Mongoloid


Mongoloid
Mongoloid race according to Thomas Henry Huxley from the Encyclopedia Britannica (1903)

Mongoloid (also Mongolic[1]) is a term sometimes used by forensic anthropologists and physical anthropologists to refer to populations that share certain phenotypic traits such as epicanthic fold and shovel-shaped incisors and other physical traits common in East Asia, the Americas and the Arctic. The word is formed by the base word "Mongol" and the suffix "-oid" which means "resembling". It was introduced by early Racial science used to refer to the "yellow race", one of the proposed three major races of human kind. Since the concept of race has been largely abandoned as a useful way to describe human biological variation the terms have become mostly obsolete.[2] Although especially Forensic anthropologists continue to use them in some contexts, outside of forensic anthropology the term mongoloid is now often considered derogatory, and racist.[3] [4]


Contents

Populations included

The term "Mongoloid" comes from the Mongol people of East Asia, who invaded much of Eurasia during the 13th century, establishing the Mongol Empire. The first usage of the term Mongolian race was by Christoph Meiners in a "binary racial scheme" of "two races", with the Caucasian whose racial purity was exemplified by the "venerated... ancient Germans" and "Mongolians" who consisted of everyone else.[5]

Johann Blumenbach said he borrowed the term Mongolian from Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second, [which] includes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges and below the river Amoor [Amur], which looks toward the south, together with the islands and the greater part of these countries which is now called Australian".[6]

In 1861, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire added the "Australian" as a "secondary race" (subrace) of the "principal race" of "Mongolian".[7] In the nineteenth century Georges Cuvier used the term Mongolian again as a racial classification, but additionally included American Indians under the term.[8] Arthur de Gobineau defined the extent of the "Mongolian" race, "by the yellow the Altaic, Mongol, Finnish and Tartar branches."[9][10] Later, Thomas Huxley used the term Mongoloid and included American Indians as well as Arctic Native Americans.[11] Other nomenclatures were proposed, such as Mesochroi (middle color),[12] but Mongoloid was widely adopted.

In 1882, Irish anthropologist Augustus Henry Keane who was professor at University College, London, said the "Mongolic type" included the following "races": "Tibetans", "Burmese", "Tai", "Koreans", "Japanese", "Lu-Chu", "Finno-Tatars" and "Malays".[13] Keane said the following peoples are "mixed Mongolo-Caucasic varieties": "Anatolian Turks", "Uzbegs", and "Tajiks of Turkestan".[13] Keane said the "Kazaks" are "intermediate" between the "Túrki" and "Mongolian" races.[13] Keane said the "Mongolian race" is "best represented" by the "Buriats".[13]

In 1940, anthropologist Franz Boas included the "American race" as part of the "Mongoloid race" of which he mentioned the "Aztecs of Mexico" and the "Maya of Yucatan".[14] Boas also said that, out of the "races of the Old World", the "American native" had features most similar to the "east Asiatic".[14]

In 1983, Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said that the inclusion of Native Americans and Pacific Islanders under the Mongoloid race was not recognized by "many anthropologists" who consider them "distinct races".[15]

In 1984, Roger J. Lederer Professor of Biological Sciences at the California State University at Chico,[16] separately listed the "Mongoloid" race from Pacific islanders and American Indians when he enumerated the "geographical variants of the same species known as races... we recognize several races Inuit, American Indians, Mongoloid... Polynesian".[17]

In 1998, Jack D. Forbes, professor of Native American Studies and Anthropology at the University of California, Davis, said that the racial type of the indigenous people of the Americas "does not fall into" the "Mongoloid" racial category.[18] Forbes said that due to the various physical traits indigenous Americans exhibit, some with "head shapes which seem hardly distinct from many Europeans", indigenous Americans must have either been formed from a mixture of "Mongoloid" and "Caucasoid" races or they descend from the ancestral, common type of both "Mongoloid" and "Caucasoid" races.[18]

Markku Niskanen (2002) of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Oulu, Finland, disputes past claims that "Finno-Ugrians" are "Mongoloid".[19] Niskanen claims that the reality is that "Baltic-Finns", "Saami", "Volga-Finns", "Permian-Finns" and "Hungarians" are "phenotypically and genetically typical Europeans".[19] Niskanen claims the "strong cheekbones" and "flaring zygomatic arches" considered to be evidence that "Finno-Ugrians" are "Mongoloid" are, in actuality, inherited from "Cro-Magnons".[19] Furthermore, Niskanen refutes the claim that Finno-Ugrians have "Mongoloid-looking" "facial flatness" by showing "Finns" and "Saami" facial flatness is "close to the European average" and claiming "Finns" and "Saami" both "possess North European craniofacial configuration".[19] In terms of genetics, Niskanen claims Finns are genetically close to their "Germanic-speaking neighbors (the Swedes, Germans, and Norwegians)" although he admits Finns are "somewhat less [genetically] distant" to the "Japanese" and "Mongols" than "Europeans are on average".[19] Niskanen claims that the "Y-chromosomal DNA" supposedly showing "eastern paternal genetic contribution" in the gene pools of Finno-Ugrians, since it is "found most commonly among Asians", is, in actuality, a "genetic marker" of "late Ice Age population expansion".[19] Niskanen disputes the claim that the commonality of a Uralic language means Finno-Ugrians are Mongoloid like the Samoyeds, arguing that the "Samoyeds" speak a "Uralic" language due to them having been "linguistically assimilated"[19] and arguing that the genetic evidence shows "Finno-Ugrians" and "Samoyeds" "diverged a very long time ago".[19]

In contrast to Niskanen, geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University (1994) said that the "Saame" were shown by "genetic analysis" to be "47.5%" "Mongoloid" and "52.5%" "Caucasoid" with a "standard error" of "± 4.9%".[20] Cavalli-Sforza said the Saami's Caucasoid side of their DNA came "probably from Scandinavia" while their "Mongoloid" side is of "Siberian origin".[21]

In 1995, Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said "all" "Asian populations" are "grouped under the name "Mongoloid".[22]

In 2004, Hitoshi Chiba (千葉仁志 Chiba Hitoshi?) et al. of the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan, performed "particle agglutination tests for serum HTLV-I antibody" on 400 ethnic "Saami" to determine if they had the "HTLV-I antibody" that would link them to "Asiatic Mongoloids" and they found that the Saami were lacking this antibody.[23] Chiba et al. concluded that if Saami were related to the "Asiatic Mongoloid", the relationship would either have to involve "Neolithic rather than Upper Paleolithic populations" or the Saami would have to have been mixed with a group that lacked the antibody.[23]

Subraces

In 1900, Joseph Deniker said, the "Mongol race admits two varieties or subraces: Tunguse or Northern Mongolian... and Southern Mongolian".[7]

Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the "vast majority" of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are "Southern Mongoloids" but have a "high degree" of Australoid admixture.[24]

Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said that there are "Neo-Mongoloids" and "Paleo-Mongoloids".[25] Akazawa said Neo-Mongoloids have "extreme Mongoloid, cold-adapted features" and they include the Chinese, Buryats, Eskimo and Chukchi.[25] In contrast, Akazawa said Paleo-Mongoloids are "less Mongoloid" and less "cold-adapted".[25] He said Burmese, Filipinos, Polynesians, Jōmon and the indigenous peoples of the Americas were Paleo-Mongoloid.[25]

History of the concept

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–90).
Caucasoid race
  Aryan
  Semitic
  Hamitic
Negroid race
  Hottentot
  Melanesian
Uncertain
  Dravida & Sinhalese
Mongoloid race
  Chinese & Indochinese
  Malay
  Polynesian
  Maori
  Eskimo
Huxley's "four great groups of mankind" (1870)
I. Australoid Type IV. Mongoloid Type
  Polynesians
  Mongoloids-A
  Mongoloids-B
  Mongoloids-C
  Eskimo
II. Negroid Type
  Negroes
III. Xanthochroic Type
  "Melanochroi"
  "Xanthrochroi"

The earliest systematic use of the term was by Blumenbach in De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Variety of Mankind, University of Göttingen, first published in 1775, re-issued with alteration of the title-page in 1776). Blumenbach included East and South East Asians, but not Native Americans or Malays, who were each assigned separate categories.

In 1865, biologist Thomas Huxley presented the views of polygenesists (Huxley was not one of them) as "some imagine their assumed species of mankind were created where we find them... the Mongolians from the Orangs."[26]

In 1972, physical anthropologist Carleton Coon said, "From a hyborean [sic] group there evolved, in northern Asia, the ancestral strain of the entire specialized Mongoloid family."[27] In 1962, Coon believed that the Mongoloid "subspecies" existed "during most of the Pleistocene, from 500,000 to 10,000 years ago".[28] According to Coon, the Mongoloid race had not completed its "invasions and expansions" into Southeast Asia, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands until "[t]oward the end of the Pleistocene".[28] By this time Coon hypothesis that the Mongoloid race had become "sapien".[28]

Paleo-anthropologist Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari characterize "his [Carleton Coon's] contention [as being] that the Mongoloid race crossed the 'sapiens threshold' first and thereby evolved the furthest".[29]

Mohinder Kumar Bhasin (Hindi: महेंद्र कुमार भसीन) of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Delhi suggested in a review of an article referencing Mourant 1983 that "The Caucasoids and the Mongoloid almost certainly became differentiated from one another somewhere in Asia" and that "Another differentiation, which probably took place in Asia, is that of the Australoids, perhaps from a common type before the separation of the Mongoloids."[30]

Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said the Mongoloid race "diverged 41,000 years ago" from a Mongoloid and Caucasoid group which diverged from Negroids "110,000 years ago".[15]

In 1996, professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said Mongoloids originated in Xinjiang during the "Ice Age".[25]

In 1999, Peter Brown of the Department of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology at the University of New England evaluated three sites with early East Asian modern human skeletal remains (Liujiang, Liuzhou, Guangxi, China; Shandingdong Man of (but not Peking Man) Zhoukoudian's Upper Cave; and Minatogawa in Okinawa) dated to between 10,175 to 33,200 years ago, and finds lack of support for the conventional designation of skeletons from this period as "Proto-Mongoloid"; this would make Neolithic sites 5500 to 7000 years ago (e.g. Banpo) the oldest known Mongoloid remains in East Asia, younger than some in the Americas. He concludes that the origin of the Mongoloid phenotype remains unknown, and could even lie in the New World.[31]

In 2006, Yali Xue (Chinese: 薛亞黎) et al. of the genome research Sanger Institute conducted a study of linkage disequilibrium that found that northern populations in East Asia started to expand in number between 34 and 22 thousand years ago, before the last glacial maximum at 21–18 KYA, while southern populations started to expand between 18 and 12 KYA, but then grew faster, and suggests that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe", while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.[32]

In 2008, Juan Frijolé Reixach professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Barcelona showcased the racial classification systems of Carleton S. Coon and H.V. Vallois in his 2008 book series about human races.[33] Reixach said Vallois said the "Yellow Race" included the following groups: Siberian, North Mongoloid, Central Mongoloid, South Mongoloid, Indonesian, Polynesian, Eskimo and Amerindian.[33]

Features

See also: Asian features and Epicanthal fold
"Mongoloid" eye according to anthropologist Joseph Deniker
Louis R. Sullivan Curator of Physical Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History has identified these three men as "full-blood Samoan" men
William W. Howells, professor of anthropology at Harvard University, made this map entitled "Distribution of Asian peoples" where "A" represents "Australoids", "N" represents "Negrito" people and the colored yellow and red regions represent "Sinodont" and "Sundadont" "Mongoloids" respectively.[34]
This is a recreation of the craniometric dendogram entitled "Cranial Cluster 28 Groups" in a book by anthropologist William White Howells, professor of anthropology at Harvard University who said "Indians" or "American populations" are closest in "studies of cranial distance" to "Europeans" as seen above and that among "Indians" or "American populations", only "Eskimos" are "strongly Mongoloid in form".[34] See Also: Kennewick man

In 2004, forensic anthropologist Caroline Wilkenson said Mongoloids are characterized by "absent browridges".[35] R.G. Ong of the Department of Oral Radiology, Perth Dental Hospital, Australia found that "Mongoloid" subjects had about "20% higher bone density at the angle of the mandible" when compared to "Caucasoid" subjects.[36]

Louis R. Sullivan Curator of Physical Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, said "Samoans" are of the "Mongoloid race" but their features represent a "slightly different evolution since the time of their separation and isolation from their parental stock" or a "retention" of features that have been lost in other "Mongoloid types".[37] Sullivan said the "wavy" and "wooly" hair of the "Samoan" is one such retention compared to the "stiff, coarse" hair that typifies the "Mongoloid".[37] Sullivan lists most of the characteristics of the "Samoan" as having "Mongoloid" "affinities" such as: "skin color", "hair color", "eye color", "conjuctiva", "amount of beard", "hair on chest", "nasal bridge", "nostrils", "lips", "face width", "biogonial width", "cephalo-facial index", "nasal height", "ear height" and "chin".[37]

Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, China, said "Mongoloid features" are a "mesocranic" skull, "fairly large and protruding" "cheekbones", "nasal bones are flat and broad", "nasal bridge is slightly concave" without "depression in the nasion", "the lower borders of the piriform aperature are not sharp but guttered", "prenasal fossae are shallow", small "anterior nasal spine", trace amounts of "canine fossae" and "moderate" "alveolar prognathism".[38]

Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said the "Paleoindian" has "proto-Mongoloid" "morphology" such as "pronounced development of supraorbital ridges low frontals, marked post-orbital constriction, prominent and protruding occipitals, small mastoids, long crania and a relatively narrow bizygomatic breadth".[22]

In 1882, Irish anthropologist Augustus Henry Keane who was professor at University College, London, said that the features of the "Japanese" that "attest their relationship with the great Mongolian family" are "slightly oblique eyes", "small nose", "black lank hair", "sparse beard", "salient cheek-bones" and "yellowish complexion".[13]

Shunsuke Yuzuriha (Japanese:杠俊介) et al. of Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan, said the "Mongoloid eyelid" is characterized by "puffiness" of the upper eyelid, "superficial expansion of the levator aponeurosis" that are "turned up around this transverse ligament to become the orbital septum", "low position of the preaponeurotic fat" and "narrowness of the palpebral fissure".[39]

Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania said the "Mongoloid racial type" is distinguished by "forward-projecting malar (cheek) bones", "comparatively flat faces", "large circular orbits", "moderate nasal aperture with a slightly pointed lower margin", "larger, more gracile braincase", "broader skull", "broader face" and "flatter roof of the nose".[40]

Akazawa said Mongoloid skin has "thick skin cuticle" and an abundance of "carotene (yellow pigment)".[25] Rodney P.R. Dawber of the Oxford Hair Foundation and Clinical Lecturer in Dermatology said "Mongoloid males" have "little or no facial or body hair".[41] Mildred Trotter of the School of Medicine St. Louis Missouri said Mongoloid hair is coarse, straight, "blue-black "and weighs the most out of the races.[42] Mildred Trotter of the School of Medicine St. Louis Missouri and Oliver H. Duggins of the Department of Anatomy Washington University said the "size of the average Mongoloid hair" is 0.0051 square millimetres (7.9×10−6 sq in) based on samples from "Chinese", "North and South American Indians", "Eskimos" and "Thais".[43] Daniel Hrdy of the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University said that "Mongoloid" hair whether it be "Sioux," "Ifugao" or "Japanese" has the thickest diameter out of all human hair.[44] Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said Mongoloids evolved hairlessness to keep clean while wearing heavy garments for months without bathing during the Ice Age.[25]

In 1996, Rebecca Haydenblit of the Hominid Evolutionary Biology Research Group at Cambridge University did a study on the dentition of four pre-Columbian Mesoamerican populations and compared their data to "other Mongoloid populations".[45] She found that "Tlatilco", "Cuicuilco", "Monte Albán" and "Cholula" populations followed an overall "Sundadont" dental pattern "characteristic of Southeast Asia" rather than a "Sinodont" dental pattern "characteristic of Northeast Asia".[45]

Robert B. Pickering Professor of Anthropology at the University of Tulsa said the traits of the "Mongoloid" skull are: "long" and "broad" skulls of intermediate "height", "arched" "sagittal contour", "very wide" "facial contour", "high" "face height", "rounded" "orbital opening", "narrow" "nasal opening", "wide, flat" "nasal bones", "sharp" "lower nasal margin", "straight" "facial profile", moderate and white "palate shape", "90%+" "shovel-shaped incisors" and "large, smooth" "general form".[46]

Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said "East Asians" ("Kyushu", "Atayal", "Philippines", "Chinese", "Hokkaido" and "Anyang") and "Amerinds" ("Yaujos", "Santa Cruz" and "Arikara") have the typical "Mongoloid cranial pattern", but other Mongoloids such as "Pacific groups" ("Easter Island", "Mokapu", "Guam" and "Moriori people"), "arctic groups" ("Eskimos" and "Buriats"), "Fuegians" ("Selk’nam", "Ya´mana", "Kawe´skar") and the "Ainu" differ from this by having "larger cranial dimensions over many variables".[47]

Proto-Mongoloids

This is a Maidu, American Indian man from a publication by anthropologist Franz Boas in 1905.[48]
This is a Yurok, American Indian, woman from a publication by anthropologist Aleš Hrdlička in 1906.[49]

Anthropologist Elsie Clews Parsons physical features of the "Proto-Mongoloid" were characterized as, "a straight-haired type, medium in complexion, jaw protrusion, nose-breadth, and inclining probably to round-headedness".[50]

Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Sussex said Kanzō Umehara considered the Ainu and Ryukyuans to have "preserved their proto-Mongoloid traits".[51]

Mark J. Hudson Professor of Anthropology at Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Saga, Japan, said Japan was settled by a "Proto-Mongoloid" population in the "Pleistocene" who became the "Jōmon" and their features can be seen in the "Ainu" and "Okinawan" people.[52] Hudson said that, later, during the "Yayoi period", the "Neo-Mongoloid" type entered Japan.[52] Hudson said "genetically" Japanese people are "primarily" Neo-Mongoloid with Proto-Mongoloid "admixture".[52]

Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania said Mongoloid traits emerged from "Transbaikalia", "central and eastern regions of Mongolia", and "several regions of Northern China".[40] Schurr said that studies of "cranio-facial variation in Mongolia" "suggest" that the "region" of "modern-day" "Mongolians" is the origin of the "Mongoloid racial type".[40]

Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, China, said that the remains of "Liukiang human fossils" were an "early type of evolving Mongoloid" that indicated "South China" was the "birthplace where the Mongoloid race originated".[38]

Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said there are two hypotheses on the "origin of Mongoloids".[22] Lahr said one hypothesis is that Mongoloids originated in "north Asia" due to the "regional continuity" in this region and this population conforming "best" to the standard "Mongoloid features".[22] Lahr said the other hypothesis is that Mongoloids originate from "Southeast Asian populations" that "expanded from "Africa to Southeast Asia" during the "first half of the Upper Pleistocene" and then traveled to "Australia-Melanesia" and "East Asia".[22] Lahr said the "morphology" of the "Paleoindian" is consistent with the "proto-Mongoloid definition".[22]

Anthropologist Arnold Henry Savage Landor described the Ainu as having deep-set eyes and an eye shape typical of Europeans, with a large and prominent browridge, large ears, hairy and prone to baldness, slightly-flattened hook nose with large and broad nostrils, prominent cheek bones, large mouth and thick lips and a long region from nose to mouth and small chin region.[53]

Neoteny

Shui-Hsi Miao women (1911)
Java women (1902)

According to Ashley Montagu who taught anthropology at Princeton University, "The Mongoloid skull has proceeded further than in any other people."[54] "The Mongoloid skull, whether Chinese or Japanese, has been rather more neotenized than the Caucasoid or European."[54] "The female skull, it will be noted, is more pedomorphic in all human populations than the male skull."[54] In Ashley Montagu's list of "[n]eotenous structural traits in which Mongoloids... differ from Caucasoids", Montagu lists "Larger brain, larger braincase, broader skull, broader face, flat roof of the nose, inner eye fold, more protuberant eyes, lack of brow ridges, greater delicacy of bones, shallow mandibular fossa, small mastoid processes, stocky build, persistence of thymus gland into adult life, persistence of juvenile form of zygomatic muscle, persistence of juvenile form of superior lip muscle, later eruption of full dentition (except second and third molars), less hairy, fewer sweat glands, fewer hairs per square centimeter [and] long torso".[54]

According to Clive Bromhall who has a Ph.D. in zoology from Oxford University, "Mongoloid races are explained in terms of being the most extreme pedomorphic humans."[55]

Richard Grossinger, professor of anthropology at University of Maine at Portland, said "The intuition that advanced human development was pedomorphic rather than recapitulationary and accelerated was disturbing to many Eurocentric nineteenth century anthropologists."[56] "If juvenilization was the characteristic for advanced status, then it was clear that the Mongoloid races were more deeply fetalized in most respects and thus capable of the greatest development."[56]

Stephen Oppenheimer of the Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology at Oxford University said "An interesting hypothesis put forward by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould many years ago was that the package of the Mongoloid anatomical changes could be explained by the phenomenon of neoteny, whereby an infantile or childlike body form is preserved in adult life. Neoteny in hominids is still one of the simplest explanations of how we developed a disproportionately large brain so rapidly over the past few million years. The relatively large brain and the forward rotation of the skull on the spinal column, and body hair loss, both characteristic of humans, are found in foetal chimps. Gould suggested a mild intensification of neoteny in Mongoloids, in whom it has been given the name pedomorphy. Such a mechanism is likely to involve only a few controller genes and could therefore happen over a relatively short evolutionary period. It would also explain how the counterintuitive retrousse [turned up at the end] nose and relative loss of facial hair got into the package."[57] "[D]ecrease unnecessary muscle bulk, less tooth mass, thinner bones and smaller physical size; ...this follows the selective adaptive model of Mongoloid evolution."[57]

Cold adaption

"Eskimo Group" by photographer William Dinwiddie (1894)
Eskimo women and one Eskimo man (1922)[58]

Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto Japan, said Mongoloid features are an adaption to the "cold" of the "Mammoth Steppe".[25] He mentions the "Lewis waves" of warm blood cyclical vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the peripheral capillaries in Mongoloids as an adaption to the cold.[25] He lists the short limbs, short noses, flat faces, epicanthic fold and lower surface to mass ratio as further Mongoloid adaptions to cold.[25]

Takasaki Yuji (Japanese:高崎裕治) of Akita University, Japan,[59] in the Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science said, "Mongoloid ancestors had evolved over time in cold environments" and the short limbs of the Mongoloid was due to "Allen's ecological rule".[60]

Professor of anthropology at Trent University Ontario, Canada, Joseph K. So (Chinese: ) (198) cited a study by J. T. Steegman (1965) that the "so-called" "cold-adapted Mongoloid face" has been shown in an experiment, using Japanese and European subjects, to not offer greater protection to frostbite.[61] In explaining Mongoloid cold-adaptiveness, So () cites the work of W. L. Hylander (1977) where Hylander said that in the Eskimo, for example, the reduction of the brow ridge and flatness of the face is due to "internal structural configurations" that are "cold adapted" in the sense that they produce a large vertical bite force necessary to chew frozen seal meat.[61]

Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said the "high and narrow nose of Eskimos" and "Neanderthals" is an "adaption to a cold and dry environment", since it contributes to warming and moisturizing the air and the "recovery of heat and moisture from expired air".[47]

A.T. Steegman of the Department of Anthropology at State University of New York investigated the assumption that Allen's rule caused the structural configuration of the "Arctic Mongoloid" face.[62] Steegman did an experiment that involved the survival of rats in the cold.[62] Steegman found the rats with narrow nasal passages, broader faces, shorter tails and shorter legs survived the best in the cold.[62] Steegman paralleled his findings with the "Arctic Mongoloids", particularly the "Eskimo" and "Aleut," by claiming these "Arctic Mongoloids" have similar features in accordance with Allen's rule: a narrow nasal passage, relatively large heads, long to round heads, large jaws, relatively large bodies, and short limbs.[62]

Kenneth L. Beals of the Department of Anthropology at Oregon State University noted that the indigenous people of the Americas have cephalic indexes that are an exception to Allen's rule, since the indigenous people of the hot climates of North and South America have cold-adapted, high cephalic indexes.[63] Beals explanation is that these peoples have not yet evolved the appropriate cephalic index for their climate, being, comparatively, only recently descended from the cold-adapted "Arctic Mongoloid".[63]

Genetic research

Genetic Distances and Effective Divergence Times Between The Three Major Races of Man (3) by Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University[64]
Comparison Proteins
(62 loci)
Blood groups
(23 loci)
Total
(85 loci)
Effective divergence time (years)
Caucasoid/Mongoloid 0.011 0.043 0.019 41,000 ± 15,000
Caucasoid/Negroid 0.030 0.038 0.032 113,000 ± 34,000
Negroid/Mongoloid 0.031 0.096 0.047 116,000 ± 34,000
This genetic distance map made in 2002 is an estimate of 18 world human groups by a neighbour-joining method based on 23 kinds of genetic information. It was made by Saitou Naruya (Japanese:斎藤成也) professor at the (Japanese) National Institute for Genetics.[65] Saitou et al. said the Pan-Mongoloid grouping includes the Australoid, Amerindian and Asian Mongoloid groups.[66]
This is a genetic distance map made by geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University that shows the "Mongoloid group" among others.[20]
This map is a reproduction of a map made by Naruya Saitou (Japanese: 斎藤成也) professor at the (Japanese) National Institute for Genetics. It shows the human migration path out of Africa.[65] Saitou et al. said the Pan-Mongoloid grouping includes the Australoid, Amerindian and Asian Mongoloid groups.[66]
This is a reproduction of a dendogram made by enzymologist Naropantul Appaji Rao (Hindi:अप्पाजी राव), Emeritus Scientist at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Based on "29 genetic loci", Rao said that "Indians [of India] are genetically equidistant from Caucasoids and Mongoloids".[67]

In 1994, geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University divided a "principal coordinant" map of "42 Asian populations" into three groupings: "Asian Caucasoids", "Northeast and East Asian" and "Southeast Asian".[20] Along "Southeast Asia", Cavalli-Sforza said there is a "separation between northern and southern Mongoloids".[20] To the West, Cavalli-Sforza said there is an "approximate boundary" between "Caucasoids" and "Mongoloids" from the "Urals" to "the eastern part of India".[20] Along this boundary there has been "hybridization", causing a "Caucasoid-Mongoloid gradient".[20] More specifically, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said were in the "Northeast and East Asian" cluster were the "Koryak", "Chukchi", "Reindeer Chukchi", "Nganasan" "Samoyed", "N. Tungus", "Nentsy" "N. Chinese", "Tibetan", "Bhutanese", "Ainu", "Mongol", "Japanese" and "Korean".[20] Moving south, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said were in the "Southeast Asian" cluster were the "Indonesian", "Malaysian", "Taiwan aborigines", "Viet Muong", "Thai", "Philippine", "S. Chinese", "Balinese" and "Gurkha".[20] Moving off the coast, Cavalli-Sforza said there are "Australoid" and "Negrito" peoples, but also that the "Polynesians" are a "diluted Mongoloid type", the Negritos of the "Andaman Islands" and "Semang" Negritos have a "high frequency of the Mongoloid inner epicanthic eyefold" and that among Australoid "Micronesians" "some individuals look more Mongoloid".[20] Moving to the Americas, Cavalli-Sforza said the "Eskimos and Aleuts" derived from the "Siberian Mongoloids" and came after the "American Indians" who are both "Mongoloid in general" and "uniform racially".[20]

In 2008, biochemist Boris Abramovich Malyarchuk (Russian: Борис Абрамович Малярчук) et al. of the Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, Russia, used a sample (n=279) of Czech individuals to determine the frequency of "Mongoloid" "mtDNA lineages".[68] Malyarchuk found Czech mtDNA lineages were typical of "Slavic populations" with "1.8%" Mongoloid mtDNA lineage.[68] Malyarchuk added that "Slavic populations" "almost always" contain Mongoloid mtDNA lineage.[68] Malyarchuk said the Mongoloid component of Slavic people was partially added before the split of "Balto-Slavics" in 2,000-3,000 BCE with additional Mongoloid mixture occurring among Slavics in the last 4,000 years.[68] Malyarchuk said the "Russian population" was developed by the "assimilation of the indigenous pre-Slavic population of Eastern Europe by true Slavs" with additional "assimilation of Finno-Ugric populations" and "long-lasting" interactions with the populations of "Siberia" and "Central Asia".[68] Malyarchuk said that other Slavs "Mongoloid component" was increased during the waves of migration from "steppe populations (Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Mongols)", especially the decay of the "Avar Khaganate".[68]

In 1999, Vladimir Orekhov (Russian: Владимир Орехов) et al. of the Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia, found that there is evidence for "influence of Mongoloid populations on the ethnogenesis of Russians" due to the presence of "mytotypes" 26, 33, and 47 of "Mongoloid haplogroup C" in the Russian population as well as evidence for "Finno-Ugric populations in the ethnogenesis of Eastern Slavs" due to the presence of "Finno-Ugric mitotype (mitotype 31)" in the Russian population, but he found that that Russian "mtDNA pools" differed by "Russian regions" with Russians of the "Eastern-European plain" "close" to "European ethnic groups".[69]

In 2010, Alexander Shtrunov (Russian: Александр Штрунов) who published in the Russian Journal of Genetics said the introduction of haplogroup Nc1 in "Eastern Europe" was spread by people with a "Uraloid appearance" with both "Mongoloid and Caucasoid features" in the "Mesolithic" period, forming the "gradual appearance of mixed anthropological types" with the pre-existing "Caucasoid" "Paleo-European population of Northern Europe" who were carriers of the "Nordic haplogroup I1a".[70]

Atsushi Tajima (Japanese: 田嶋敦) et al. of Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, found evidence for four separate populations, carrying distinct sets of non-recombining Y chromosome lineages, within the traditional Mongoloid category: North Asians, Han Chinese, Southeast Asians, and Japanese.[71]

In 1997, Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University, said "clusters" of "genetic distances" conform to the "customary" "three major races of man, namely, Negroids, Caucasoids and Mongoloids".[72] Moreover, Nei said that "Mongoloid populations irrespective of north and south" show "small genetic distances from any populations in Oceania and Americas".[72] Nei said the "Northern Mongoloid" included the "Evens", "Buryat", "Hui", "Mongolian", "Tibetan", "Japanese", "Ainu", "Northern Chinese" and "Korean".[72] In the "Southern Mongoloid", Nei included the "Dong", "Zhuang", "Southern Chinese", "Taiwanese-aborigines", "Thai", "Indonesian" and "Filipino".[72] Based on genetic data, Nei said the "Amerindians" descend from two populations: an original "Northeast Asians" migration which became the "Paleo-Indian" and a later migration which became both the "Na-Dene" and "Eskimos".[72] Based on the genetic data, Nei said "Southeast Asian Mongoloids" are closer to the "Micronesian" and "Polynesian" than to the "Papuan" and "Australian".[72] In 1993, Nei said the "Mongoloids" were contained within a larger genetic grouping called the "Greater Asians" or "Greater Mongoloids"[72] which also included "Pacific Islanders" and "Australopapuans".[73] In the "Australopapuan" grouping, Nei included "Dravidians", "Andamanese", "Australian", "Papuan" and "Philippine Negritos".[73] Since Nei found Australopapuans were "most closely related to East Asians", Nei offered an explanation for their peculiar traits. Nei rejected the hypothesis that Australopapuans have traits of "black Africans" due to "convergent-evolution", since he estimated it would have taken far longer for them to have re-evolved "frizzled-hair".[73] Nei supported the other hypothesis put forward by Chris B. Stringer of the Paleontology Department of the National History Museum that there were two populations and that the original "African" population had "absorbed most of its gene pool from the Mongoloid group".[73]

Satoshi Horai (Japanese: 宝来聡) of the Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizouka, Japan, said "phylogenetic analysis" indicated that the there are "two distinct groups" of "Mongoloids" - one which early on "diverged" from "Negroids" and another that "diverged" from "Caucasoids" later.[74] Horai said Mongoloid distribution corresponds to "North and South America, Oceania, Southeast Asia, east Asia, and Siberia".[74]

Principal components plot for Asian populations.

A study by the The HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in 2009 found that East Asian and South-East Asian populations clustered together, and suggested a common origin for these populations. At the same time they observed a broad discontinuity between this cluster and South Asia, commenting "most of the Indian populations showed evidence of shared ancestry with European populations". It was noted that "genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography".

In 2010, Sung-Soo Hung et al. (Korean:윤승수) of the Department of Biology at Seoul National University found that Mongoloids were relatively homogenous in 9-bp deletion type of the mtDNA COM/ tRNALys intergenic region[75]

"Estimates of the Number of Nucleotide Differences per Site Both Among (dxy) and within (dx or dy) Each of the Three Races, and Net Nucleotide Differences (d) among the Races" made by Satoshi Horai (Japanese:宝来聡) of the Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizouka, Japan.[74]
Caucasoid
(N=20)
Mongoloid
(N=71)
Negroid
(N=10)
Caucasoid 0.0094 0.0012 0.0028
Mongoloid 0.0128 0.0137 0.0015
Negroid 0.0194 0.0203 0.0238

Criticism

Dr. George W. Gill is a professor of anthropology at the University of Wyoming and Dennis O'Neil professor of anthropology at Palomar College said that "Mongoloid" concept originated with a now disputed typological method of racial classification.[76][77] All the -oid racial terms (e.g. Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, etc.) are now often controversial in both technical and non-technical contexts and may sometimes give offense no matter how they are used.[78]

According to Ward O. Conner who wrote a book about John Langson Down, since people with Down syndrome may have epicanthic folds, Down syndrome was widely called "Mongol" or "Mongoloid Idiocy".[79] John Langdon Down, for whom the syndrome was named, said in his book Observations on the Ethnic Classification of Idiots (1866) that the Mongol-like features represented an evolutionary degeneration when manifested in Caucasoids.[citation needed] In slang usage the term came to be used as an insult. A shortened version of the term, mong or mongo, is also used in the United Kingdom, mainly Scotland.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ For a contrast with the "Europoid" or Caucasian race, see footnote #4 of page 58-59 in Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
  2. ^ Relethford, John. The Human Species: An introduction to Biological Anthropology, 8th ed, p 368 McGraw-Hill: New York, 2003.
  3. ^ Keevak, Michael (2011). Becoming Yellow: A Short History of Racial Thinking. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691140315. 
  4. ^ Company, Houghton Mifflin (2005). The American Heritage guide to contemporary usage and style. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 512. ISBN 0618604995. http://books.google.com/?id=xb6ie6PqYhwC. 
  5. ^ Painter, Nell Irvin. Yale University. "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" 2003. September 27, 2007. [1]
  6. ^ Blumenbach, Johann. "The Anthropological Treatise of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach." London: Longman Green, 1865.
  7. ^ a b Deniker, Joseph. The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography C. Scribner's Sons: New York, 1900. ISBN 0-8369-5932-9
  8. ^ [The End of Racism by Dinesh D'Souza, pg 124]
  9. ^ Gobineau, Arthur (1915). The Inequality of Human Races. Putnam. ISBN 0865274304. http://books.google.com/?id=JeM_1BCeffAC. Retrieved 2007-10-18. 
  10. ^ DiPiero, Thomas. White Men Aren't gid/s work Duke University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8223-2961-1
  11. ^ Huxley, Thomas, On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind. 1870. August 14, 2006.
  12. ^ James Dallas, "On the Primary Divisions and Geographical Distributions of Mankind", 1886 Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, p.304-30. James describes this as "equivalent to Professor Huxley's Mongoloid division" and as encompassing "Mongols and American Indians"
  13. ^ a b c d e Augustus Henry Keane. (1882). Asia. Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel For General Reading. London.
  14. ^ a b Boas, F. (1940). Race, language, and culture. New York: Macmillan.
  15. ^ a b Futuyma, Douglas A. Evolutionary Biology. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 1983. p. 520
  16. ^ California State University, Chico. "University Catalog." September 28, 2007. 2003.[2]
  17. ^ Lederer Roger J. Ecology and Field Biology. Cummings Publishing Company: California, 1984. ISBN 0-8053-5718-1 p.129
  18. ^ a b Forbes, J.D. (1998). KENNEWICK MAN:A LEGAL HISTORICAL ANALYSIS. American Indian Review.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Niskanen, M. (2002).The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View. Mankind Quarterly Volume XLIII Number 2, Winter.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  21. ^ Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. (2006). Presentation entitled "Genes and Languages." (an exerpt from Genes, Peoples, and Languages. (2001). Penguin Press. pp. 133-172.) Marges Linguistiques.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Lahr, M. M. (1995), Patterns of modern human diversification: Implications for Amerindian origins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 38: 163–198. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330380609
  23. ^ a b Chiba, H. et al. (2004). Lack of HTLV-I Carriers in the Sami, an Ethnic Group Living in the Arctic Area in Norway. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 5, 50-53.
  24. ^ Bellwood, Peter. Pre-History of the Indo-malaysian Archipelago. Australian National University:1985. ISBN 978-1-921313-11-0
  25. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Takeru; see Help:Cite errors/Cite error references no text
  26. ^ Huxley, Thomas. Collected Essays of Thomas Huxley: Man's Place in Nature and Other Kessinger Publishing: Montana, 2005. ISBN 1-4179-7462-1
  27. ^ Coon, Carleton S. The Races of Europe. Greenwood: USA, 1972 ISBN 0-8371-6328-5 p.2
  28. ^ a b c Coon, Carleton S. The Origin of the Races. Knopf: Michigan, 1962. ISBN 0-394-30142-0
  29. ^ Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari (1998). Race and Human Evolution: A Fatal Attraction. Westview Press. ISBN 0813335469. http://books.google.com/?id=gjYvEunARoYC. 
  30. ^ Bhasin, M.K. (2006). "Genetics of Caste and Tribes of India: Indian Population Milieu". Int J Hum Genet (Kamla Raj) 6 (3): 244. http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/IJHG/IJHG-06-0-000-000-2006-Web/IJHG-06-3-177-280-2006-Abst-PDF/IJHG-06-3-233-274-2006-000-Bhasin-M-K/IJHG-06-3-233-274-2006-000-Bhasin-M-K-Text.PDF. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  31. ^ Peter Brown (1999). "The First Modern East Asians? another Look at Upper Cave 101, Liujiang, and Minatogawa". K. Omoto (ed.) Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Origins of the Japanese, International Research Center for Japanese Studies: Kyoto. Department of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology, University of New England. pp. 105–130. http://www-personal.une.edu.au/~pbrown3/brown99.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  32. ^ Yali Xue,*,†,‡ Tatiana Zerjal,*,‡ Weidong Bao,‡,§ Suling Zhu,‡,§ Qunfang Shu,§ Jiujin Xu,§ Ruofu Du,§ Songbin Fu,† Pu Li,† Matthew E. Hurles,* Huanming Yang** and Chris Tyler-Smith*,‡,1 (2006). "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times". Genetics Society of America. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.054270. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/172/4/2431.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  33. ^ a b Juan Frijolé Reixach. (2008). Las Razas Humanas: El Origen del Hombre los Pueblos de África, Oceanía y Asia Oriental. Instituto Gallach: Barcelona, España. ISBN 84-494-0794-X
  34. ^ a b Howells, William W. (1997). Getting here: the story of human evolution. ISBN 0-929590-16-3
  35. ^ Wilkenson, Caroline. Forensic Facial Reconstruction. Cambridge University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-521-82003-0
  36. ^ Ong. R.G. Evaluation of bone density in the mandibles of young Australian adults of Mongoloid and Caucasoid descent. PubMed. 1999. Accessed September 10, 2008. [3]
  37. ^ a b c Louis Robert Sullivan, Edward Winslow Gifford, Will Carleton McKern. (1921). A contribution to Samoan somatology. Bishop Museum Press: Hawaii.
  38. ^ a b Wu, R. (1959). Human Fossils Found in Liukiang, Kwangsi, China. Vertebrata Palasiatica. 3(3).
  39. ^ MD Shunsuke Yuzurihaa, Staff Surgeon, MD, PhD Kiyoshi Matsuo, Professor and Chairman and MD Hideo Kushimaa, Staff Surgeon. An anatomical structure which results in puffiness of the upper eyelid and a narrow palpebral fissure in the Mongoloid eye. British Journal of Plastic Surgery Volume 53, Issue 6, September 2000, Pages 466-472 doi:10.1054/bjps.2000.3387 |
  40. ^ a b c Schurr, Theodore G. (2011). Mapping Mongolia: Situating Mongolia in the World from Geologic Time to the Present. University of Pennysylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Pennsylvania. ISBN 1-934536-18-0
  41. ^ Dawber R.P.R. (1997). Diseases of the head and scalp (3rd ed.). Virginia:Blackwell Science Ltd.
  42. ^ Trotter, M. (1938), A review of the classifications of hair. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 24: 105–126. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330240131
  43. ^ Duggins, O. H., Trotter, M. and Coon, C. S. (1959), Hair from a Kadar woman of India. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 17: 95–98. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330170203
  44. ^ Hrdy, D. (1973), Quantitative hair form variation in seven populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 39: 7–17. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330390103
  45. ^ a b Haydenblit, R. (1996), Dental variation among four prehispanic Mexican populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 100: 225–246. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199606)100:2<225::AID-AJPA5>3.0.CO;2-W
  46. ^ Robert B. Pickering, David Bachman. (2009). The Use of Forensic Anthropology (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6877 pp. 83
  47. ^ a b Hernández, M., Fox, C. L. and Garcia-Moro, C. (1997), Fueguian cranial morphology: The adaptation to a cold, harsh environment. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103: 103–117. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199705)103:1<103::AID-AJPA7>3.0.CO;2-X
  48. ^ Franz Boas. (1905). Anthropometry of central California. Harvard University: New York.
  49. ^ Aleš Hrdlička. 1906. Contribution to the physical anthropology of California. Berkley University Press.
  50. ^ Worthington, Elsie. North American Indian Life: Customs and Traditions of 23 Tribes. University of Nebraska Press: USA, 1967. ISBN 0-486-27377-6 p. 7
  51. ^ Sleeboom, Margaret. Academic Nations in China and Japan. Routledge: UK, 2004. ISBN 0-415-31545-X p.56
  52. ^ a b c Hudson, Mark J. (1999). Ruins of identity: ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands
  53. ^ Arnold Henry Savage Landor (1970). Alone with the hairy Ainu: or, 3.800 miles on a pack saddle in Yezo and a cruise to the Kurile islands
  54. ^ a b c d Montagu, Ashley. Growing Young. Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 1989 ISBN 0-89789-167-8
  55. ^ Moxon, Steve. The Eternal Child: An Explosive New Theory of Human Origins and Behaviour by Clive Bromhall Ebury Press, 2003. [4]
  56. ^ a b Grossinger, Richard. Embryogenesis. Published by North Atlantic Books, 2000 ISBN 1-55643-359-X
  57. ^ a b Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Real Eve. Published by Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003 ISBN 0-7867-1192-2
  58. ^ Vilhjalmur Stefansson My Life with the Eskmo (1922)
  59. ^ Retrieved June 16, 2011, from http://air.lib.akita-u.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10295/868
  60. ^ Yuji Takasaki, Steven F. Loy and Hans W. Juergens “Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Size”. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science Vol. 22; 233-235 (2003) .
  61. ^ a b Joseph K. So. Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones. Annual Review of Anthropology. Vol. 9, (1980), pp. 63-82
  62. ^ a b c d Steegmann, A. T. and Platner, W. S. (1968), Experimental cold modification of cranio-facial morphology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 28: 17–30. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330280111
  63. ^ a b Beals, K. L. (1972), Head form and climatic stress. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 37: 85–92. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.1330370111
  64. ^ Nei, M. (1985). Human Evolution at the Molecular Level. Population Genetics and Molecular Evolution. Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo. pp. 44-64.
  65. ^ a b 斎藤成也 Naruya, S. Kyushu Museum. 2002. February 2, 2007
  66. ^ a b Roberts, D.F., Fujiki, N. and Torizuka, N. (1992). Isolation, Migration and Health. 33rd Symposium Volume of the Society for Study of Human Biology.
  67. ^ Rao, N.A. (1998). The Indian Heritage. Universities Press (India) Limited. Page 51. ISBN 8173711283.
  68. ^ a b c d e f Malyarchuk, B.A., M. A. Perkova, & Derenko, M.V. (2008). On the Origin of Mongoloid Component in the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Slavs. Russian Journal of Genetics, 44(3), pp. 344–349. ISSN 1022-7954.
  69. ^ Orekhov, V. et al. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in Russians. In FEBS Letters. 445(1). pp. 197-201. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00115-5
  70. ^ Shtrunov, A. (2010. The origin of haplogroup I1-M253 in Eastern Europe. The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1, №2, ISSN: 1920-2989
  71. ^ TAJIMA Atsushi, PAN I.-Hung, FUCHAROEN Goonnapa, FUCHAROEN Supan, MATSUO Masafumi, TOKUNAGA Katsushi, JUJI Takeo, HAYAMI Masanori, OMOTO Keiichi, HORAI Satoshi, "Three major lineages of Asian Y chromosomes: implications for the peopling of east and southeast Asia," Human Genetics 2002, vol. 110, no1, pp. 80-88
  72. ^ a b c d e f g Nei, M. & Roychoudhury, A.K. (1997). The emergence and dispersal of Mongoloids. Indian Journal of Anthrop. Soc. 32:01-49.
  73. ^ a b c d Nei, M. & Roychouhdury, A.K. (1993). Evolutionary Relationships of Human Populations on a Global Scale. Mol. Bio. Evol. 10(5):927-943
  74. ^ a b c Satoshi Horai and Kenji Hayasaka. (1990). Intraspecific Nucleotide Sequence Differences in the Major Noncoding Region of Human Mitochondrial DNA. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46:828-842
  75. ^ Sung‐Soo Hong, Satoshi Horai & Chung‐Choo Lee. (2010). Distribution of the 9‐bp deletion in COII/ tRNALys intergenic region of mitochondrial DNA is relatively homogeneous in EastAsian populations Korean Journal of Biological Sciences.
  76. ^ O'Neil, Dennis. Palomar College. "Biological Anthropology Terms." 2006. May 13, 2007. [5]
  77. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/first/gill.html Does Race Exist? A proponent's perspective by George W. Gill.
  78. ^ American Heritage Book of English Usage. Houghton Mifflin Company. 1996. <http://www.bartleby.com/64/C006/046.html#Mongoloid>.
  79. ^ Ward, Connor O. John Langson Down the man and the message. 2006. August 26, 2006



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • mongoloid — MONGOLOÍD, Ă, mongoloizi, de, s.m. şi f., adj. 1. s.m. şi f. (La pl.) Denumirea uneia dintre cele trei mari rase omeneşti, răspândită în Asia centrală, Asia de est şi de sud est; (şi la sg.) persoană care aparţine acestei rase. 2. adj. Care… …   Dicționar Român

  • Mongoloid — ► ADJECTIVE 1) relating to the broad division of humankind including the indigenous peoples of east Asia, SE Asia, and Arctic North America. 2) (mongoloid) offensive affected with Down s syndrome. ► NOUN ▪ a person of a Mongoloid physical type.… …   English terms dictionary

  • mongoloid — in reference to the genetic defect causing mental retardation (mongolism), 1899, from MONGOLOID (Cf. Mongoloid). So called for facial appearance. See DOWN S SYNDROME (Cf. Down s Syndrome). Such people were called Mongolian from 1866 …   Etymology dictionary

  • Mongoloid — [mäŋ′gəloid΄, män′gəloid΄] adj. 1. var. of MONGOLIAN 2. designating or of one of the major geographical varieties of human beings, including most of the peoples of Asia, the Eskimos, the North American Indians, etc., who are generally… …   English World dictionary

  • Mongoloid — „Mongoloid“ bzw. „Mongolismus“ ist ein veralteter Begriff für Träger des Down Syndroms, der aufgrund des diskriminierenden bis beleidigenden Beiklangs nicht benutzt werden sollte. John Langdon Down gab 1862 der von ihm zuerst beschriebenen und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mongoloid — Mon go*loid, a. [Mongol + oid.] Resembling a Mongol or the Mongols; having race characteristics, such as color, hair, and features, like those of the Mongols. Huxley. [1913 Webster] 2. Of, related to, or affected with, {Down syndrome}; not a… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Mongoloid — Mon go*loid, n. A person affected with {Down syndrome}; not a technical term. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • mongolòīd — m 〈G mongoloída〉 med. onaj koji boluje od mongolizma …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • Mongoloid — 1868 as a racial designation, from MONGOL (Cf. Mongol) + OID (Cf. oid) …   Etymology dictionary

  • mongoloid — mongolòīd m <G mongoloída> DEFINICIJA med. onaj koji boluje od mongolizma ETIMOLOGIJA v. Mongolija, Mongol + oid …   Hrvatski jezični portal