Kutch Gurjar Kashtriya


Kutch Gurjar Kashtriya
Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya a.k.a. Mistris of Kutch
Total population
51,000[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
 India
Languages

Gujarati, Kutchi

Religion

Hindu 100% •

Related ethnic groups

• Kadia Kshatriyas, Mistri, Gurjar Kshatriyas, Kadia

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas (Gujarati: કચ્છ ગુર્જર ક્ષત્રિય) or Mistris of Kutch or Kadia Kshatriyas of Kutch, are a Hindu community of the Kutch District of Gujarat state in India. They are a group of various Kshatriya or Rajput clans who were bound together by their artistic and master craftsman skills in constructing forts, temples, palaces, ornate decorations, idols and other buildings and statues that led to them being referred to as Mistri[3][4][5] by the Portuguese.[6] This term was later used to refer to them as a separate caste known as the Mistri (Gujarati: મીસ્ત્રી) a.k.a. Mistris of Kutch.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas (KGK) are a branch of Kadia Kshatriya, or Gurjar Kshatriyas, of Saurashtra who migrated to Dhaneti, Kutch, and were later granted eighteen or nineteen villages by the rulers of Kutch.[7] They were famous designers and developers of many historic monuments of Kutch forts, temples, dams, bridges and railways in Undivided India.[8]

Contents

History

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas (KGK) are a group of Rajput, or Kshatriya clans, who migrated from Rajasthan in early 7th century AD.[7][8][13]

Paliyas belonging to war heroes of Mistris of Kutch, standing at Dhaneti dating back to 1178 AD

Kadia Kshatriyas first entered into Saurashtra in 7th century onwards and settled in various places in Saurashtra where they founded thirty-six villages. Some of them also moved further into Kutch from the 7th century onwards but around 1177–78 AD (V.S. 1234) a major group of this warrior clan migrated to Kutch under the leadership of Patel Ganga Maru entered Kutch (or Kachchh) from Saurashtra and settled in a village named Dhaneti after a battle that they named Dhaneti[5][7][8][14][15][16]("Dhanetu" in Gujarati means "sudden, spontaneous war").[6] There are several Parias of the community, located near village pond of Dhaneti, standing as mute witness to war that was fought in 1178 AD. The community members still go once every year to offer pooja and their respects to their fore-fathers.[6]

This group, later, made their distinct identity not only by building historical forts, palaces, temples and architects in Kutch but also all over British India primarily in the fields of Railways and Coal Mining.[2][8][9][10]

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas left Dhaneti and went on to establish nineteen villages in Kutch which were granted to them by the King: Anjar, Sinugra, Khambhra, Nagalpar, Khedoi, Madhapar, Hajapar, Kukma, Galpadar, Reha, Vidi, Ratnal, Jambudi, Devaliya, Lovaria, Nagor, Meghpar, Chandiya and Kumbharia.[7][8][17][18]

Madhapar was named after its founder Madha Kanji Solanki who moved from the Dhaneti village to Madhapar in 1473–1474 AD (V.S. 1529). Madha Kanji was a descendant of the Solanki dynasty of Gujarat.[7][19][20]

Eleven of the villages are around Anjar. The area is plain and in general called "Ugamna Pat" (literally meaning villages to the east). Seven villages were located in "Dungaral Pat" (meaning area of small mountains).[7] Meghpar on the Anjar-Galpadar Road was founded by the Mistri community before Khedoi in the "Ugamna Paat". Thus all together they formed the "Nineteen Villages of Mistris".[5]

Bhuvad Village in Anjar Taluka was established by Piyu Chawda and Bhuvad Chawda of Chawda clan of their Community but they also moved to other villages like Devaliya, Chandiya and Galpadar.[5][7] The Taunk clan also initially settled in Bhuvad but later moved to other villages such as Sinugra and Kukma. The Shenoi village was founded by the Rathors, Wegads, Parmars and Yadavs. The Wegad clan later moved to Anjar, the Parmar mainly to Anjar, Kukma, Hajapar and Lovaria. The Yadavs moved to Hajapar and the Rathods to Kukma, Kumbharia, Reha, Khedoi and Nagalpar. Khodiyars and Chudasamas settled in Anjar, Sawarias in Kumbharia, Vaghelas in Reha, Varus in Hajapar and Jambudi, Padhiyars in Anjar, Gohils in Anjar and Sinugra, Jethwas in Ratnal, Nagalpar and Anjar, Chauhans to Reha, Nagor, Kukma and Kumbharia, Solankis in Madhapar, Jambudi, Vidi, Meghpar and Kukma, Bhalsod to Khambhra, Marus to Devaria and Meghpar. Chauhans, Parmar and Rathod founded Ratnal but later moved out of it. A branch of Chawda also founded the Medai Village of Kutch but later most of them moved to Devaliya and Chandiya. Some families of Chawda, Chauhan and Parmar clans traveled further down and founded Galpadar. Thus a total of twenty-three villages were established in Kutch. Further old records of Bhats reveal that many families belonging to clans of Gohil, Bhatti, Solanki, Jethwa, Rathor and Bharadwa and Visavaria (last two are Brahmin Caste) also settled in Mandvi in the 14th century onwards and later also Bhuj in the beginning of the 16th century moving there from Dhaneti.[5][6][18]

Besides Dhaneti the, Parias of KGK or Mistris are also found in large numbers in the outskirts of Anjar, especially within the compound wall of Samadhi of Jesal-Toral in Anjar city. The Parias of Dadas and Sati of Jethwa, Rathor, Khodiyar, Chudasama and Savaria clans are within the Jesal-Toral Temple campus.[6]

Parias of the community can also be found at Dabda within temple premises of Kapadi Saint Jai Raja Kapadi and the Deri of Sati Lalu Ma of Nagalpar is found in this temple.[6]

Parias of Satis and Dadas of Solanki, Parmar and Chawda clans of the KGK can be also found in Devaria, Kachchh. The Paria of Poria Jethwa, who arrived from royal lineage of Jethwa dynasty of Porbandar are in Dhaneti. Dada of Chauhan of Khambhra is found within Samadhi and the temple of Chauhan Ajepal Dada of Anjar.[6]

Anjar today is a densely populated town and two blocks known as "Motu Faliu" and "Devani Faliu" were the areas which were the foundation of the Mistri community.[18] There were artistic and ornately decorated Havelis in these area of the city belonging to rich families of the community, most of which have been destroyed in earthquake of 2001. Similar Haveli or houses can be seen in the nineteen villages founded by them.[5][6]

Over the centuries, they have been known or identified by different names like Mistri, Mistry, Mistris of Kutch, Kutchi Contractor, Kadia, Kadia Kshatriyas, Gurjar Kshatriyas, Kumar Gnati, Kutch Gurjar Kshatiryas, Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj, KGK Samaj, Kgk community, etc.[5][6][8][11]

Some of the Rajput Clans belonging to their group have been the Rulers of Kutch, beginning with Chauhan Ajepal of the Chauhan dynasty. This was followed by the Solanki, Kathis, Vaghelas, Chawdas[5][6][14][20][21] and finally the Jadeja dynasty came to rule Kutch until the independence of India.

Religion, language, diet and customs

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas (KGK), or Mistris of Kutch, is a Hindu community and believers in Hindu, or Vedic, rites and customs. They are Vegetarian and abstain from alcohol.

The KGK community, in general, speaks Gujarati, unlike many other Kutchi communities as they migrated from the Saurashtra region. They celebrate new year on the day after Diwali, as celebrated by most of Gujarati people. Many words of Kutchi language have entered in their Gujarati language and similarly various Kutchi traditions and customs, like celebration of the Kutchi New Year, since their migration to the Kutch region.

Members of this community also worship their Kuldevta and pay respects to the Paliyas of their Dadas and Deris of their Satis.

The majority of the community are followers of Santana Dharama and worship Hindu Gods such as Ram, Vishnu, Krishna, Shiva, Ganeshji, Hanumanji, Durga, Lakshmi and Saraswati. In all the nineteen villages you can find the temples of these Hindu gods built centuries ago. Among these the Thakor Mandir of Kukma, Sinugra, Chandiya, Madhapar, Nagalpar and Khambhra are famous for their intricate craftsmanship and beautiful carvings of gods and goddesses.[22]

Many of them are also followers of Ramdev Pir (1352–1385 AD), whose Samadhi is at Ramdevra (or Ranuja) near Pokhran in the Jaiselmer District of Rajasthan, whom they consider their Eesht Dev. is also said to have traveled to Kutch on pilgrimage during his life-time. Ramdev Pir was never worshiped as Eshta dev by KGK community but is worshiped by some families like most of the population of Kutch.

One member of their community named Mistri Kanji was one of the five disciples of Kapadi Sant Mekan Dada. Mekan Dada (1666–1729 AD) (V.S. 1723–1786) established himself in his later life at Dhrang in 1786 AD. He and his disciples and animal friends, Motiyo the dog and Laliyo the donkey, are well known for the humanitarian services to the lost and hungry travelers in Rann of Kutch. He later took a live Samadhi in Vikram Samvant 1729 AD along with his five disciples, one of who was Kadia Kanji. Many families in Kutch are followers of this Kapadi Samparadaya which is a very old religious sect dating back to the time of Rama whose temples, Ashrams and Akhara are located in various places in Kutch — mainly at Bikhla, Jangi, Lodai, Dhrang, Vandhay and Dabada.[6]

Many people of the community started to follow the Pushtimarg sect of Hinduism founded by Vallabha Acharya in early 1500 AD. They worship Shrinathji, a seven-year-old child-deity form of Shri Krishna. This sect had spread into Gujarat by the first quarter of the 16th century.[6]

Many families of this community are followers of Pranami Sampraday – an off-shoot of Hindu religion, who worship Lord Krishna in his child-form known as Bal-Swaroop or Bal-Goapal. This sect of Hinduism came to prominence in Gujarat in early 17th century around 1630s.[6]

With the advent of Swaminarayan Sampraday in Kutch during 1810-1820s many families of the KGK community adopted Swaminarayan Religion and they were instrumental in construction of Swaminarayan Mandir and Dharamshalas in some of the nineteen villages including Anjar, Kumbharia, Madhapar and Sinugra where there were large numbers of followers.[6] Further, a saint of their community, Shri Narayana Mistri, was also responsible for conversion of even many Kanbis and Patidar in to Swaminarayan Sect in Kutch.[23]

A person of their community from Kukma became Sanyasi in decade of 1870s and was named as Sant Garib Dashji by his Guru Iswar Ramji. He established Sant Garibdasji Ashram in Kukma. This Gadi is follower of Ramanandi sect of Haridwar. Sant Garib Dasji was followed by Sant Bhan Dasji and Sadhu Vashudevji is heading the Gadi at present in 2011. All the three successors to the Gadi are saints are from their community. Further, Gadi in Vandhay village of same sect was founded by Sadhu Val Dasji also a saint of their community from village Kukma.

Though the different families independently worshiped different gods their core identity remained the same as Kshatriyas and Hindu and all of them always remained in unison and bound to their historical identity of KGK and inter-married only within these nineteen villages, irrespective of which god or goddess and sect the other family followed.[6]

Marriage is only permitted with a girl whose surname and Kuldevi differ from that of boy's family. The community in other words are an endogamous community who practice the principle of clan exogamy. However, in present circumstances, they have become liberal as far as endogamy is concerned but clan exogamy is still strictly followed when marriages are fixed within the community.[6]

During historic times every village had a head, often called "Gaam Na Patel". That is similar to the Sarpanch of recent times.

Head of all nineteen villages, and so the whole community, was elected every few years. This head was titled "Patel" or "Naat na Patel". It was an honorary title and the head-man used "Patel" before their name, which is not to be confused with the Patel surname commonly found in Gujarat.[6]

The community was called "Gnati" or "Naat" and community gatherings were called "Moti-Naat". The Patel was also head of the judicial body of five people called "Panch", members of which were elected by the community. The decisions given by this "Moti-Naat" and "Panch" were considered final in case of any dispute regarding partition of property, marriage, divorce, etc. and the whole community used to abide by their decisions.[6]

Surnames

These groups of warriors consisted of various Kshatriya clans such as the Jethwa, Chawda/Chawra/Chaora, Rathor/Rathore/Rathod, Chauhan/Chouhan/Chowhan, Maru, Varu, Vaghela, Sawaria/Savaria/Sarvaiyas, Chudasama, Solanki, Parmar, Khodiyar, Padhiyar, Yadav, Bhansod/Bhalsod, Tank/Taunk, Gohil, Vadher/Wadher, Wegad/Vegad, Makwana, Bhatti. There is a list of surnames in the books of the Barot caste, noted at the time of 1179 AD in the chronicles and since re-printed in the book Kumar Gnati History (1896).[5][7][8] When Dhaneti was founded Rao Raydhan-Ratna ruled Kutch, as per community documents.[5] The names of their Kuldevis differ as per their clan surname.[15]Patel and Seth/Sheth were honorary titles given used by community persons and not their original surnames, although descendants of persons given such titles later adopted them as their surname.[6]

They have idols ('Farias') of their Kuldevi or Tutelary deity in the nineteen villages established by them. The names of their Kuldevis are Chamunda Maa, Brahmani Maa, Sikotar Maa, Khodiyar Maa, Peethal Maa, Chawal Maa, Boot Bhawani Maa, Bahuchar Maa, Kalika Mata, Randal Mata, Oomay Mata, Mahmay Maa and Varuhi Mata.[5][6]

Contributions to the architecture and history of Kutch

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas were also master craftsmen, architects and contractors and have played a major role in erection and construction of the majority of forts, palaces and architecture of Kutch. It was because of this quality that around the mid 16th century they came to be known as Mistri in Kutch.

The word Mistri (or Mistry) means "skilled artisan" in Gujarati and was adopted into Gujarati language from Portuguese mestre meaning "master" or "expert".[3][4] The Portuguese were present in Gujarat from around 1500 AD and the Battle of Diu was fought in 1509 where the Portuguese later built Diu Fort. They also acknowledged the expertise of Kadia Kshatriyas in building fortress and called them mestre. Even the Muslim rulers accepted the expertise of the Kadia or Kadia Kshatriyas and were always sought after for building forts and fortress. The community was also known to travel far and wide for building such forts, palaces, etc. Their original roots, as said earlier, was in Rajasthan and these group of Rajput or Kshatriyas were the people who were patronized by Kings for their ability of design fort building with members of the community holding the post of Gaidher or Raj Mistry.[5][14]

Not only the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistri community were expert and specialized in stone cutting and construction of forts, palaces, temples and buildings but they were also skilled architects and artisans who could do articulate carvings of doors, windows, pillars, and statues of gods and goddesses and ceilings.[9][10] They have been the main engineers of almost all historical monuments of the Princely State of Cutch.[22] They have been involved in construction of forts of Tera, Kanthkot, Bhujia Fort and fortification of towns of Anjar, Mandvi, Lakhpat and Rapar.

A Chabutro built by Seth Khora Ramji Chawda in year 1900 standing at village Sinugra, shows the unique architect and skill of Mistris of Kutch. Such huge Chabutra are rare to be found in whole of India

The KGK community were major land holders and Jagirdars (or Garasdars) in Kutch from many centuries. They also farmed and maintained large land-holdings with Vadis and Khetars in and around the nineteen villages they settled. They were once a prosperous community and there was a proverb in Kutch "Mafa-vara Gada to Mistri-na-j hoy" meaning "Such decorated bullock-carts/camel-carts can only belong to Mistri community".[6]

The temple of Ashapura Mata at Mata no Madh, the Kuldevi of Jadeja Rulers of Kingdom of Kutch has been built by Mistri community.[22][24] Similarly, the Temple at Dhrang over the Samadhi of Mekan Dada and Akhara were also erected by craftsman of the Mistri community.[6] The renovation and reconstruction of Bhadreshwar Jain Temples, Koteshwar Mahadev Temple, and Narayan Sarovar Temples, Mata-no-Madh; after devastating earthquakes of 1819, 1844–45 and 1875 all have been done by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas.[6][22] The famous Chhatri of Rao Lakhpatji in Bhuj built in eighteenth century in 1761 AD and Chhatris of other royal family members have been built by this community.[6]

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas community 'Gaidher' Jagmal Pitamber of Anjar was Gaidher of the Kutch Raaj in the middle of 17th century, "Gadh" meant that the forts of Bhuj, Anjar, Mandvi, Lakhpat and Mundra were erected and constructed under supervision of "Gaidher" Jagmal Pitamber with help of other Mistris of the nineteen villages.[22] The community also built other historic forts such as Lakhpat and Sindri Fort. The Lakhpat Gurudwara built by them in the 17th century resembles the houses in their villages.[6] The beautiful carvings of elephants, idols, pillars and wooden ceilings in the Gurudwara housing are similar to those found in the Thakor Mandir of their villages in Sinugra, Chandiya, Madhapar and architecture of Gurudwara, similar to their houses in their villages.[6]

The famous Aaina Mahal of Bhuj was built around 1750 during the reign of Jadeja King, Rao Lakhpatji (1741–1761). The main architect of the palace was Ramsinh Malam who had spent seventeen years in Holland and Belgium learning the techniques of making clocks, enameling, tiles, architecture and glass works. Rao Lakhpatji appointed him as main architect for Aaina Mahal. The Kadias of Kutch worked with him in on Aaina Mahal quickly grasped the art of making tiles, tiling, enameling and stained glass works and later used these techniques in building other palaces and majestic houses of their own.[6]

Third in line of succession to Jagmal Pitamber was his son Ruda Gajdhar Jagmal and later his son Jairam Ruda Gajadhar Rathod, who became Gaidher in the reign of Maharao Shree Pragmalji II of Kutch who built Prag Mahal in Bhuj in 1865 to 1878 AD (V.S. 1922 to 1935).[22] The main designer of Prag Mahal was the British architect Colon Wilikins, who designed it in the Italian Gothic style and the Kadias of Kutch worked with him in its construction. Started by Rao Pragmalji, who died in 1875, the construction was completed by his son Maharao Shree Khengarji Bawa in 1878.[6][25] His Assistant Engineer was "Giadher" Devshi Gova of Khedoi. Maharo Shree Pragmalji and later Maharao Shree Khengarji Bawa held special affection for Gaidher Jairam Ruda and the Mistris of the nineteen villages were hired on the recommendation of Gaidher. the Alfred High School, the Fergusson Museum, library, embankment of Hamirsar Lake, Aara Ghat in Bhuj, were all constructed during the reign of Maharao Shree Pragmalji when Gaidher Jairam Ruda of Anjar was the Gaidher for the State.[6][22] Also the Mistris were involved in construction of Sharad Baag Palace of Bhuj built in 1867 commissioned during the reign of Rao Dashalji II in 1859–60 and completed during the reign (1860–1875) of Rao Pragmalji II.

Mistri Kanji Gova Rathod of Khedoi was Gaidher in the court of Gagubha, the Darbar of Kothara, from 1855 to 1895 and the Jain Dersar (now famous as one of Abdasa-ni-Panchtirthi), the Derasar of Kothara and other Palaces of Kothara Darbar were built under the supervision of Mistri Kanji Gova of Khedoi with help of other Mistris of the nineteen villages in 1858. The other Jain temples of Naliya, Tera, Jakhau and Surthi also have been built by artisans of Mistri community of Kutch, along with their counterparts from Saurashtra.[6][22]

The Brother of Kanji Gova, Mistri Ruda Gova Rathod of Khedoi was also the Gaidher, who constructed in Nagalpar, the beautifully carved Dargah of Hussain Pir Shah also known as the Aga Khani Kubo of the Khoja community, which was inaugurated by Hasan Ali Shah, the Aga Khan I him-self. Ruda Gova Rathod of Khedoi started construction in 1860 and completed it in about five years.[6][22]

The Mistris of Kutch were also involved in construction and erection of Vijay Vilas Palace built on sea-beach of Mandvi by Khengarji III of Kutch, as summer palace for his son and yuvraj Vijayaraji. The carved stone works of Jalis, Jharokas, Chhatris, Chhajas, murals and many other artistic stone carvings, colored glass work on windows and door panels all have been done by them, an art in which they were expert. The architect and craftsman from other places like Jaipur, Rajasthan, Bengal and Saurashtra, were also involved. The construction started in 1920 completed in 1929.[6][26]

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have also built and donated funds for religious and charitable purposes building temples as well as hospitals and building schools in Kutch, as well throughout various places in India. All early Mandir and other infrastructure like Chhabutaro, Dharamsalas, Welcome Gate, rest houses, etc. in their nineteen villages are built by them.[6][22]

The Sanatan Thakor Mandir, the Juna Vaas and many new infrastructures at Madhapar were built by Mistris of the village. Renovation work and expansion of the Suralbhit – Jadeshwar Mahadev Temple near Bhuj was done by Mistris Manji Jeram Rathod and Valji Bhimji Rathod of Madhapar Village in 1914 (V.S. 1971) financed by Maharao Sri Khengarji Bawa of Kutch. In year 1943 (V.S. 2000) Manji Jairam Rathod of Madhapar again did the renovation of Suralbhit – Jadeshwar Temple. The Step-wells near Dhorava Hanuman Temple were built by Mistri Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar in 1927 from his personal finance. Mistri Valji Bhimji Rathod of Madhapar was among the few persons who, apart from Royal family, owned a car by special permission of the King of Kutch.[6][19]

Besides being in construction works Mistris were also entrepreneurs and many of them owned fleets of ships used to import and export dry fruits and spices as well as trading in Muscat, Mombasa, Mzizima, Zanzibar and other countries. Notable among them were Seth Raja Narayan Chawda of Kumbharia, Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Kachrani Varu of Anjar and Jairam Teja Chawda of Sinugra in 1880–1900.[6]

Mistris were a major revenue earner for the Princely State of Cutch. Besides being major land holders jagirdars of Anjar, Bhuj and Mandvi Taluka of Kutch the majority of them worked as railway contractors and public works contractors in British India. They were paid in Indian Rupees which they bought to Kutch and converted into Kutchi currency (Koris). British Indian Rupees were paper currency and Kori were Silver Coins and on conversion the Koris had to be loaded into many bullock-carts and brought to the villages of the Mistris. The bullock carts were guarded by rifle and sword bearing guards from Bhuj to their houses. Many Mistris also kept Miyana as their guards. Many Miyana families were patronized by Mistirs and they were employed to work as guards for the whole village and also to work and look after their farmhouses and farms. KGK Community paid their tax on their huge income earned from Railway and other Contracts job to the Princely State of Cutch, instead of to British India and were therefore respected by the Jadeja kings of Kutch. Many families of the Mistri community held friendly relationships with the different Kings of Kutch.[6]

Many of them also worked as private bankers, notable among whom were Seth Khora Ramji Chawra of Sinugra, Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra, Seth Raja Narayan Chawda of Kumbharia, Jairam Teja Chawra of Sinugra, Patel Mandan Ramji Vegad of Anjar etc. Some of them were so rich that their children studied at the prestigious Rajkumar College, Rajkot and the Rajkumar College, Raipur between 1920 and 1950.[6]

Religious and Charitable contributions in Kutch

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas have also built and donated funds for religious and charitable purposes, building temples as well as hospitals and in field of child and girls education by building schools in Kutch as well through out various places in India. All early Mandir and other infrastructure like Chhabutaro, Dharamsalas, Welcome Gate, Rest Houses, etc. in their nineteen villages are built by them. A few examples are given below:-

At Anjar, the community had built famous Thakor Janraiji Temple of the town and this temple was patronized by them[14] till independence of India almost up to 1950s.[6] The temple was built by fore father of Gaidher Jairam Ruda Gajdhar Rathod.

Khoda Ramji started Primary School named Seth Khora Ramji Prathmik Shala in Sinugra in 1910. Bhimji Devji Rathod started Girls School in Madhapar. Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor built Boarding House for students in Bhuj in 1932. Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra and Dhanji Ratanji Rathod of Nagalpar built Boarding House and School in Anjar. A major donation for Anjar Boarding was also given Rai Sahib Narshi Bechar Khodiyar of Anjar and Kharagpur. Mistri community also helped to develop Ashrams of Dhrang and Vandhay in Kutch. Mistri community donated large sums of money to Sant Odhavramji of Vandhay, who started the first Gurukul of Kutch, named Ishwarramji Gurukul, in year 1937 and Blind School in 1938 both in Vandhai, Kutch. One of his disciple and the major donor was Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar.[6][22][27]

Swaminarayan Mandir in Kumbharia was built by Jivan Narayan Chauhan in 1868. He and his son Govamal Jeevan also built the village pond Dharamsalas, etc. in Kumbharia. The Swaminarayan Mandir of Madhapar, Sinugra, Anjar and Bhuj were also built or promoted with major donations from Mistri community during their founding years. The famous Thakor Mandir of Sinugra were built by Khoda Ramji Chawda and Brothers with Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra in 1895. The Chabutro, Jadeshwar Mahadev Temple, Harijan Vaas, were all built by Khora Ramji and brothers. Ramdev Pir temple built by Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra.[6][22][27]

The Hanuman Temple and Vaadi of Hajapar are built by Nanji Govindji Tank in 1920.[22]

At village Khambhra, Temples, Public Library, Balwadi, Chabutro, Harijan Vaas and more particularly the Dam with the check dams which could store water for the whole village for years in those drought prone ages were single-handedly designed, build and donated by Lira Raja Rathod (Bhalsod) son of Raja Ruda of Khambhra and Kolkata.[6]

Thakor Mandir at Nagalpar was built by Lira Valji Tank in 1920s. The Nagalpar welcome gate, Chabutro, Dargah of Hussain Pir all built by Mistri community.[22]

At Nagor, the Harijan Vaas, Temple, Public Garden, pond and 10 km long pucca road from Bhuj to Nagor was built and donated by Jagmal Raja.[22][26]

At Galpadar, the Bhagavan Ram Temple, Ramdev Pir Temple and Hanumanji Temple were all built by Nanji and Khubha Mavji Chavda.[28] The huge pond named Meghsar Talav and other old infrastructure at Galpadar is also built by Mistris of Village in late 19th century.[6]

Similarly, the big pond in outskirts of Kukma village and community halls, Hindu Temples were also built by the community. The primary school and exclusive Boarding house and Hostel for Girl students at Kukma were built Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas. The Sant Garibdasji Ashram Dharamshala at Kukma was built and donated by Mistri Ghela Pachan Parmar. The Mahadev Temple at Kukma was built and donated by Raja Ladhha and Ramji Lira and Mulji Ramji Rathor in 1934.[6]

The beautiful Thakor Mandir and Jadeshwar Mahadev Temple at Chandiya, Vidi, Meghpar, Jambudi, Lovaria were also built by them.[6]

In year 1940, Mavji Dahya Chauhan of Sinugra, who established himself as industrialist in Belur-Hassan, floated Nutan Kelvani Mandal, which started Balawadi and Kanya Shala in almost all 19 villages of the community.[29]

Immediately after the earthquake of July 21, 1956,[30] two Refugee camps (now known as Mistri Camp-1 and Mistri Camp-2)[6] for refugee relief were set up by the Mistri a.k.a. KGK Community in out-skirts of Anjar town, in which they later built small concrete housing blocks for the poor people, who had lost their house.[6]

The same camps again came to use for refugee relief operations at the time of massive earthquake that hit Kutch on January 26, 2001, when Anjar and adjoining villages of Sinugra, Khambhra, Nagalpar, Devaliya were totally devastated.[6][9][10][31][32][33] At the time of 2001 earthquake that devastated Kutch, the KGK Community residing in various States of India and abroad also rushed in reliefs and voluntary donations to help earthquake victims, with many people personally carrying medicines, clothes and monies in vans and trucks from Ahmedabad to far off places like Raipur and Dhanbad.[6]

Migration out of Kutch

The major migration of KGK, or Mistris, from Kutch began when the British started laying railway lines in India. The KGK community which had been skilled in construction works decided to move out of Kutch and try to adapt their skills to railway lines and allied constructions for which the British needed a skilled workforce. The community were expert in stone-cutting, lime-paste making and brick manufacturing as well as in the construction of buildings and forts for centuries and decided to cash in on these new opportunities as there was a dearth of new jobs and opportunities in Kutch. Kutch was also going through a famine in those years. The KGK made a major contribution to the history of Indian railways, laying railway lines through-out British India.

Many families of Mistris also migrated outside India to other British Colonies like Aden, East Africa, Zanzibar, South Africa, Fiji, Burma, Ceylon and the Maldives during the middle of 19th century. They were encouraged by the British as these countries lacked skilled persons. They have worked in building the Aden railway, the Ceylon Government Railway, for the Burma Railway Company, Sittang Valley State Railway, Mu Valley State Railway, Thaton-Duyinzaik Railway, Irrawaddy Valley State Railway, East African Railways Corporation, Uganda Railway and the South African Railways. Even today you can find their descendants living in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zanzibar, etc. Although at present many have moved out of East Africa and settled in the United Kingdom, the USA or have returned to India after the political uncertainty during 1960–80. This was especially true during the Zanzibar Revolution in the mid 1960s and during the rule of Idi Amin in Uganda.[6][27]

Contribution to Indian railways in British India and thereafter

It was during 1850 to 1930 AD that the KGK or Mistris of Kutch migrated outside Kutch and were involved in the construction of major rail-bridges and the laying down of railway tracks in almost all major rail routes of undivided British India doing the "Railway Thekedari" (Railway Contractors also Thikadari) and as Thekedar (or Thikadar)[34] in Irrigation projects and Forest Department and Public Works Department.[2] They have also done major roadway, road bridges, canal works, irrigation dams and barrage work through-out British India from 1850 to 1980. The communities largest contribution is in the building of the early railway lines and bridges throughout British India. Their families migrated out of Kutch and settled in various parts of India during these early years of railway construction. Their works in Railway construction span from 1850 to 1980 for more than one and a quarter of century.

Starting as small time masons in Railway Construction in decade of 1850 and later working as Sub-contractors or Agent to British Engineers, they rose to a level of First Class Railway Contractors by 1880. By 1900 they had established their Monopoly in various divisions of Railways through out North,South,East and West of British India and by 1920 they became masters in this field that many of them were given title of Rai Bahadur by British exclusively for their engineering feats in erection of Railway Bridges and laying lines in most difficult terrain. Their feats are amazing also because almost all of the early pioneering Mistri Contractors could only write in Gujarati and had hardly studied up to third standard in vernacular schools of their dusty villages, still they managed to build bridges and lay railway lines, which required scientific measurement and calculation and could manage to work and speak with British Railway Officers and Engineers.[6][22]

They preferred to work as a syndicate, where the railway contracts would be taken by them and sub-let to fellow Mistri contractors belonging to their 19 villages. Thus they held sway in many divisions of Railways in British India. There was dearth of skilled persons in India who were ready to work in difficult terrains of mountains and jungles due to the risk of being killed by diseases like malaria, cholera, plague and by wild animals or gangs of robbers and outlaws. The early British records of many railway companies have noted that many British engineers and labour resigned, left or even perished due to killer diseases like malaria, cholera and from the effects of the heat and sun while laying the railway lines. Working as a railway contractor in these early days meant staying away from home for many months, or even years. In these difficult circumstances the KGK were the pioneers, laying lines as far as Assam, Chittagong, Peshawar and Madras, thousands of miles away from their homes in Kutch. Before the arrival of the railways the main means of transport were horse-cart, bullock-cart or moving on foot. They used to travel with their families and children and there are many records of their children being born in remote jungles.[6]

The laying of the railways needed a lot of physical labor and stamina for jobs like leveling the earth, the cutting back of the jungle, blasting of mountain passes and cuttings, laying ballast along tracks and walking several of miles daily. Mechanical knowledge for track interlockings, switching, and advanced engineering calculations for building bridges and their arches and abutments, laying foundations in river beds, deep well-sinking, laying spans and many such technical jobs. Similarly they built the platforms, the station buildings, the station master's room, ticket counters, rest rooms and other facilities such as over-head water tanks, the digging of ponds nearby for an uninterrupted supply of water, building the signal cabin, rail yard and staff quarters.[6][22]

The railways needed an uninterrupted supply of bricks, boulders and lime-paste for building of the infrastructure in those early days between 1850 and 1900. The KGK also known as Chunaras (lime workers) for many decades,[35] cashed in on this opportunity and many of them started brickworks and lime-kilns in remote, forested and inaccessible areas of British India to supply the materials. The railways needed bricks of specific sizes and dimensions which were a little bigger and stronger than the ordinary bricks used in house construction. It should be noted here that in those days lime-paste was used for construction. The community were also expert in the art of stone cutting that they had inherited from their fore-fathers, who were masters at building forts. These cut-rocks have been used in most old bridges and platform buildings and can still be seen surviving today.[6]

In history of India, Mistris of Kutch are probably the only community, whose migration out of their home land Kutch, was attributed to construction of Railways in British era. This is a unique fact about association of Railways and Mistris of Kutch[6]

For further details, see page Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas contributions to the Indian railways.

Contributions in building docks, dams and canals in British India

The KGK have a major contribution to the building of docks, dams, barrages and irrigation canals during the years 1850–1980.

The first ports of Bombay were built during 1750 to 1760 and the people who worked in construction of Bombay Port and Hornby Vellard, which was built during years 1780–1830, were the Kamathis of South India, Sikars of Rajasthan, Mistris of Kutch and Kadias of Saurashtra. Other docks were developed in Bombay during 1870–1895 (Prince's Docks built in the year 1885 and Victoria Docks built in the year 1891[36]) in which many Mistris of Kutch and Kadia Kshatriyas of Saurahstra worked.[6][37][38]

In 1883 the Mandvi Port Docks and a bridge over the Rukmavati River at Mandvi were built by Vishram Karman Chawda of Chandiya. Details are mentioned in the book Ratna Bhagat ni Chopdi – 2nd Edition (1935) in an article by Jethalal V. Chawda. This bridge on the Rukmavati river is the longest stone bridge of its kind in India.[22][39][40]

Harji Jeevan Chauhan of Kumbharia built the docks for Karachi Port Trust in 1895–1898. The complete extension work of Karachi Docks was completed by him in three years.[22]

The Ken Canal works over Ken River in the Banda District for the Banda Public Works Department in 1907 was done by Ruda Raja Rathod of Khambhra.[22]

During the year 1912–1914, Mistris of Kutch also worked in construction of India's first syphen dam at Madamsilli Dam near Dhamtari. One major contractor was Vishram Raja of Khambhra.[6]

Similarly, during 1915–1920 Kalji Vasta Chauhan and Virji Ranchhod Chauhan of Sinugra built Khuntaghat Dam and canals on the Kharoong River 12 km from Ratanpur in the Central Province.[6]

In 1924 the extension of Calcutta Port Trust at Khiddirpore in Calcutta was made by building a new dock named the "King George Dockyard" and was done by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan with Bhimjee Pancha Chauhan and Mavji Punja Chauhan, all from Nagor. This work was completed in 1927and the dock has now been re-named as "Netaji Subhas Docks".[22]

Jairam Karsan Chauhan of Nagor, stationed at Sambalpur, was one of the major contractors who worked in construction of the Hirakud Dam, construction of which started in 1948 and was completed in 1957.[22]

In year 1956, when construction of Tawa Dam began on Tawa River near Hoshangabad, one of the major Contractor for the work was Mavji Ruda Chawra of Madhapar, who was son of Late Rai Sahib Ruda Laddha Chawra. The Dam was completed in 1974.[6]

Narayan Bhawan Maru and Amarshi Pragji Maru of Devaliya were the contractors who built the Parola Dam near Hingoli, construction of which began in 1964 and was completed in 1971.[6]

Contribution in history of mining in India

Coal mining and KGK

Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas or Mistri community were also the pioneers to enter in to Coal Mining business in Dhanbad- Jharia -Bokaro-Hazaribagh-Asansol Coalfields area in erstwhile Bengal, Bihar and Orissa of British India; starting from 1894 to 1925 and established many collieries breaking the monopoly of British and Europeans in that field.[27]

They established collieries at Khas Jharia, Jinagora, Jamadoba, Balihari, Fatehpur, Gareria, Bansjora, Janudih, Joyrampur, Tisra, Katrasgarh, Dharmabad, Kujama, Kajora, Kailudih, Parascole, Parasia, Kusunda, Kutchi Balihari, Golukdih, Mahuda, Pandibri, Rajapur, Govindpur, Sijua, Sijhua, Lodna, Loyabad, Dhansar, Basra, Bhuli, Bermo, Bhaga, Mugma, Chasnala-Bokaro, Bhaga, Bugatdih, Putki, Chirkunda, Barora, Bhowrah, Bhojudih, Sinidih, Bastacolla, Jambad, Kajoragram, Sudamdih, Moonidih, Kendwadih, South Karanpura, Dumka, Hindegir, West Tumang at McCluskieganj in erstwhile States of Bihar and Bengal and Donganalla, Pali, Hingir-Rampur, Ib-Valley, Brajrajnagar, Ghorghori, Ghoradongri, Tavaveli, Betul, etc. in Orissa and Central Provinces to name a few.[27]

The credit of being first Indian to break the monoploy of British in Jharia Coalfields goes to Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra. In the life sketch of Khora Ramji given in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa - the British have noted this fact in year 1920 - "In Jharia Coalfield he was first Indian to seize the opportunity and by his prompt entry into colliery business, he was able to remove the stigma that would otherwise be leveled against his community as backward class."[22][27][41] Further, details are given in the book Diary of Golden Days at Jharia - A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia - written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa - Quote: The East Indian Railway in 1894-95 extended its line from Barakar to Dhanbad via Katras and Jharia. Messrs. Khora Ramji in 1894 was working on railway lines contract of Jharia branch line and with his brothers was also building Jharia Railway Station. Messrs. Khora Ramji was a HUF of five brothers and their sons: Khora Ramji Chawda, Narayan Pachhan Ramji Chawda, Murji Akhai Ramji Chawda, Jairam Teja Ramji Chawda and their half-brother Jetha Lira Vela Jethwa. The Jharia coalfields was discovered while digging up the earth for laying this railway line. Khora Ramji while working near Jharia Railway station immediately realized the gold he had struck and purchased the lands from Raja of Jharia. He similarly purchased about eight coal-fields from years 1895-1909. Further, he also encouraged fellow Mistri contractors to purchase the land and even financed them to do so. He later approached Raja of Jharia for lease of mining rights and laid foundation of his colliery business.[27] The location of his three collieries named Jeenagora, Khas Jherria, Gareria is mentioned also in 1917 Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa.:- Unquote[42][43]

To give a few examples, in Jharia-Dhanbad coal-belt in Manbhum District: Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra founded Khas Jharia, Golden Jharia, Fatehpur, Balihari,Khas Jeenagora, East Bhuggatdih and Gareria Colliries. with their brothers, Teja Ramji, Akhoy Ramji, Pachan Ramji Chowra and Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra between years 1895-1910. In Pure Jharia Colliery Khora Ramji and brothers were partners with Diwan Bahadur D. D. Thacker. Govamal Jivan Chauhan of Kumbharia founded Pandubra and Golukdih Collieries during 1908-10. The life-sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra and Govamal Jivan Chauhan of Kumbharia is mentioned specially by British in Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa mentioning their feats of Railway works and Coal Mining. The other notable from this community were Ramji Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia founded Basra Colliery, brothers Khimjee Dossa and Gangji Dossa Jethwa[44] of Nagalpar founded collieries at North Kujama, North Akashkinari, Katrasgaarh, Central Jharia, Indian Jharia and Lower Upper Jharia Tisra and Katras, Joyram Gohil of Sinugra founded Joyrampur and Khas Bagatdih Collieries, Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja of Nagor and Manji Jeram of Madhapar founded Rajapur Colliery. Dana Premji Maru of Devaliya at Jharia, Ghela Devraj and Karamsinh Ghela, Viram Ghlea Chawda of Devaliya at Tisra, Khimji Valji Chauhan of Reha, Amarsinh Gowamal and Manji Gowamal of Kumbharia at Tisra, Ratanji Ramji Rathod and his son Dhanji Ratanji of Nagalpar founded Diamond Coal Company at Tisra, Khengar Triku Padhiyar of Anjar, Premji Dana of Anjar, Dhanji Devshi Solanki of Madhapar, Devraj Ramji of Kumbharia founded Janudih Colliery, Ratna Mepa Tank of Devaliya founded Khas Junadih,[45] Jairam Shivjee of Khedoi, Valji Narayan Chauhan of Reha, Veera Mavji of Galpadar, Walji Kheta Chauhan of Nagalpar founded K. S. Nanji and Company at Nanji Kujama, Ruda Manji of Kukma, Narsingh Harji of Kukma at Kendwadih, Parbat Vira Tank of Khambhra, Dhanji Devji Rathor of Madhapar, Hardas Devani Padhiyar of Anjar, Bhawan Kara of Balambha, Gova Petha of Chandiya, Mepa Nondha of Chandiya, Pachhan Dahya Gohil and Ladhha Mengal Gohil of Sinugra all started collieries at Tisra, Katras, Jharia coalfields. Ramji Dhanji Chawda of Kumbharia founded Hingir-Rampur Colliery in year 1909 near Brajrajnagar, brothers Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal Savaria and Ranchhod Jagmal Sawaria of Kumbharia founded Donganalla Colliery in year 1921-22 near Pali near Pendra Road in Central Provinces, while Rai Sahib Vishram Walji Rathod of Madhapar founded Ghoraghori, Ghoradongri and Tavaveli colliaries near Chhindwara, Ghela Pachan and Devji Ghela Parmar of Kukma founded Lower Joyrampur Colliery in Manbhum and Jambad Selcted Colliery and Kajoragram Coal Mines near Asansol in Bengal, Hirji Karamshi Chauhan and Rai Sahib Lalji Hirji Chauhan of Devaliya founded collieries of South Karanpura at Hindegir and West Tumang at McCluskieganj in Hazaribagh District.

The KGK Community laid the foundation of collieries and coal mines in Dhanbad-Jharia-Bokaro fields on which the later other communities like Punjabis: (Khanna, Thapar), Kutchis: (Nandwana, Chanchani, Worah, Ojha, Ramsarandas), Marwaris: (Agarwalla, Poddar, Motiram Roshanlal, Seth Jharumal), Gujaratis: (Patel, Thacker, Kalyanji Mavji, Kesabji Pitamber, Ajmera, Pathak, Rawal, Mehta), Bengali: (Mondal, Seal, Bagchi, Banerjee, Bakshi, Ghose, Nag), Hindustani: (Thakur, Singh, Sahu) also followed and prospered in decades after 1930. Encyclopaedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa -1920 mentions:- "Out of 92 collieries belonging to Gujaratis in Jharia Coalfields Area during 1920s - 50 belonged to Mistris of Kutch with Seth Khora Ramji as Head of them all." Seth Khora Ramji of Sinugra was also honored by King of Kutch by giving him a Paghdi. Khora Ramji died in year 1923, a decade after his death in 1938, two of his collieries Khas Jharia and Golden Jharia, which also housed their bungalow then run by his sons Ambalal Khora, Karamsinh Khora and Chandulal Khora, capsized due to now infamous underground fires.[27][46][47][48][49][50][51] [52][53][54][55][56][57]

As per details given in Diary of Golden Days at Jharia - A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia - written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa - Quote: "Seth Khora Ramji headed the first association as mentioned by British authorities in Encyclopaedia Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (1920).[27][41] After him many members of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya community have been at the post of Chairman of Indian Colliery Owner's Association, which was formed after his death. At that time there were three associations (1) Indian Mining Association - which was formed by British Coal Miners largely dominated by European owned large corporate Coal Mining companies concentrated in Ranigunj Coal Belt. The other was (2) Indian Mining Federation - formed by aristocrat Bengali miners mostly having coal-mines in Ranigunj Coalfields and the third association, which was formed on the initiative of than dominant Colliery owners community i.e. lead by Mistris of Kutch with other Kutchi, Gujarati and Marwari colliery owners mainly concentrated in Jharia Coalfields was (3) Indian Colliery Owners' Association (ICOA), Jharia." -Unquote.[27]

As per referred books, Lala Karamchand Thapar, who started his business career in Jharia coalfields in late 1920s, was helped by KGK community, initially to get him established as Coal Merchant, especially by Devram Jetha of Sinugra. As written in the book Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia: "After him many members of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya community have been at the post of Chairman of Indian Colliery Owner's Association, which was formed after his death. At that time there were three associations (1) Indian Mining Association – which was formed by British Coal Miners largely dominated by European owned large corporate Coal Mining companies concentrated in Ranigunj Coal Belt. The other was (2) Indian Mining Federation – formed by aristocrat Bengali miners mostly having coal-mines in Ranigunj Coalfields and the third association, which was formed on the initiative of than dominant Colliery owners community i.e. led by Mistris of Kutch with other Kutchi, Gujarati and Marwari colliery owners mainly concentrated in Jharia Coalfields was (3) Indian Colliery Owners' Association (ICOA), Jharia."[27]

After nationalization of the coal mines in 1971–73 a downturn in the fortunes of KGK community came. There are still many buildings and markets constructed by them in Dhanbad, Jharia and Raipur in Chhatisgarh. The community members having collieries at Jharia wanted their wards to study at Rajghat Besant School in Benaras run by the Krishnamurti Foundation India but the college hosteld were full and declined to take any more students. The community elders were persistent and offered to build an exclusive hostel in the campus if they agreed to take all their wards into their Collage. They built a hostel and donated it to the college who decided to name is Jharia Hostel as all the residents were from the mining community of Jharia, mostly belonging to the KGK Community of Kutch.[27]

Mineral mining and KGK

Arjan Ladhha Rathod and Varjang Harji Rathod of Kumbharia founded the Manganese Ore mines at Chaibasa in 1910 and Arjan Ladhha Mines sometimes misspell as Arjun Lodha Mines at Balagoda. Lalji Jhina of Anjar also owned Manganese ore mines in Chaibasa. Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal Savaria of Kumbharia and Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan of Kumbharia owned Manganese, Dolomite and Limestone Mines in at Jairamnagar, Akaltara, Tirodi, Katni in Central Provinces. Jeevram Jairam Chawda of Sinugra owned Minerals mines in Saraikela. The community members also owned Slate and Granite mines in Markapur and Minerals Mines in Keonjhar. Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor owned Silica mines in Shankargarh. Hirji Premji Parmar of Kukma and Deoji Jairam Solanki of Madhapar owned soap-stone and kaoline mines at Asansol and Hazaribagh.[6][27][58][59][60] At present in Kutch, many members of Mistri community own China Clay and Bentonite mines.

Contribution in architects and development of cities of India

Apart from laying first Railway lines and building docks of Bombay, the Mistris of Kutch and Kadias of Saurashtra were also involved in construction of Victoria Terminus for Great Indian Peninsula Railway, Bombay Central and Colaba Terminus both for Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway, Bombay High Court, Taj Hotel, J. J. School of Art, Town Hall, Wilson Collage, Apollo Bundar to name a few in city of Bombay.[6][38] Cutch Castle of Bombay, the royal palace belonging to Rulers of Kutch was erected by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor of KGK Community for Maharao Shri Khengarji Bawa, who shared a personal friendship with Jagmal Raja. [6][22][26]

In Nasik, the now famous temple complex of Muktidham, was built and donated by Industrialist and Contractor of the community Jairam Dahya Chauhan of Kumbharia.[6][22]

The huge Chabutro, just outside Railway Station at Raigarh, a famous landmark of town, was built and donated by Shyamji Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia in 1910.[6]

In 1929, the British Authorities, named a Railway Station as Jairamnagar, after famous Railway Contractor of the community Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan of Kumbharia, a rare honor in those days.[6][27][61]

In Raipur, the famous Ramdev Market was built by Madhavji Kunvarjee Vadher of Sinugra in 1930s. Also the famous Ramji Buidling housing many Hotels and Restaurants at Jai Stambh Chowk in Raipur was built by Ramji Karaman Rathod of Khambhra in 1940s and the famous Raja Bhawan at Fafadih Chowk, built like a royal palace was built by Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra in 1935.[6]

In Calcutta apart from building Docks of Calcutta Port and Railway lines and building complex of Howrah Station for East Indian Railway and Sealdah for Eastern Bengal Railway, the community were involved in construction of Howrah Bridge. Many Victorian buildings in Kolkata have been built by the karigars (artisans) of the Mistri community of Kutch. They were also involved in construction of Victoria Memorial[6][9]

Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra erected many buildings in Calcutta in decades of 1925 to 1945 namely Raja Bhawan at Central Avenue, Raja Court and Raja Terrace at Mission Row, Raja Mansion and Raja Chambers near Strand Road and Godavari Bhawan at Bhawanipur and gained a name as a Real Estate owner in city. Many of these buildings are now land-marks of the city.[6]

In Dhanbad the present day Rathod Market and Chawda Market both standing adjacent to each other in heart of the city were built in decade of 1930-40 by Kanji Premji Rathod of Khambhra and Ghela Devraj Chawda of Devaliya, respectively.[6]

In Orissa, the famous Shail Sadan Palace in Bolangir belonging to royal family of Patna Raj was constructed in 1886 by Karsan Bhima Rathor of Madhapar, while he was stationed at Cuttack doing Railway Contracts.[6][22]

At Rameshwaram, while working on Pamban Bridge the Mistris Lakhu Devji Vegad of Anjar and Gangji Narayan of Khedoi also built famous Temple of Neel-Mandir having seven domes, construction which, they started in 1899 and completed in about five years by 1905.[6][22]

In 1923 by request of Commissioner, Kadia Bhanji Dhanji Rathod of Devaliya had done repair and rehabilitation of Dwarakadheesh temple with Ranchhod Ramji Chauhan of Nagalpar, as per tablet in Temple's records.[22][27]

In 1932 upon completion of Bally Bridge, Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor was recommended by the erstwhile Viceroy of India, The Earl of Willingdon to Rana of Nepal, Shree Juddha Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, who needed Contractor of repute to do renovation and rehabilitation of his Palaces and temples. He was given the Contract for the same and Parbat Harji Chauhan, Karaman Devji Chauhan both of Kukma and Manji Shivjee of Madhapar were delegated by Jagmal Raja to go to Kathmandu, Nepal with a team of artisans and masons to supervise and complete the work. It took about two and half years for the job to be completed.[6][22][26][62]

Talkies and Cinema Halls founded by KGK in India

The community was also one the first to venture into Entertainment business in decades of 1940-50 and many of the built and owned Cinema Hall or Talkies as they were called then.[6]

  1. Jairam Talkies in Raipur founded by Jairam Shivjee Rathod of Khambhra
  2. Rajshree Talkies in Raipur founded by Ruda Valji Savaria of Kumbharia
  3. Samrat Talkies in Raipur founded by Manilal Kunwarjee Lalji Vadher of Sinugra
  4. Shyam Talkies in Raigarh founded by Shyamji Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia
  5. Laxmi Talkies in Bilaspur founded by Chimanlal Chawda of Sinugra
  6. Jai Hind Talkies in Manmad founded by Bhanji Dhanji Rathod of Devaliya
  7. Kusum Talkies in Bankura founded by Lalji Raja Vadher of Sinugra
  8. Gopi Talkies in Kharsia founded by Vasta Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia
  9. Talkies in Kotma founded by Ranchhod Virjee Chawda of Sinugra
  10. Hind Talkies in Cuttack
  11. Talkies in Nasik by Jairam Dahya Chauhan of Kumbharia
  12. Jayshree and Rajshree Talkies in Vapi founded by Rai Sahib Vishram Valji and Amritalal Valji Rathod of Madhapar
  13. Natraj Talkies in Jamshedpur founded by Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar
  14. Bharat Talkies in Itarsi founded by Rai Sahib Ruda Laddha Chawra of Madhapar
  15. Radha Cimena Hall in Bhopal founded by Valji Mavji Rathod of Madhapar[6]

Religious and charitable contributions outside Kutch

The KGK have used their personal funds to build many temples, Dharamsalas and schools. For example the Kutchi Ashram in Haridwar was built mainly from donations of the KGK community under the guidance of Sant Odhavram and the leadership of Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar in 1954–56. The land for Kutchi Dharamsala in Dwarka was donated by Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra. The Kutchi Kadia Dharamsala in Mathura was built by Khoda Ramji Chawda and Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra. The Gujarati Jalaram Dharamsala in Amarkantak was also built by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas mainly at behest of Prabhulal Karsanjee of Sinugra. Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar started Gujarati School and constructed Ram Temple at Kharagpur. The community also donated a large sums to built Arya-Kanya Gurukul at Porbandar, Vikas Vidhaylaya of Wadhwan.[6][22] Further, Mistris Jagmal Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia built a Ram Temple in Bilaspur in 1890 and his brothers Shyamji Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia a temple in Raigarh in 1895 and Jeevan Gangji Savaria of Kumbharia built a temple and pond in Chhatna in 1903 when they were working as Railway Contractors.[27] In 1920 a charitable trust for promoting education called Jharia Vidhhyotejak Fund was started by Mistri Colliery owners at Jharia. This Fund started the Jharia Gujarati Primary School in 1920 and also gave scholarship to the children of their society.[27] At Cuttack, a school named Gujarati Pathshala started in 1928, which was renamed as Anglo Gujarati School in 1941 was started by Rai Saheb Kunwarji Karsan Rathod of Madhapar. A public library was also started by him in 1931.[6][63] The famous Ramdev Pir Temple in Raipur at Fafadih Chowk was built and financed by Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas. A Gujarati Primary School was also started by community at Raipur. The famous Chabutro near Raigarh railway station (almost a replica of one found in villages of Mistri) – a landmark of the city was erected by Shayamji Gangji Sawaria of Kumbharia.[6] Jairam Daya Chauhan of Kumbharia, who built Muktidham Temple at Nashik Road also donated a large sums to start Collage in Nasik named J. D. Bytco Commerce And N. S. Chandak Science College and D D Bytco Boys High School and Jr College both at Nasik.[6][22][27] Rai Sahib Goapl Nanji Tank of Kukma donated funds to start the Vidarbha Ayurvedic Collage and a Hospital, which has been named the Gopal Nanji Tank Hospital at Amravati.[6][64] M. H. Wegad Science Collage in Umred was built by Harlilal Devanda Wegad of Kumbharia and Balaghat.[65] Rai Sahib Mulji Jagmal and Ranchhod Jagmal Savaria built a Hospital in Ratanpur.[27] Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor built the huge Dharamsala near Jhusi Ashram housing more than 100 rooms on banks of the Ganges River at Allahbad during 1910, a temple in Rajkot and boarding house for students in Pune.[22] The Gujarati School in Valsad was started by Rai Sahib Vishram Valji Rathor of Madhapar.[22] Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar built the existing Hindu Cemetorium and also a Ram Temple both at Jamshedpur and was one of the founder-trustee of the "Gujrati Sanatan Samaj" Community Center at Bistupur. Furthermore the KGK community, started by donations from community members, created charitable trusts for education and medical purposes.[6][22] Kanji Daya Chawda of Sinugra, built a Dharamsala in Keonjhar now named Kanji Daya Dharamsala for public and charitable use in 1934.[66]

Downturn in fortunes

Post independence the fortunes of the KGK community suffered a double blow by way of two legislations.

In 1947 to 1958 there were major land reform acts passed by parliament. The Zamindari Abolition Act (1947), Bihar Zamindari Abolition Act (1948), Bihar Land Reforms Act (1950), The Saurashtra Land Reforms Act (1951) and The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vidarbha Region and Kutch Area) Act (1958) came into effect. The large land holdings in Kutch and Saurashtra were lost because the law provided that the "land belongs to whom, who tills it" ("Khede teni jamin"). Most of the male members of Mistri community were enterprenuers and the agriculture lands of the Mistri community in Kutch were transferred by the government to the persons who tilled it. In the states of Bombay, Bihar and Saurashtra, where they also had purchased, agriculture lands were lost due to these acts.[6]

In 1971–73 coal mines all over India were nationalized by an emergency act passed by Parliament. The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act (1971), followed by the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act (1972) and the Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act (1973) came into effect and the Coal mines assets of the community were all taken over by the government.[51][52]

The KGK community continues to struggle as their land holdings and coal mines have gone. Further, the skills of their fore-fathers in building and erecting railway lines and bridges is also gone as young generations are neither interested nor are there opportunities as railway contracts are now given to big engineering conglomerates. At present they are mainly involved in small time business and services.[6]

The majority of the one time prosperous community of KGK Mistris living in Kutch and Saurahstra today are devoid of agricultural land and have been rightly included as one of the Other Backward Class community in State of Gujarat by the government of India. But the irony remains that many of the community members, who migrated outside Kutch to the other states of India more than a century ago, cannot take advantage of this "OBC Class" for their children as this is valid only for children studying in the state of Gujarat.[6][11]

Present status

Distribution in India

KGK community members are found scattered throughout India, the descendants of the early railways contractors and coal mining entrepreneurs whose families you can find along major rail-routes and railway junctions in India. The migration of these families outside Kutch took place during 1850–1930 mainly due to the businesses they had pioneered.

Their settlements along major and also minor rail-heads and interior railway links are a living proof to the fact of them as being the pioneering Indian community in history of laying railway lines and railway bridges in British India.[6][22]

At present, in Gujarat in Kutch District—Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas are mainly residing Anjar, Nagalpar, Sinugra, Galpadar, Chandiya, Adipur, Gandhidham, Mandvi, Mundra, Varsamedi, Dabda, Tuna, Yadapur, Varmanagar, Momai Nagar, Kandla, Khedoi, Reha, Hajapar, Madhapar, Kukma, Devaliya, Kumbharia, Lovaria, Khambhra, Nagor and Bhuj. It may be worthwhile to mention that today out of nineteen villages founded by them in 12th Century, there are almost no families of these community in Ratnal, Meghpar, Jambudi and Vidi.[6][67]

While in Saurashtra region of Gujarat they are in Vadodara, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Surendranagar, Rajkot, Okha, Surat, Jamnagar, Anand, Ankleshwar, Dwarka, Mithapur, Vapi, Valsad, Umbergaon, Umred, Navsari, Morbi, Bharuch, Vasad, Daman, Dharampur, Piploi, Chhota Udaipur, Porbandar, Junagadh, Gondal, Bhavnagar, Halol, Derol, Himmatnagar, etc.[6][67]

In Maharashtra, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Mumbai, Kalyan, Thane, Mandatitwala, Dahanu, Pune, Khandala, Lonavala, Khapoli, Nashik, Nashik Road, Ratnagiri, Manmad, Bhusaval, Barsi, Dhond, Sholapur, Nandurbar, Igatpuri, Amravati, Achalpur, Paratwada, Murtijapur, Badnera, Akola, Washim, Nagpur, Gondia, Bhandara, Wardha, Umrer, Shegaon, Tirodi, Tumsar, Yawatmal, Pusad, Sirsodi, Rajgurunagar, Saoner, Chandrapur, Ballar-shah, Barsi, Latur, Osmanabad, Kolhapur, Miraj, Parli-Baijnath, Purna, Dharmabad, Parbhani, Umred, Pandharpur, Nanded, Hingoli, Jalna, Aurangabad, Khamgaon, Shrirampur, Belapur, Nandurbar, Beed.[6][67]

In Chhattisgarh, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Dongargarh, Khairagarh, Rajnandgaon, Durg, Bhilai, Kumhari, Kharora, Aarang, Raipur, Dhamtari, Rajim, Sargaon, Ambikapur, Abhanpur, Bilaspur, Jairamnagar, Korba, Pali, Pendra Road, Champa, Sakti, Kawardha, Chirimiri, Bagbahra, Bhatapara, Baloda Bazar, Mahasamund, Jagdalpur, Bailadila, Dantewada, Raigarh, Kharasia.[6][67]

In Madhya Pradesh, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Bhopal, Gwalior, Bagra-Tawa, Hoshangabad, Itarsi, Khandwa, Hardoi, Jabalpur, Piparia, Piplani, Siwani, Shahdol, Anuppur, Bishrampur, Katni, Narsinghpur, Guna, Sagar, Bina, Balaghat, Keymoor, Umaria, Kotma, Manendragarh, Baikunthpur, Mandala, Nainpur, Chhindwara, Betul, Indore and Ujjain.[6][67]

In Uttar Pradesh, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Varanasi, Agra, Jaunpur, Mughalsarai, Chopan, Kanpur, Robertsgunj, Allahbad, Naini, Mathura, Vrindavan, Jhansi.[6][67]

In Delhi-Rajasthan route the KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Abu Road, Phulera, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bandikui, Ajmer, Marwar, Beawar, Sawai Madhopur, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaipur, Kota and Delhi.[6][67]

In Orissa, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts have settled in cities of Jharsuguda, Rourkela, Bonaigarh, Sambalpur, Barbil, Belpahar, Brajrajnagar, Kanrabagi, Jeypore, Baripada, Khariar Road, Bhadrak, Khurda Road, Ganjam, Rayagada, Balasore, Koraput, Jaiyor, Paralakhemundi, Gunupur, Bhawanipatna, Cuttack, Puri, Hingir-Rampur, Keonjhar, Keonjorgarh, Balagoda, Jatni, Kesinga, Bhubneshvar, Beharampur, Angul, Talcher, Kantabhaji, Dhekanal, Bargarh.[6][67]

In Bihar and Jharkhand families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts and Coal Mining have settled in Chakardahrpur, Hazaribagh, Chaibasa, Tatanagar, Jamshedpur, Rakha Mines, Ghatshila, Chandil, Barajamda, Dhanbad, Daltongunj, Dhansar, Dumka, Katras, Jharia, Bhaga, Mohda, Tisra, Baliari, Kujama, Mogma, Rajkharsawn, Bokaro, McCluskieganj, Hindegir, Hazaribagh, Khelari, Ranchi and Patna, Bankudi, Purnea, Gaya.[6][67]

In West Bengal, families of KGK while doing Railway Contracts and Coal Mining have settled in Kharagpur, Asansol, Burdwan, Ranigunj, Bolpur, Bankura, Adra, Kashipur, Purulia, Pandveshwar, Kolaghat, Durgapur, Damodar, Surajnagar, Uttarpara, Bhadrakali, Howrah and Calcutta.[6][67]

At the time of independence many families were of KGK were living in East Bengal mainly in cities of Dacca, Jessore, Chittagong, Paksey, Parbatipur, Pabna, Kushtia, Saidpur, Rajashahi, Shylhet, Khulna, Dinajpur, etc. who migrated and settled in various parts of India.[6]

The families living in Assam and other the northeast cities of Tinsukia, Guwahati, Dibrugarh have now mostly left them due to turmoils in decade of 1980-90.[6]

In Andhra Pradesh, families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Warangal, Nizamabad, Sirpur - Kagaz Nagar, Karim Nagar, Mancharial, Kazipeth, Hyderabad, Adilabad, Asifabad, Rajahmundry, Vizianagaram, Bobbili, Parvatipuram, Secundrabad, Vishakhapatnam, Markapur, Mehbubnagar, Mandapet.[6][67]

In Karnataka families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Vijaywada, Gulbarga, Kurnool, Raichur, Yadgir, Belur-Hassan, Bagalkot, Mysore, Bangalore.[6][67]

In Tamilnadu families of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas while doing Railway Contracts have settled in Coimbtore, Tiruchinapalli, Kanchipuram, Madurai, Madras, Chennai.[6][67]

In Kerala, few families are living in Trivendrum, Ernakulam and Cochin, who migrated almost a century ago for railway contracts.[6]

Distribution outside India

KGK Community members are at present living in countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Fiji, Maldives, East Africa i.e. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, etc. Many of them are descendants of those generations who migrated in the mid 19th century and who have lost contact with their roots in India. Some are new, young generation migrants leaving for higher studies and jobs in the recent past to Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada and Singapore etc.

Social organization and activities in present times

Today the KGK have formed their associations in different states of India and organized seminars and meetings at state as well as national level and organized community meetings two to three times a year where Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas families from all over India come to re-strengthen their bonds and heritage. They have also organized meetings to find suitable brides and grooms for their siblings, organizing a match-making event called Sagpan-Sanmmelan,[68] and to resolve their family disputes through guidance of their elders and the Panch elected by the community. Like in historic times even today they have their internal judiciary body called Panch, who try to settle family disputes by mutual and amicable ways. The members of this "Panch" are appointed by the community's working board. Every three years they elect their president or Pramukh by voting. The president of the community, in consultations with heads of different state level organization, then selects his working committee for three years. These community gatherings take place in different places in India and once a year they also assemble in Kutch, their native state.[6]

They also have a woman's wing called Mahila Mandal at state and national level. Every three years a woman president is also elected by ladies of the community. The woman's wing works independently and in co-operation with the president of the community. The national level women's body of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas is called Akhil Bharatiya Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya samaj Mahila Mandal. The woman president of this wing then appoints her working committee members. The Mahila Mandal was founded in 1976 and first Mahila Mandal Pramukh or President of Women's Wing of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas was Smt. Bhanuben Jayram Chauhan of Bombay and Nagor.[6] In 1996 she went on to become the first woman to be Mahasabha Pramukh, or President of the community. She was the daughter-in-law of Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor.[6]

Similarly, they also have a youth wing at state and national organizational levels called All India Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj Yuva Mahamandal. The young generation helps in organizing major national and state level events and the youths also organize a sports event every three years called Kutchyadd, taking cue and inspiration from the Asiad of 1982 Asian Games. The event also coincides with Dance, Music and match-making event.[6] The first Kutchhyad was organized in Nagpur in 1983, second at Bilaspur in 1984, third at Aurangabad in 1986, forth at Anjar in 1989, fifth at New Delhi in 1994, sixth at Durg in 1999, seventh at Nasik Road in 2004, eighth again at Anjar in 2007 and ninth at Raipur in 2009.

Every year a mass-marriage event is also held called Samuh-Lagna where the marriages of financially weak families or couples are held with blessings and financial co-operation of the whole community. The first such event by the community was held on 10 May 1966, with six marriages at Dhanbad and later on a larger scale in 1972 at Raipur. It continues to be held every year since then at different locations in India.[6]

Religious customs and beliefs in present days

Community members are still carrying forward the religious customs and beliefs embedded in them since many centuries ago and continue to follow Hindu religious customs. They are still followers of different Hindu Gods such as Shiva, Shakti and Ganesha, Radha and Krishna, Vishnu and Lakshmi, Rama, Laxman and Janki, Hanumanji, Ramdev Pir, Bala Krishna, Pushtimarg, Ramanandi, Pranami Sampraday, Kapadi Sampradaya, Swaminarayan Sampraday, Jalaram Bapa, Arya Samaj, Gayatri Pariwar, and Sahaj Marg.[6]

It is customary for couples to mention the name of the villages of Kutch from which they hailed in their wedding cards, even today after over a century of their migration outside Kutch. The newly wed couple has to come at least once, even though they may be living outside India, to bow to their Kuldevi at the temples which are located in the nineteen villages in Kutch originally founded by their ancestors. The newly weds also go and offer their respects at the Parias of their Satis and Shurapuras located in Kutch.[6]

There is also a custom the KGK follow to offer special prayers and pooja called Kar to their Kuldevis whenever a boy is born in the family. They come with the boy to these villages to offer their prayers, Kar and Naivadh to their Kuldevis. All the members of the community living in Kutch, in others states of India or outside India religiously follow these customs, even today.[6]

Present day identity

Other than being referred to as the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya, the terms "KGK Community" or "Kgk Samaj" are more often used acronyms for the community in present day India at a national level. "Mistri", which was mostly used during the last century and before is nowadays only used in Kutch and Gujarat. However, the OBC Certificate as per the Bakshi Panch report are given in the name of the Mistri only.[6][11]

KGK Community in other fields

  • Seth Khora Ramji Chawda (1860–1923) of Sinugra has been credited by British themselves as the first Indian to break monopoly of Europeans in Jharia coalfields belt in year 1894. He was also a Railway Contractor of repute and his life sketch is mentioned by British authorities in Encyclopaedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Year 1920.[6][22][27][41]
  • Govamal Jiwan Chauhan (1855–1929) of Kumbharia was also a Railway Contractor of repute and Coal Mines owner. His exploits as Railway Contractor and life sketch is also noted by British authorities in Encyclopaedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, Year 1924-25. The coal mines business established by him in 1910 was carried on by his sons Amarsinh Gowamal and Manji Gowamal carried on his coal mines business after his death till nationalization of coal mines in 1972-73.[69][70][71][22][27]
  • Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan (1887–1974) of Allahbad and Bombay was an Industrialist and was one of the pioneers in Glass and ceramic Industry in British India, who started in year 1912, Glass factories at one Naini named Allahbad Glass Works other at Bombay in 1930 named Bombay Glass Works and another Glass Factory named Raja Glass Works at Sodepur near Calcutta. He also owned a Private Airlines Company named Ambica Airlines, which operated on Bombay-Bhuj-Rajkot-Jamnagar route and a Steam Navigation company named Ambica Steam Navigation Co., which operated in Western coast of India. He also owned Rajapur Colliery in Jharia in partnership Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar and also owned a Silica Mines at Bargad in Shankargarh in United Provinces. At the time of independence he was among top five industrialist of India. He was Chairman of Zandu Pharmaceuticals for many years. He was one of the persons to receive the Fellowship in the year 1941 from Society of Glass Technology, Sheffield, England for their contributions in Glass and Ceramic Industry over the world.[72] During 1924 to 1932 he, earned fame, when he erected Bally Bridge. The bridge was named Willingdon Bridge by British after the then Governor of Calcutta. The first train that ran across the bridge was named Jagmal Raja Howrah Express by British acknowledging the feat of Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja. Jagmal Raja was one of the first persons given permission by King of Princely State of Cutch to own car. H. H. Maharao Sri Khengarji Bawa of Kutch held close intimacy with Jagmal Raja of Nagor. He was A.D.C. to H. H. Maharao Shri Khengarji Bawa of Kutch in the Coronation of King George VI in 1937 in London. He was the only person from any community of Kutch to have the honor of being ADC to Shri Kehngarji Bawa, King of Kutch. His life-sketch is noted in Encyclopædia Britannica and also noted in Book of World Knowledge.[26][54][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80]
  • Rai Sahib Koonvarji Karsan Rathor (1898–1967), who established himself in Cuttack was like his father Karsan Bhima Rathod, a reputed Railway and Civil Contractor, who established many industries in Orissa. He established first ice factory of Orissa in 1922 named after his grandfather as Bhima Ice Factory one in Cuttack and another Chilika, which was main fishing center. Looking into plight of poor fisher-mans, he for many years, did not took storage charges from them. The present Ice Factory Road in Cuttack is named after their ice-factory.[6][27] He was one of the founder and director of Cuttack Electric Supply Co., Ltd founded in 1929.[81] He also founded many Hotels and Cinema Halls in Cuttack. At one point of time he was biggest real estate owner of town. He donated lot of money in charities and a school named Gujarati Pathshala started in 1928, which was renamed as Anglo Gujarati School in 1941. A public library was also started by him in 1931.[63] He was given title of Rai Sahib by British for his contributions in development of region. His native village was Madhapar in Kutch[6][27]
  • Purshottam Khimji Chauhan (1905–1958), who lived in Dhanbad, was a freedom fighter, who led the rally in Quit India Movement on 8 August 1942. In spite of being himself a colliery owner, he was a champion of labor cause and went on to became the President of Jharia Coalfields Mazdoor Sangh i.e. Labour Union of Jharia Coalfiedls. After independence of India, he became Member of Bihar Legislative Assembly, twice in 1948 and 1952, defeating Raja of Jharia and Raja of Ramgarh in respective years. He was applauded by Dr. Rajendra Prasad for is exemplary and compassionate speech on bringing the Abolition of Zamindari Act. He was closely associated and had good personal relations with first Chief Minister of Bihar, Sri Krishna Sinha, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha. He attended in year 1950, Geneva World Labour Conference, as representative Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh on behalf of Government of India. He was son of Khimji Valji Chauhan of Reha, who was one of the pioneers in coal mining business. Khimji Valji started colliery named Indian Jharia Colliery in 1910 in Tisra Coalfields Area. Seth Khora Ramji of Sinugra was six anna partner in that colliery.[22][80][82]
  • Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan (1898–1967) was a Railway Contractor of repute and also a Mines owner who owned Dolomite and Limestone mines. British authorities named Jairamnagar railway station after him.
  • Rai Sahib Moolji Jagmal Sawaria (1899–1956) was a Railway and Civil Contractor of repute who lived in Bilaspur. He carried on legacy of his father Jagmal Gangji as Railway Contractor with his brother Ranchhod Jagmal Sawaria. He owned with his brothers Basara Colliery in Jharia. Further, in 1921-22, he discovered coal near Pendra Road, while doing railway contracts and founded Donganalla Colliery in year 1921-22 near Pali in Central Provinces. He also established factories for manufacturing match box named Laxmi Match Works and fire-works in city. He owned a huge brick kiln in Lingiyadih across Arpa river and had laid private bridge and narrow gauge rail line to carry bricks across the river in to city. He was given title of Rai Sahib by British for his contributions in Railway and development of the region. Present day Jagmal Chowk and Jagmal Block in Bilaspur are named after his father. His native village was Kumbharia in Kutch.[6][27]
  • Lira Raja Rathod (Bhalsod) (1889–1972) was a reputed Railway Contractor, who did major Railway works like, Gomoh to Hazaribag section in 1919, Raipur to Vizianagram section in 1926. His father Raja Ruda Bhalsod was also a Railway Contractor who did jobs narrow gauge line of Raipur Dhamtari Railway in 1898. Lira Raja's brother Vishram Raja also worked with him in many Railway contracts. Later he shifted from Raipur and settled in Calcutta and from years 1925 to 1945 he built many majestic buildings namely Raja Bhawan at Central Avenue, Raja Court and Raja Terrace at Mission Row, Raja Mansion and Raja Chambers near Strand Road and Godavari Bhawan at Bhawanipur and gained name as a Real Estate owner in city. Many of these buildings are now land-marks of the city. He was known for his charities and donated money and lands in various places in India. His ancestral village was Khambhra.[6][27]
  • Seth Vallabhdas Kunwarjee Tank (1909–1982) of Mumbai was also a leading industrialist, who was closely associated with Arvind N. Lalbhai. He started his career with Soap factory at Ahmedabad in 1939 and later established himself at Bombay. He also founded a special Dyes and Chemical factory named Winsol Chemicals Industries having office at Winsol House, Andheri one of the first of its kind one at Bombay and another named Gujarat Chemicals at Vapi. His ancestral village was Sinugra. In his young age as a student of Alfred High School of Bhuj, he gained fame as profounder and main leader of Miyana Satyagraha of Kachchh[29][80][83]
  • Jairam Dahya Chauhan (1885–1968) of Kumbharia, who established him self at Nasik as a reputed Railway Contractor, later transformed himself into an industrialist and founded the J. D. Bytco Limited. Bytco is a known name in oral health-care. The first two name of company denote his initials. He later donated a large sum to build Muktidham, which is now a famous tourist attraction of town. Further, he donated land and money to start D. D. Bytco Higher Secondary School and J. D. Bytco Commerce and Science Collage and J. D. Bytco Institute of Management Studies in Nasik. His father Dahya Vira Chauhan was one the pioneers, who did worked in laying of lines in Bombay to Nasik section for GIP Railways.[80][84][85][86]
  • Dhanji Manji Parmar (1924–1987) of the community was also a freedom fighter from Dhanbad, who unfurled Indian flag at Katras Jail, during 1942 Quit India Movement. His ancestral village was Kukma.[6]
  • Kanji Morarji Rathor (1913–1989) of Khedoi son of Morarji Karsan Rathor was a leading industrialist, who founded Public Limited Company named Himmat Steel Foundry Ltd having its factory at Kumhari near Raipur for manufacturing the special steel casting with an installed capacity at 3000 tonnes.[29][87]
  • Rajesh Chauhan (b 1966) of Bhilai is a former Spin Bowler, who played for Indian Cricket team from 1993 to 1998, belongs to the K.G.K. Community. His father Govind Raja Chauhan was also a cricketer and played Ranji Trophy in 1957 and Duleep Trophy in 1964. Their ancestral village is Vidi.[6][88] He has been Chairman of youth wing of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas for years 1993-96.
  • Bharat Purshottam Tank (1966–2009) son of Purshottam Jagmal Tank of Raipur was a drummer, who created a national record in beating drums non-stop for 123 hours and 20 minutes at the age of 22 in year 1988. Their ancestral village is Kukma.[89]
  • Vaidhraj Pragji Mohanji Rathor (1918–2006) who lived in Bhavnagar and later in Navsari, was famous in field of Ayurvedic medicines and science. He was an authority in Urine therapy and have written many books on Shivambu Chikitsa or self-urine therapy in Gujarati language. Some of which were also later translated and published in English. His weekly articles also used to be published in various Gujarati publications and newspapers. He was lovingly called Vaidhraj. He had been honored by various institutions of Gujarat Government. His most famous book written is Vigyan Ki Kasauti Par: Swamutra Chikitsa . He was attached to many social and charitable organizations and used to visit free medical camps in Calcutta and Bombay. He was also known social leader of the community. His ancestral village was Nagalpar.[6][90]
  • Amritlal Govamal Vegad(b 1928) living in Jabalpur has been awarded with Madhya Pradesh Rajya Sahitya Award and Rashtrapati Award. His ancestral village is Madhapar. His father Govamal Jiwan Vegad, who did Railway contracts in Jabalpur section was a noted Gandhian. The name of his Book is Narmada ki pari-krama written in Hindi language.
  • Smt. Nirmala Chauhan (b 1936) living in Aurangabad has been awarded with Maharashtra Rayja Sahitya Award and Rashtrapati Award for the books written by them. The Book is Khule Aakash me Udete Panchhi written in Hindi language. She is daughter of Ramji Parbat Tank of Khambhra.
  • Paresh Chauhan (b 1962) living in Dhanbad is a noted industrialist, who was given Rashtrapati Award by President Of India in the Year 1984 for being the best entrepreneurs from Bihar. He also received "Vijaya Ratna Awards" in 1996 and "Kutch Shakti Award" in 2010. His native village is Kumbharia. His father Ramniklal Morarji Chauhan was also a leading Social Worker and one of leading Industrialist of Bihar, who founded M/s. Unicorn, a Fuse making company.
  • Dharshi Jethalal Tank (1919–2010)of Tatanagar has his name recorded in Limca Book of Records for Mathematical Calculations. He was also the editor and compliar of the book Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in 1999. The book was given Ank-Sidhhi award by Kuth Shakti at a function held in Mumbai in 2000. His ancestral village is Nagalpar.[6][22]

KGK as pioneers of Social reforms

The Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas, or Kgk Samaj, have been pioneers in many social reforms. For example there is no compulsory or forced Dowry system in the community, since olden days.

Also widows were in general allowed to remarry by community elders, i.e. the "Moti Naat" and the "Community Panch", on a case to case basis for more than two centuries – much before the Widow Remarriage Act was brought in to British India in 1856. The word used for such widow remarriage was "Ghar-gharana".[6][91] Even the young widows having infants were also allowed to re-marry in case the second husband guaranteed to take care of child born from first marriage. There was a word called "agandiyaat" used for the young boy which came to his stepfather's house holding the finger of its mother. The word "angadi" in Gujarati language means finger and "angadiyaat" means the one who has come holding the finger.[6] Sometimes, when the family of first husband, wished that son born from her first marriage should carry the name and title or surname of his deceased father, such arrangements were also given.[6][29]

The KGK also understood the importance of education and, during early 1900s, had started schools and boarding houses in many villages and cities of Kutch (Sinugra, Madhapar, Bhuj, Anjar, etc.) and other cities (Jharia, Raipur, Cuttack, Valsad, Kharagpur, etc.) of India. They donated large sums to Vikas Vidhyalaya of Wadhwan, Gurukul Kangri Vidhyalaya of Haridwar, Banaras Hindu University and Rajghat Besant School of Varanasi, Gurukul Supa at Navsari, Shantiniketan Gurukul, Dakshinamurti Vidhya Mandir at Bhavnagar and Navajivan Trust of Ahmedabad, Sastu Sahitya Vardhak Karyalaya of Ahmedabad and Gita Press of Gorakhpur etc. They also understood the importance of Girls education and had started girls schools in some of their villages like Madhapar, Kookma etc. and helped Arya Kanya Gurukul at Porbandar and pioneered sending their girls to schools in the early years of schooling in India (1890–1900. Besides building boarding houses for students at Bhuj and Anjar so that their children can stay in the towns to study and opening co-educational primary schools in Sinugra, Madhapar, Chandiya, Kukma. At Kukma an exclusive girls hostel-cum-school named Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Kanya Chhatralaya was built by the community. They also built a boarding house in Poona for students willing to go for higher education in 1935. A hostel building was built by them named "Jharia House" at Rajghat Besant School in Benaras in 1935.[6]

In Hindu rites and rituals there is a system of giving a funeral feast called, Parojan or Barmu-Termu, after the death of a family member. It is believed that the spirit of the dead does not get salvation until such a feast is given in his or her memory. In such feasts the whole community was to be invited. Due to such beliefs even economically weak members of community took loans to hold them. In 1931 the whole community (Naat or Moti-Naat) of eighteen villages assembled at Village Sinugra and a historic resolution called, Parojan Nishedh Tharav was passed in Sinugra stating that no member of community, henceforth, is bound to give this feast after the death of their family members. The elders of the community were against the resolution that religious beliefs should not be tempered with. Younger generations of leaders convinced them, arguing that elders could feed the poor and help the needy and do other charitable works or even give the feast in their lifetime, if they can afford to earn their salvation. Why should they wait for or expect that their next of kin would give funeral feast after their demise.?? The leaders who made the community take this historic resolution after hot and fiery debate were Vishram Valji Rathod of Madhapar, Mandan Bhanjee Parmar of Kukma, Devram Daya Varu of Anjar, Karsanjee Jetha Jethwa, Devram Jetha Jethwa, Hemraj Kanji Chawda all three of Sinugra, Dhanji Ratanji Rathod of Nagalpar.[6][22][92]

In post independent India, after re-organization of KGK in year 1972 a Samuh-Lagna, (mass community marriage), event for financially weak families of the community was held at Raipur. When the announcement of the Samuh-Lagna was made none of the families of the KGK came forward to marry their bride or groom in such a public event as it would hurt their pride and self-respect. Looking at this impasse Purshottam Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra and Calcutta, who was one of the prominent leaders and effluent party of community, decided to cancel the grand wedding of her grand-daughter to be held in Calcutta and announced that she will be married at a simple ceremony at the Samuh-Lagna in Raipur to lead the way. Once this news spread other members came forward and agreed to marry their children at such an event. The Samuh-Lagna thus started in 1972 and is running successfully today with such events held at different locations in India every year by community leaders.[6] Although before that, a Samuh-Lagna (mass community marriage) event was held on experimental basis by Dhanbad Ghatak (unit) of community in they year 1968 in which six brides and grooms were married together, which can be said to be first such mass-marriage event before 1972.[6][29][93] and probably one of the first communities of India to start the saga of Samuh-Lagna (mass community marriage) in post-independent India.[6]

Re-organization of KGK in post-independence India

Around 1942 onwards the historic "Naat" and "Patel" system came to an end due to some internal problems as well as national level turbulence including World War-II, the Indian Independence movement, the partition of India, merger of the princely states and formation of the Union of India. The community, most of which were involved in railway "Thekedari" and lay scattered across the various states of India could not re-organize themselves and for almost three decades the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas lost their unity and leadership. The last two "Patels" of the community in pre-independence India were Patel Kunwarjee Ramji Chawda and, after him, his son Patel Bhavanjee Kunwarjee Chawda of Devaliya. The Patel system and Moti-Naat started to collapse around 1945 and was ended by 1950.[6][22][29]

In Raipur a community organization called Kshatriya Seva Sangh was established in 1935 and later a greater organization called Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Ganti Samaj was established in 1948 and in 1954 the community center was built in Raipur.[6]

Although the Moti-Naat went in to a state of limbo around 1950 the Dhanbad and Raipur organizations were considered an extended part of Moti-Naat and were given the status of Gaam or village in addition to the 18 villages of Kutch. This status was given to them in view of the large population of KGK members living in both cities. Until 1960 both Dhanbad and Raipur units continued to pay their community taxes and subscription to the Moti-Naat in Kutch.[6]

Later on a Yuvak Mahasabha, or Young Man's Association, of the community was formed in 1954 in Dhanbad at the behest of Raja Khengar Chawda of Chandiya, Purshottam Khimjee Chauhan of Reha, Arjunlal Dhanji Rathod of Nagalpar and many others. This Yuvak Mahasabha worked until 1968, with blessings from elders of the community, to bring a form a unity in Samaj but it could not replace Panch, Naat and the Patel system of historic times and the need for a greater organization was always needed. A community center was built by members of community during 1959–60 in Dhanbad at which later a Samuh-Lagna event was also organized by them in 1968, which can be said to be first such mass-marriage event before much publicized 1972 event held at Raipur.[6][29]

Finally in 1971 the community re-organized themselves and first some leaders with good wishes of elders like Seth Vallabhdas Kunwarjee Tank of Sinugra and Bombay, R. B. Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor and Allahbad, Mavji Dahya Chauhan of Sinugra and Belur-Hassan, Mavji Mulji Chauhan of Madhapar and Madurai, Devram Jetha Jethwa of Sinugra and Calcutta, Balram Madhavjee Vadher of Sinugra and Raipur, Narsinh Manji Rathod of Madhapar and others, met at Jaipur and a resolution was passed to contact all families of the community spread throughout India and unite to elect a new leader by the next year.[6][27][29]

Accordingly in 1972 the community again got together at Raipur and at a huge gathering at their Samaj Bhawan on 3 June 1972 Hirji Khimjee Chauhan of Reha was unanimously elected as first President – Mahasabha Pramukh of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas in post-independence India. The pre-independence Moti Naat was re-christened as Mahasabha and Patel was rechristened as Pramukh and the Panch system was re-established. Hirji Khimjee Chauhan of Reha and Ratnagiri, traveled through out India to re-group the community and then with other front line community leaders like Purshottam Lira Raja and Amarsinh Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra and Calcutta, Vijaysinh Kunwarji Rathod of Madhapar and Cuttack and Valamji Hirji Parmar of Hajapar and Uttarpara, Nanalal Amarsinh Chouhan of Kumbharia and Dhanbad and many others, together, he made the new constitution of the community, charitable trusts and state and national level units. They also carried out a census with a list of community members.[6][6][29] The community name Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Mahasabha was registered under The Societies Registration Act with its registered office at Calcutta in 1972.[6]

At present the registered population of the KGK Community living in India is only about fifty-one thousand. This does not include those who migrated outside India during the late nineteenth century.[2][6][7]

A brief history of Kutch in context of KGK

With the discovery of Dholavira, the history of human civilization in Kutch has been verified to be as far back as from c.2650 BCE.

Anjar was established by, and is named after, Kshatriya King Chauhan Ajepal (Ajaypal), who was the brother of the King of Ajmer from the Chauhan clan of the Rajputs of Rajasthan. He settled here and established his kingdom in Kutch with Anjar as its capital to protect the country and defend against the invasion of Khalifa from across the sea. He established the first coastal security center in Kachchh. He died due to a mortal wound suffered during a fight around 685 AD (V.S. 741). He is now worshiped as Ajepal Dada and also as a Pir and his Samadhi and temple is located on the outskits of the city near Anjar railway station and is worshiped by all the communities of the town. The city was originally called Ajay Vaas after Ajepal but over the years the name changed to Anjar. Kutch was ruled by various dynasties such as Chauhan, Kathi, Solanki, Vaghela, Chawda and the Rajputs from 650 to 1500 AD. Anjar was the capital of Kutch in 806 AD. In 1005 AD Anjar was again declared capital by the Kathis. It was after the decline of the Chawda kingdom that the Jadeja dynasty came slowly into power from 1500 AD and by 1700 AD had established their rule over the whole of Kutch. Rao Khengarji I of Jadeja again declared Anjar capital in year 1545 AD (V.S. 1602) before Bhuj was declared capital in 1549. In the years 1763 to 1765 when Gulam Shah Kalhora of the Sind invaded Kutch, the Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas, or Mistris, consisting of warrior Rajput clans such as the Chauhan, Jethwa, Rathod, Wadher, Chawda, Khodiyar, Chudasama, Sawaria, Gohil, Solanki, Vaghela, Parmar, Taunk etc. fought in the Battle of Zora along with other casts like the Lohanas, Miyanas, Memons etc. in defense of the land with the army of Jadeja the kings of Kutch. In later years Kutch became a dependency and a Princely State under suzerainty of British India in 1818. The Anjar city, district of Anjar including Port of Tuna came under direct rule of British in year 1815, after the army of Kutch was defeated near the Bhadreshwar Jain Temple. The Anjar Chovishi came again under Rajya Hukumat reverting back to the kings of Kutch after an agreement between them and the British to compensate for same on 25 December 1822.[6][94] Jadeja dynasty thus ruled Kutch for around 450 years till its merger into the Union of India in 1947, the administration of which was transferred to Union of India in 1948. The erstwhile Princely State of Kutch worked as Commissionaire from 1948 till 1950, when it was made to a separate state named the Kutch State within the Union of India. On 1 November 1956 Kutch State was merged into the Bombay State as per the States Reorganisation Act. The Bombay state was again divided on linguistic basis into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra which came into existence on 1 May 1960. With it Kutch became a part of Gujarat as Kutch District, the largest district of India. Kutch is a sensitive area as its north border is with the Sindh province of Pakistan and is guarded by the Border Security Force of the Indian Army. At present, certain areas of the Rann of Kutch are beyond the reach of civilians.[6][16]

Present day Anjar Taulka was known as Anjar Chovishi. Chovish means number 24 in Gujarati language. Anjar Taluka was called Anjar Chovishi as it consisted of 24 Villages in those days. Out of these 24 Villages 13 villages (Anjar, Sinugra, Kumbharia, Chandiya, Lovariya, Meghpar, Galpadar, Devariya, Khedoi, Khambhra, Nagalpar, Vidi, Ratnal) belonged to the Mistri community and they held major land holdings in the other 11 villages (Varsamedi, Bhadroi, Sukhpar, Chandrani, Mindiyani, Dabada, Sapeda, Ambapar, Sugaria, Sanghad-Mathak etc.). except the Tuna Port. Thus the Mistri community were Jagirdars or Garasdards of almost whole of Anjar Taluka in those days. The villages in Anjar Chovishi were called Ugamana Patt, as said earlier. The other Six villages (Nagor, Hajapar, Reha, Madhapar, Jambudi and Kukma) in Dungraal Patt of Bhuj Taluka did not come under direct British Rule during 1815–1822. The word Anjar Chovishi is still used by many to identify Anjar Taluka.[5][6]

The major famines and drought Kutch has suffered were in 1315, 1811, 1812, 1900, 1969. Of which the famine of 1900 (V.S. 1956) is famous as Chhapaniyo Dukar. Chhapan in Gujarati language means – Number 56 and Dukar means drought. After the drought of 1315, the famine of 1900 was most deadly according to the records of the Mistri community, which led to the migration of many communities out of Kutch to seek a livelihood.[6]

Kutch has been ravaged by earthquakes in 1618, 1819, 1844, 1845, 1874, 1901, 1941, 1956 and 2001. The earthquakes of 1819 and 2001 were of major intensity and most disastrous. The earthquake of 1819 completely destroyed Bhuj, Mandvi, Anjar. The earthquake of 1819 also made a geographical change. The Allahbund fault stopped the waters of the river Indus flowing into Kutch.[6]

The 2001 earthquak proved to be major disaster for Kutch and major casualties were recorded in Anjar, Bhuj, Bhachau with death toll crossing reaching 19,752 and injured 166,000 as per Government records.[95] More than 600,000 people were left homeless, with 348,000 houses destroyed and an additional 844,000 damaged and more than 20,000 cattle were reported to have died.[95]

The following villages of Mistris were affected and destroyed – Anjar, Sinugra, Khambhra, Devaliya, Chandiya, Nagalpar, etc. Many heritage houses and havelis belonging to rich Mistri families, built almost 100 years ago, with ornate facades, intricate door carvings and metal grill windows and verandas depicting the life of Queen Victoria were all raised to the ground. There were also huge wall and ceiling paintings depicting scenes from Mahabharata and Ramayana which are no more. The majestic interiors, doors and window panels of some of the houses were similar in design, which can still be seen in Prag Mahal.[6][9][10]

Along with other communities of Kutch, the KGK also suffered the one of largest human casualties in their long history in the earthquake of 26 January 2001. In many cases whole families of the KGK community were buried alive and this day will be remembered as a black day in the communities long history. The majestic houses built by their fore-fathers, one of the cultural heritage of Kutch, Gujarat has also been lost, all being raised to the ground. For many members of the community the earthquake was a double blow. Not only did they lose their loved ones, they also lost their houses and shops. However the community, which has for centuries survived many such tragedies, calamities and warfare has bounced back like so many times before.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Total population of Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj around worldwide is approximately 51,000, and it has 23 surnames
  2. ^ a b c d Shri K. G. Kshatriya Samaj is a small Gujrat based community of around 50,000 people. The K.G.K. community is known for its commitment to hard work and initially made its presence felt as a contractors in Railways, Road, Forest and Construction.
  3. ^ a b "English Translation: Mestre". Webster's Online Dictionary. http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/Portuguese/Mestre?cx=partner-pub-0939450753529744%3Av0qd01-tdlq&cof=FORID%3A9&ie=UTF-8&q=Mestre&searchtype=Definitions%20Only&doc=1. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Collins Portuguese Dictionary 2nd edition". Collins. 2001. http://dictionary.reverso.net/portuguese-english/mestre. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Kumar Ganti Itihass (History of Kumar Gnati) Published in year 1896.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el Raja Pawan Jethwa (2007). Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj: A Brief History and Glory of our Fore-Fathers. Calcutta. 
    The Book has separate sections: INTRODUCTION: Gives an over view of Kutch Gurjar Kshtriya community and its ancient history (I) KGK and Architect built by them mainly in Princely State of Cutch. (II) KGK and Railway: Gives details of some major Railway work with mileage wise details (III) KGK Surnames and History: Section gives details of various Kshatriya communities like Solanki, Chauhan, Rathor, Jethwa, Parmar, Taunk, Chawda, etc. The history of origin of these surnames. (IV) Section deals with Kuldevi names various clans of KGK worship and history of these Kuldevi.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j History of Kutch Gurjar Kshatiryas
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Gurjar Kshatriyas, also known as Mistris, came to Kutch from Rajasthan. They are skilled in building construction. They first established themselves at Dhaneti and were granted 18 villages by the rulers of Kutch. They are famous designers and developers of buildings and bridges.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Sinougra houses no longer live-up to their claim to fame: Indian Press Report dated February 18, 2008: After earthquake of 2001 giving details of Mistri of Kutch – Migration to Fiji, Africa and details of artistic houses in their village of Sinugra, Kookma and Pramod Jethi, curator of the Aina Mahal Trust Museum, Bhuj and an authority on Kutchi art says, People from Sinougra were working in the construction of the Howrah Bridge. In fact, many Victorian buildings in Kolkata have been built by the karigars (artisans) of the region. After earthqauke, Sinugra the village, one of the 18 of the ‘mistry gams’ or craftsmen villages scattered in Anjar and Mundra Talukas, has now nothing to show that it was once the home to some of Kutch’s finest artisans. The scenario is no different in Kookma, Madhapar, Deoria, Khamara and the other craftsmen villages of the region. When the 1948 earthquake destroyed the village, its residents from East Africa to Kolkata rebuilt it with care, making the walls, facades, the jharokhas of the houses — the entire architecture was some of the finest repository of their ancestral skills. But the post-2001 quake years did not witness any such painstaking effort.
  10. ^ a b c d e In shambles lies Pride of Kutch: (Indian Press Report dated March 12, 2001: After earthquake giving details of Sinogra and other villages of Mistris of Kutch) Sinogra is known as the Pride of Kutch. At least it was until January 26. The killer-temblor has taken down with it this unique village created more than a century ago by `mistris' or masons with a plan that would make modern town developers blush. There were about 100 buildings—all two or three-storyed built between 1890 and 1910—and each was an architectural marvel in itself. However, what made these buildings stand apart was the exquisite art and their interior design. The century-old art and interior design was unique to Sinogra because they have never been painted or created again anywhere else. The entire village belongs to `mistris' and kadias or masons who designed the buildings and the village layout themselves. However, all that is lost for good as almost all the buildings have collapsed taking down with them these marvels. The ceilings of each room in these majestic buildings had been painstakingly hand-painted—some of which were as big as 30 feet X 30 feet. There were rare paintings of Queen Victoria, Lord Krishna with gopis, floral murals, intricate carving in iron grills and wooden jaalies, besides the exquisite jharokhas, which made each of these buildings a masterpiece. According to curators of the Kutch Museum in Bhuj, these paintings, jaalis and jharokhas are worth preserving for their uniqueness and rarity. Besides, the buildings are adorned with tiles specially designed by a British firm Garlicks and Co Flooring Tiles. Coloured cement prepared by Katni Coloured Cements, Mumbai, has been used in most of the buildings. There were marble mosaic tiles, mother of pearl tiles (meant for palaces annd theatres) and glazed tiles in the massive drawing rooms and dining halls. ``Some of the kind of colours used inside are not available these days.
  11. ^ a b c d Mistri Encyclopaedia of Backward Castes By Neelam Yadav Page 316.
  12. ^ Kadia, Gurjar Ksahtriya Kadia, Gurjar Kadia Encyclopaedia of Backward Castes By Neelam Yadav Page 264, 316
  13. ^ Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya and other communities of Kutch
  14. ^ a b c d Kadia Kshatriya Abhudaya
  15. ^ a b Kuldevi of Chauhan in Kukma with the clan family tree History Section
  16. ^ a b In our community person like " Ganga Maru" did hard work to to unite roaming Kshatriya's family and send them to Kutchh from different part of Saurashtra. They developed a village named " Ghaneti" and settled Kshatriya's family over there. One troop settled to "Saver" Village from Kutchh and that famous as "Saver Kundla" and from few of them went to Hallar (Guj) and through out India. They took interest in activity like agriculture, mason, and construction work to suit with the situation. New big palaces, big wells and steps of lakes and building were build. Our forefathers have accepted the situation suited for there survival. And with time they accepted the surname of " Kadia" or "Mistry" due to their preoffesional need. Historical Background of Gurjar Kshatriya Kadia Community
  17. ^ Names of Villages belonging to Gurjar Kshatriyas
  18. ^ a b c History of KGK Samaj with download links of PDF of some pages of Kumar Ganti History Book: 1896 and others
  19. ^ a b Madhapar History. Madhapar founded by Madha Kanji Solanki. Suralbhit and Jadeshwar Madhadev Temple built by Mistris. Patel Community Document
  20. ^ a b Solanki Vansh nu Kutch ma utran. (A brief history of Kutch and migration and rule of Solanki to Kutch)
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published in Gujarati in year 1999 from Vadodara. It is a diary of Railway Contracts done by KGK community noted by Nanji Govindji Tank during his life-time last entry in 1954. The diary was later discovered his son Govardhan Nanji Tank and released as a book complied by Dharsibhai Jethalal Tank. This book was given Aank Sidhhi award by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in year 2000.(Majority of above details of Railway contracts are taken from this book. The book also has a section with photos on Historical Monuments and Architects built by Mistris of Kutch. Further, it also has life-sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor, Govamal Jiwan Chauhan of Kumbharia, Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra, Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar, Purshottam Khimji Chauhan of Reha, Visram Valji Rathor of Madhapar, Karsan Bhima of Madhapar, Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar, Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra, Jeram Jagmal of Kumbharia, Manvji Punja Chauhan of Nagor, Bhimjee Pancha of Nagor, Hirji Karamshi and Rai Sahib Lalji Hirji Chauhan of Devaria and many others with their photos and other details. Book also has excerpts from Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.)
  23. ^ Later on, under the influence of one Narayana Mistri, many Kanbis of Kutch were reconverted to neo Hinduistic Swaminarayana sect Folk art and culture of Gujarat:guide to the collection of the Shreyas Folk Museum of Gujarat.
  24. ^ Kutch Tari Asmita
  25. ^ Prag Mahal - This palace was built for Rao Pragmalji II (1860–75) by the British architects and the Kutchi builders
  26. ^ a b c d e Kutch Darpan (Gujarati Magazine published from Vadodara) August 2009 issue (article on Jagmal Raja Chauhan)
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa of Calcutta complied by Raja Pawan Jethwa published in year 1998 in English. (The majority of community's history in coal mining is taken from this book. The book gives detail and names of pioneers of other communities in Jharia coalfields also like NH Ojha and Amritlal H. Ojha, Kriparshankar Worah and Narveram Chanchani as Chanchani and Worah, Kesabji Pitambar, JK Agarwall, BP Agarwal, HD Agarwalla, Karamchand Thapar, Diwan Bahadur DD Thacker, Kalyanji Mavji, Seth Jhurumal, Ram Saran Das, etc. Further, a brief life-sketch of Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Rai Sahib Devraj Dahya Chawda of Sinugra, Govamal Jeewan Chauhan of Kumbharia, Seth Raja Narayan Chawra of Kumbharia, Jagmal Gangji and Rai Sahib Moolji Jagmal Sawaria of Kumbharia, Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan of Kumbharia, Rai Sahib Ruda Laddha Chawra of Madhapar, Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra, Bechar Hardas and Rai Sahib Narshi Bechar Khodiyar of Anjar, Ghela Pachan Parmar of Kookma, Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagher, Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar, Lira Velaji, Jetha Lira Jethwa and Karsanjee Jetha Jethwa and Devram Jetha Jethwa of Sinugra, Ramji Rupa, Ratanji Ramji and Dhanji Ratanji Rathod of Nagalpar, Gangjee Dossa and Khimjee Dossa Jethwa of Nagalpar, etc.)
  28. ^ "Kumbha Mavaji Chavda – Galpadar" ni Nodh Pothi (Gujarati Book)
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sansmriti – A memoir written by Nanalal Amarsinh Chauhan of Bagalkot in Gujarati language published in 2004. (The book gives details of re-organization and history of KGK Samaj after 1950 till 1985. Also brief life-sketch of Lira Raja Rathod and Amarsinh Lira and Purshottam Lira Rathod of Calcutta, Hirji Khimji Chauhan of Ratnagiri, Vallabhdas Kunwarjee Tank of Bombay, Balram Madhavjee Vadher of Raipur, Kanji Morarji Rathor of Raipur, Kantilal Ruda Sawaria of Raipur, Mavji Mulji Chauhan of Madurai, Mavji Dahya Chawda of Belur-Hassan, Jiwram Morarji Rathor of Raipur, Devram Jetha Jethwa of Calcutta, Vijaysinh Kunwarjee Rathod of Cuttack, Dr. Vasant Kunwarjee Chawda of Ahmedabad, Lalji Murji Gohil of Pune, etc.)
  30. ^ Another earthquake in Rann of Kutch took place on July 21, 1956 at a place called Anjar 80 miles south east of Allah Band and caused great damage to life and property.
  31. ^ [2] Anjar, April 15, 2001 a 17-year-old they believe is Amit Jethva walked in, from the dead, to a Block 14 house in Mistry Camp-2.
  32. ^ Govind Bhai Jethwa, a gover-nment employee, coordinating the Mistry camp at Anjar told us, "After the earthquake, there was a state of total chaos, with people desperately searching for their family members amidst the rubble. A collective marriage ceremony was to take place on January 26, and a family-wise list of the community had been prepared for this purpose, which helped us detect the number of people dead or missing in our community." While speaking to Govind Bhai, we also met Joseph Bhai, a Khatri Muslim. On being questioned on the issue of communal tension, Joseph Bhai replied, "Twice, I had lunch in the Mistry camp and I felt no tension there."
  33. ^ The 2001 Gujarat earthquake had brought the roof down on his classroom. But his mother waited for him for five years. Then one day in April last year, Amit joined Jayaben at Mistry Camp-II in Anjar. Lost in the earthquake at 12, found at 17, dead a year later
  34. ^ Contractors where more famous as mistry. It was common to find them wearing black hat and black coat, which is how they were popular. They use stand on Theka(hieghted place), hence they were also know as thekedar. Those days Mistrys use to behave with strict rules and regulation with co workers.
  35. ^ The Kadias and Bricklayers are also called Chunaras or lime-men whose main profession is brick laying, though a few among them work as masons
  36. ^ Prince's and Victoria docks in state of decay
  37. ^ In 1750, first port was built in Mumbai. Workers from Kutch skilled in stone-work contributed. Second port was built in 1755, third in 1765. In construction of these ports there were different people: "Kamathi" and people from sikar (Rajasthan) and Kutch(Gujarat) Kadia Gurjar Samaj: History of Samaj in Mumbai.
  38. ^ a b [3] Around 1845, there was increase in flow of people travelling to Mumbai from kutch and kathiyavad ports. During this time there was No rain in gujarat region for long time, hence more people started shifting in search of livelihood. In 1853 new railway lines where laid between Mumbai and Thane. In 1855 BBCI railways got started. For platforms and building development for railway facility, many of our samaj people got involved. Kadia samaj people where involved in some of the famous structures of Mumbai: JJ School of arts, Victoria terminus, High court, Princess dock, Town Hall, Victoria dock, Wilson college, Apollo bandar(port), Taj Mahal hotel building.
  39. ^ Ratna Bhagat ni Chopdi 1930
  40. ^ Rukmavati River. The Rukmavati Bridge constructed in the year 1883 across this river is regarded as the longest stone bridge of Kutch.
  41. ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by British Authority (1920)
  42. ^ Gazetteers of Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Orissa 1917 Khora Ramji Colliries
  43. ^ Ambalal Khora Legal
  44. ^ Gangji Dossa and Sons is situated in Mousa Kujama of Dhanbad Sub-division at a distance of 7 1/2 miles from Dhanbad, lying about half-a-mile to the east of Jharia town. This colliery was opened in 1902 and has been working continuously Lok Sabha debates, Lok Sabha Secretariat., 1961
  45. ^ Ratna Mepa, Devraj Ramji Indian coal statistics 1915
  46. ^ Khora Ramji Mines capsized in 1938
  47. ^ Jharia Coalfields: Khora Ramji, Narayan Chowra, etc
  48. ^ 1965 Directory naming many Collieries of KGK Community: Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja (Rajapur Colliery), Indian Jharia Colliery, Khas Bugatdih Colliery, Khas Jeenagora Colliery, etc.
  49. ^ K. S. Nanji and Co., Jharia – Legal
  50. ^ Diamond Coal Co, Ltd, Jharia – Legal
  51. ^ a b Coking Coal Nationalisation Act of 1972 – Naming many collieries of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas: Khora Ramji, Gangji Dossa, Khimjee Dossa, Debram Ramji, Diamond Coal, Dhanji Devji, Chowra Construction owner of North Kujama, etc
  52. ^ a b Coal Mines Nationalization Act, 1973 Naming many collieries of Kutch Gurjar Kshatriyas: Khimjee Dossa, Chauhan Brothers, Devji Gelabhai, etc
  53. ^ Khimji Walji, Khora Ramji, Jharia
  54. ^ a b Indian Export Directory: 1965. Pg 19,20 Collieries and Coal Merchants.
  55. ^ India at a Glance: A comprehensive reference book on India by T. V. Rama Rao, G. D. Binani. Published by Orient Longmans in 1954 (Coal Mines Section)
  56. ^ Indigenous Enterprise in the Indian Coal Mining Industry c.1835–1939 C.P. Simmons – Published in 1976.
  57. ^ Report on the production and consumption of coal in India of 1921 India. Dept. of Statistics (Superintendent Government Printing, 1921 – Technology and Engineering).
  58. ^ [4]
  59. ^ Arjun Lodha mines
  60. ^ Hirji Premji Parmar and Deoji Jairam Solanki soapstone and kaline mines legal
  61. ^ Legal Documents Rai Bahadur Jairam Valji Chauhan
  62. ^ Personal Diary of Parbat Harji Chauhan, Visakhapatnam, written in 1954. (Scanned pages printed in Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi, 1999.) The diary gives also details of daily life of Nepal, customs of Royal families. Also an interesting incident: How the workers, who were addicted to Bidi, refused to work without them. As Cigarettes and bidis, were banned in Nepal, the workers revolted and wanted to go back. However, he informed the British Resident of the problem. The British Officer, got Bidis for them from India, by a parcel in his personal name.
  63. ^ a b [5] Cuttack, one thousand years, Volume 2, Page 293
  64. ^ Website naming Vidarbha Ayurvedic College and Gopal Nanji Tank Hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra
  65. ^ website naming Smt. M. H. Wegad Science Collage, Umred: founded by H. D. Wegad of Kumbharia
  66. ^ Samaj Sandesh: 2009 December
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Pradeshik Samiti and Ghatak of KGK
  68. ^ Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj, Pune: Sagpan Sanmelean Press Report dated 22 February, 2009
  69. ^ Amarsinh Gowamal And Sons Legal
  70. ^ Encyclopaedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by British Authorities (1925): Life sketch of Govamal Jiwan Chauhan
  71. ^ Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj: A brief History and Glory of our fore-fathers: by R. P. Jethwa. (2007). Section II: Mileage wise available Details of Railway lines laid
  72. ^ Society of Glass Technology, Sheffild, England 1941: John Northwood and Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja
  73. ^ Jagmal Raja – Ambica Airlines Limited Legal Document
  74. ^ Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja – Life-sketch Modern Bombay and Indian states: T. Peters, Who's Who Publishers (India), 1942
  75. ^ Modern Bombay and Indian States: by T. Peters, Who's Who Publishers (India), 1942 (Pg 250 Life-sketch of Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan)
  76. ^ Modern Bombay and her patriotic citizens: Published by Who's Who Publishers (India), 1941 – Article on Jagmal Raja Chauhan.
  77. ^ Willingdon Bridge, Calcutta. The work was carried out by Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja, Assoc. Inst. CE Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) 1934: Willingdon Bridge and Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Pg 80–110
  78. ^ Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress, Volume 17 Asiatic Society of Bengal, Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India), Indian Science Congress Association Reference on Rai Bahadur Jagamal Raja.
  79. ^ Bhav-Ganga: A Gujarati Book written by Smt. Bhanuben Jayram Chauhan on R. B. Jagmal Raja Chauhan.
  80. ^ a b c d Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj Mahasabha-Vasti Patrak (1972) – (History section). Published in 1972 in Gujarati language. (As per 1972 vasti-patrak following persons have been officially acknowledged posthumously (with few exceptions) for their contributions and achievements with their life-sketch: Mandan Ramji Patel of Anjar, Jairam Ruda Gajdhar Rathod of Anjar, Devram Daya Varu of Anjar, 'Patel' Kunwarji Ramji Chawda of Devaliya, Seth Raja Narayan Chawda of Kumbharia, Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Jharia, Rai Bahadur Jagamal Raja Chauhan of Nagor,Bombay, Manji Jeram Rathod, Madhapar, Pragji Premji Rathod of Khedoi, Kunwarji Ananda Vadher of Sinugra, Nanji Gokar Parmar, Premji Pancha Taunk of Kukma, Ratanshi Manji Tank, Sinugra, Gaya, Khoda Ratna Tank, Sinugra, Balram Madhavji Vadher of Sinugra, Bhatapara, Manji Govamal Chauhan, Kumbharia, Dhanbad, Karsanji Jetha Jethwa, Sinugra, Hemraj Kanji Chawda, Sinougra, Bhimji Lakhu Vegad of Anjar, Vishram Karman Chawda, Chandiya, Raja Khimji Chavda, Chandiya, Mandan Bhanji Paramar of Kukma, Amarsinh Govamal Chauhan, Kumbharia, Dhanbad, Dhanji Ratanji Rathod, Nagalpar, Tisra, Lira Raja Rathor of Khambhra, Calcutta, Premji Meghji Sawaria of Kumbharia, Purshottam Khimji Chauhan, Reha, Dhanbad)
  81. ^ Cuttack Electric Supply Co Ltd. Founded 1929 Director Rai Sahib Koovarji Karsen Rathor
  82. ^ Purshottam Khimji Chauhan, Jharia
  83. ^ Indian Export Directory – 1965 Naming: Winsol Chemical, Winsol House, Bombay – Company owned by Seth Vallabhdas Kunwarjee Tank
  84. ^ Website naming D. D. Bytco Boys High School and Jr College founded by Jairam Dahya Chauhan of Kumbharia
  85. ^ Website naming J. D. Bytco Commerce Collagefounded by Jairam Dahya Chauhan of Kumbharia
  86. ^ J. D. Bytco Institute of Management Studies
  87. ^ Kanji Morarji Rathor, Mg. Director, Himmat Steel Foundry, Bhiali Who's who in India, Guide Publications., 1986 – Biography and Autobiography
  88. ^ Samaj Sandesh: January 1996
  89. ^ Samaj Sandesh 2009: Obitury Bharat Tank.
  90. ^ International Catalogue of Ayurvedic Publications – naming the book Vigyan Ki Kasauti Par: Swamutra Chikitsa, Pragji Mohanji Rathore
  91. ^ Article on Widow Re-marriage (custom of Ghar-gharana) prevalent in Samaj by Nanji Mulji Chauhan of Kurnool. (Samaj Sandesh: 1996 August Page 12)
  92. ^ Kadia Kshatriya Abhudaya: December, 1931
  93. ^ [6] Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya: Dhanbad Ghatak
  94. ^ Glimpse of Anjar, Kutch
  95. ^ a b 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake, Gujarat, India Origin Time 03:16 GMT Location 23.399N 70.316E Magnitude7.6Ms Depth 17 km
  • "Kadia Kshatriyat Abhudaya" – community magazine published in Gujarati from 1915 till 1955 from Anjar, Kutch.
  • Kadia Kshatriya Samaj – A Gujarati Book published by Nutan Prakashan
  • Samaj Sandesh - A community magazine published by community from Gandhidham, Kutch.
  • "Jagruti" – a Gujrati community magazine which used to be published from Pune by Late Chhagnalal Karman Yadav of Hajapar.
  • "Samaj Pratibha" – a Gujarati community magazine published from Rajnandgaon.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Modern Bombay and Indian States T. Peters, Who's Who Publishers (India), 1942 (Pg 250 Life-sketch of Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Chauhan
  • Modern Bombay and her patriotic citizens: Published by Who's Who Publishers (India), 1941 – Article on Jagmal Raja Chauhan.
  • Minutes of proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain) 1934: Willingdon Bridge and Rai Bahadur Jagmal Raja Pg 80–110
  • INDIAN WHO'S WHO 1937–38[1] 2 pages on Jagmal Raja
  • Kutch Darpan Magazine August 2009, article on Jagmal Raja Chauhan.
  • Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by British Authorities – 1920 and 1925
  • Ratna Bhagat Ni Chopdi First and Second Edition – Gujarati Book (This book also gives details of early railway contracts done by the community as well as details of historical monuments built by the Mistris of Kutch)
  • Nanji Bapa ni Nondh-pothi published from Baroda, in the Gujarati, 1999. It is a diary of railway contracts done by the KGK community, noted by Nanji Govindji Tank of Hajapar and Jamshedpur throughout his lifetime with his last entry in 1954. The diary was later discovered his son Govardhan Nanji Tank and released as a book compiled by Dharshibhai Jethalal Tank of Nagalpar and Tatanagar. This book was given the Aank Sidhhi award by Kutch Shakti at Mumbai in 2000. The majority of the details of the railway contracts are taken from this book which also has a section with photos on Historical Monuments and Architects built by the Mistris of Kutch and has life-sketches of Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Jagmal Raja Chauhan of Nagor, Govamal Jiwan Chauhan of Kumbharia, Lira Raja Rathod of Khambhra, Bechar Hardas Khodiyar of Anjar, Purshottam Khimji Chauhan of Reha, Visram Valji Rathor of Madhapar, Karsan Bhima of Madhapar, Manji Jeram Rathod of Madhapar, Khoda Ratna Tank of Sinugra, Jeram Jagmal of Kumbharia, Manvji Punja Chauhan of Nagor, Bhimjee Pancha of Nagor, Hirji Karamshi and Rai Sahib Lalji Hirji Chauhan of Devaria many others with their photos and other details. It also has excerpts from the Encyclopedia of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
  • Kutch Tari Asmita (A Gujarti Book).
  • Diary of Golden Days at Jharia – A Memoir and History of Gurjar Kashtriya Samaj of Kutch in Coalfields of Jharia – written by Natwarlal Devram Jethwa of Calcutta and Sinugra complied by Raja Pawan Jethwa published in year 1998 in English. (The majority of community's history in coal mining is taken from this book. However, details of Railway Contracts are mentioned in life sketch of Rai Sahib Moolji Jagmal Sawaria of Kumbharia, Rai Sahib Vishram Valji Rathod of Madhapar, Rai Sahib Ruda Laddha Chawrs of Madhapar, Seth Khora Ramji Chawda of Sinugra, Jetha Lira Jethwa of Sinugra, etc.)
  • Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj: A brief History and Glory of our fore-fathers: by R. P. Jethwa. (2007).
  • "Kumbha Mavaji Chavda – Galpadar ni Nodh Pothi"(Gujarati Book) by Kumbha Mavji Chawda of Galpadar.
  • Kadia Kshatriya Samaj- Itihas – A Gujarati Book published by Nutan Prakashan

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nagor —   village   Coordinates Country India State Gujarat …   Wikipedia

  • Nagalpar — Nagalpur   city   …   Wikipedia

  • Chandiya —   village   …   Wikipedia

  • Devaria, Kachchh — Devaria   village   Coordinates Country India State Gujarat …   Wikipedia