- Quran and miracles
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Muslims consider the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, as the word of God and a miracle. The Qur'an claims that it has been created miraculously as a revelation from Allah (God), as a perfect copy of what was written in heaven and existed there from all eternity. Therefore the verses of the book are referred to as ayat, which also means "a sign" in the Arabic language. It is believed that the Qur'an as we know it today, is the same as was revealed to Muhammad in the year 610. The Qur'an itself gives an open challenge for anyone who denies its claimed divine origin to produce a text like it. [Quran 17:88][11:12–13][2:23]
Critics believe that Muhammad was influenced by older Jewish and Christian traditions, and therefore included many of the wonders known from the Bible in the Qur'an. The Qur'an itself states that Muhammed was illiterate and neither read a book nor wrote a book [Quran 29:48] and that he did not know about past events [Quran 3:44][11:49][28:44]. Some Muslims believe that Quran is a "a miracle of eloquence" rather than a source of scientific revelation; they consider scientific miracles as pseudoscience.
The claimed miracles in the Qur’an can be classified into three distinct categories: inimitability, scientific miracles and prophecies.
Inimitability of the Qur'an
Inimitability is the theological and literary term used by Muslims for what they consider to be the matchless nature of the Qur'anic discourse. Islamic scholars believe that the Quran has an insuperable literary style and that this is a proof of its divine origin and cannot be matched by human endeavor.
Much support exists for the belief that Qur'anic speech was unique among the linguistic productions of seventh-century Arabs; many Muslim scholars believe that the speech in the Qur'an is like a rhymed pattern, which is characterized by the assonance at the end of the verses.
The belief that Qur'an had prophesied scientific theories and discoveries has become a strong and widespread belief in the contemporary Islamic world; these prophecies are often provided as a proof of the divine origin of the Qur'an. The scientific facts claimed to be in the Qur'an exist in different subjects, including creation, astronomy, human reproduction, oceanology, embroyology, zoology, the water cycle, and many more.
"a time is fixed for every prophecy; you will come to know in time".[Quran 6:67] Islamic scholar Zaghloul El-Naggar thinks that this verse refers to the scientific facts in the Qur'an that would be discovered by the world in modern time, centuries after the revelation.
This belief is, however, arguable in the Muslim world. While most believe and support it, some Muslim scholars oppose the belief, claiming that the Qur'an is not a book of science; al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical period, assigned to the Qur'an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur'an "does not interfere in the business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science." These scholars argued for the possibility of multiple scientific explanations of the natural phenomena, and refused to subordinate the Qur'an to an ever-changing science.
Islamic studies claim that the Qur'an mentions events which were yet to come. These studies argue that such prophecies show another proof of the divine origin of Qur'an. For example, some Islamic scholars believe that the Qur'an had predicted the eventual defeat of the Persians by the Romans in the 620s. Syed Abul Aala Maududi claims that this prophecy (30:1-4: "Alif. Lam. Mim. (1) The Romans have been defeated (2) In the nearer (lowest) land, and they, after their defeat will be victorious (3) In a few years (less than ten) - Allah's is the command in the former case and in the latter - and in that day believers will rejoice (4)") revealed in 615 AD, and this was 6 to 7 years before the Romans started overpowering the Persians.
- ^ F. Tuncer, "International Conferences on Islam in the Contemporary World", March 4–5, 2006, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A., p. 95–96
- ^ Wilson, Christy: "The Qur'an" in A Lion Handbook The World's Religion, p. 315
- ^ Wilson, ibid.
- ^ F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5
- ^ Gril, Denis. "Miracles" Encyclopaedia of the Quran.
- ^ Wilson, p. 316
- ^ F. Tuncer, ibid.
- ^ Sheikh Mahmud Shaltut, Dr. Aisha Abd al-Rahman, and Khaled Montaser were among the ones who rejected the idea the Quran scientific miracles. Arabic original source (Google English translation))
- ^ وهم الإعجاز العلمى (Arabic book for Dr. Khaled Montaser, titled meaning: The lie of scientific miracles)
- ^ a b Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Inimitability
- ^ Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Miracles
- ^ a b c d Ahmad Dallal, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, Quran and science
- ^ Encyclopaedia of the Qur-an — Byzantines
- ^ Tafheem-ul-Quran Volume 3, Introduction to Sura Room (Rome)ie Chapter#30 and the explanation of the first four verses
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