercial retail shops would be located at the base of the building. The maximum capacity of the building was projected to be around 30,000.

The first ten floors were to be occupied by a parking garage. In the bottom part of a tower of office premises, a hotel would be located, the top floors occupied by apartments. The business part of the project was expected to house a large congress centre, hotel, an entertainment zone, a casino and a park of attractions. Construction was planned on a plots 17–18 MIBC "Moscow-City". The developer of the project was the Moscow company (MDC), in cooperation with the city government and CT-Towers is the affiliated structure STT Group created for realization of projects in MIBC "Moscow-City". The final project of a tower had been presented by architect Norman Foster on 15 March 2006 at exhibition MIPIM-2006 in Cannes. After completion, Russia Tower would have become the tallest tower in Europe.

However, construction was halted in November 2008 due to financial difficulties. In February 2009, it was announced that the project has been suspended and that it is now unlikely that the tower, in its original form, will be built. In June 2009, construction of the Russia Tower was cancelled in the face of mounting financial pressure.[21][22]

  • Total area of a plot: 4,19 ha
  • Total Area: 921,600 m2 (9,920,020 sq ft)
  • Amount of floors: 218
  • Height: 1,236 m (4,055 ft)
  • Cost of the project: €361 trillion
  • Spaciousness of the built in parking: 9600 place
  • Amount of lifts: 201
  • Construction began: on September, 18th, 2007
  • Status : Canceled

Exhibition-business complex

The complex, on a plot 20, includes: a high-rise building of 59 floors, including 54 elevated and 5 underground; a large area of underground and elevated parking places; a helicopter landing pad on the roof of a high-rise part of the building. Residential apartments are located in the top part of the building with view of the greatest commercial appeal.

The recreational zone of the Complex differs from the developed infrastructure, characteristic of a class-A building, and includes retail zones, restaurants and a cafe, a bank, a dining room for employees, a fitness-club, a beauty salon, and service platforms.

  • The customer-builder: Open Society "City"
  • The author of the project: Asadov A.R., "Mosproject-2", a workshop №19
  • Total area: 180,000 m2 (1,937,504 sq ft)
  • The area of offices: 70,936 m2 (763,549 sq ft)
  • The area of apartments: 29,138 m2 (313,639 sq ft)
  • The area of restaurants, cafe: 2,074 m2 (22,324 sq ft)
  • The area of public zone: 8,900 m2 (95,799 sq ft)
  • The area of those. Premises: 38,509 m2 (414,507 sq ft)
  • Parking place: 14,072 m2 (151,470 sq ft)
  • Spaciousness of parking: 604 place
  • Height: 228 m (748 ft)
  • Floor count: 54

Transport

Major thoroughfares through Moscow-City are the Third Ring and Kutuzovsky Prospekt.

Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line. The station "Delovoi Tsentr" (Business Center) opened in 2005, and was later renamed "Vystavochnaya" ("Exhibition") in 2009. The branch extended to the "Mezhdunarodnaya" ("International ") station in 2006, and all work on third station, Dorogomilovskaya (between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr), has been postponed. It was recently announced that there are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line.

A rapid transit system to Vnukovo Airport and Sheremetyevo Airport with terminals in each airport is also planned.

City government and business

The City Hall and City Duma will be home to the Moscow government. Other important organisations and businesses, for example, the Global Hyatt Corporation, have purchased space in Moscow-City. There is also a large pedestrian-mall bridge crossing Moskva River. The area is to become a new hub for business in Moscow and Russia, following completion.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Official website". Eng.citynext.ru. http://eng.citynext.ru/. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "Construction World: Integrated Body For Urban Design Policy And Development Of Moscow". Stroi.ru. http://www.stroi.ru/eng/default.aspx?m=34&d=35. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c "ОАО "СИТИ" – Москва-Сити – Московский международный деловой центр". Citynext.ru. 14 September 2010. http://www.citynext.ru/. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c "Moscow International Business Centre (MIBC), Moscow". Design Build Network. http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/mibc/. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  5. ^ 03: Evolution Tower *строится* (249м 46э, 2014) - Page 40 - SkyscraperCity
  6. ^ Height of Moscow Tower
  7. ^ Height of C block
  8. ^ Height of Vostok Tower
  9. ^ Height of spire
  10. ^ Zapad Tower in use; Vostok Tower in use above 35 этажа, U/C on ~240 meters (~60 floor); Spire - On-hold on ~150 meters.
  11. ^ SkyscraperCity — View Single Post — 14: Меркурий Сити Тауэр *с&#109 …
  12. ^ "На месте башни "Россия" в "Москва-Сити" построят высотку площадью 250 тыс. кв. м.". РБК. 2011-08-31. http://www.rbc.ru/rbcfreenews/20110831140505.shtml. 
  13. ^ Emporis GmbH. "Bashnya 2000, Moscow, Russia". Emporis.com. http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&lng=3&id=bashnya2000-moscow-russia. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "Capital City : New standards of comfortable living". Capitalcity.ru. http://www.capitalcity.ru/en/apartments/. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "Mercury City Tower, Moscow". SkyscraperPage.com. http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=45047. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Emporis GmbH. "Mercury City Tower, Moscow, Russia". Emporis.com. http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&id=291262&lng=3. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  17. ^ Spliteye Multimedia LLC at http://www.spliteye.com/. "Mercury City Tower, Frank Williams And Partners Architects, LLP : Portfolio International". Archfwa.com. http://www.archfwa.com/default.aspx?page=5&type=99&project=319&focus=4. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Russia Tower, Largest Building in World with Natural Ventilation System (S2) Retrieved on March 23, 2008". Jetsongreen.com. http://www.jetsongreen.com/2008/02/russia-tower-la.html. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  19. ^ http://news.softpedia.com/news/The-Largest-Building-in-Europe-Russia-Tower-66134.shtml Retrieved on 23 March 2008
  20. ^ Russia Tower – World’s largest naturally ventilated building Retrieved on 23 March 2008
  21. ^ "Iconic Russia Tower in Moscow to become a car park | Europe | News". Propertywire.com. 12 June 2009. http://www.propertywire.com/news/europe/russia-tower-moscow-200906123208.html. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  22. ^ on 03.22.2010 Announce Alfa Bank is to invest around $240 million in Mirax Group to continue construction of a Moscow skyscraper, planned as one of the world's tallest buildings, a Russian business daily said on Monday. "The conditions are being agreed with Mirax at the moment. Alfa Bank will be the main creditor, but other banks are not excluded from the project," Alfa Bank development director Maxim Pershin told Komersant.

External links


Coordinates: 55°44′48″N 37°32′13″E / 55.74667°N 37.53694°E / 55.74667; 37.53694


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Moscow International Business Centre — (Russian: Московский Международный Деловой Центр ; ММДЦ), formerly Moscow City (Russian: Москва Сити) is a projected part commercial district of central Moscow, Russia. Geographically situated in Presnensky District in western Moscow, located at… …   Wikipedia

  • International Commerce Center —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Centre du commerce international. International Commerce Center 環球貿易廣場 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Moscow International House of Music — The Moscow International Performing Arts Center was officially opened on September 28, 2003 with the debut of a new orchestra, the National Philharmonic of Russia under musical director Vladimir Spivakov.[1] Also known …   Wikipedia

  • Moscow Metro — Info Locale Moscow Krasnogorsk, Moscow Oblast Transit type …   Wikipedia

  • Moscow — This article is about the capital of Russia. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). Moscow Москва (Russian)   Federal city   …   Wikipedia

  • MOSCOW — (Rus. Moskva), capital of the Russian Federation, and, from the Middle Ages, the political, economic, and commercial center of russia . Up to the end of the 18th century, Jews were forbidden to reside in Moscow, although many Jewish merchants… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Moscow State Institute of International Relations — МГИМО Университет Established 14 October 1944 Type Public …   Wikipedia

  • Moscow State University — MGU redirects here. For other uses, see MGU (disambiguation). Moscow University redirects here. For the tanker, see MV Moscow University. Lomonosov Moscow State University Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова Coat of arms …   Wikipedia

  • Business and Industry Review — ▪ 1999 Introduction Overview        Annual Average Rates of Growth of Manufacturing Output, 1980 97, Table Pattern of Output, 1994 97, Table Index Numbers of Production, Employment, and Productivity in Manufacturing Industries, Table (For Annual… …   Universalium

  • Moscow, Idaho —   City   Welcome sign in Moscow, Idaho …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.