- Mineral CSA (brand)
Mineral CSA is a finely ground calcium silicate feedstock produced by the U.S.-based company Harsco Minerals, which provides a solution for correcting acidic conditions and managing toxic metals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD). Mineral CSA has been used on operating and abandoned mine sites since 1991. It is a highly refined, repurposed calcium silicate aggregate. Its parent material is a downstream stainless steel furnace slag that under goes “ageing” processes, fine grind pulverizing, and extensive metal separation (>99.95% of all metals removed) to remove impurities.
Mineral CSA was manufactured by Recmix, established in 1989 in Canonsburg, PA. In 1996, Recmix opened a second manufacturing facility in Sarver, PA. In early 2007, Harsco Corporation acquired the company as part of its Harsco Minerals division (headquartered in Mechanicsburg, PA).
Calcium silicate neutralizes active acidity by removing free hydrogen ions from the bulk solution, thereby increasing pH. As its silicate anion captures H+ ions (raising the pH), it forms monosilicic acid (H4SiO4), a neutral solute. Monosilicic acid remains in the bulk solution to aid in correcting the adverse effects of acidic conditions.
CaSiO3 + 2H+ + H2O → Ca2+ + H4SiO4 (monosilicic acid)
(Calcium silicate + Acidity + Water → Calcium + Monosilicic acid (neutral solute))
In the bulk solution, the silicate anion of Mineral CSA is very active in neutralizing H+ cations in the soil solution. Its CCE value is 90 – 100% and its relative neutralizing value is 98%.
Mineral CSA’s (calcium silicate) ability to ameliorate the adverse effects of acidic soil allows it to aid in the revegetation of acidic soils.
Precipitating heavy metals
In the presence of heavy metals, the calcium silicate aggregate reacts to form colloidal complexes with neutral or negative surface charges. These negatively charged colloids create an electrostatic repulsion with each other and precipitate heavy metals, preventing armoring of the material. This provides longer-lasting effectiveness of the material at AMD sites, as opposed to limestone (a popular remediation material) which tends to armor over, redering it ineffective.
Calcium 26-28% Soluble Silicon (compared to wollastonite) 113-114% pH 12.4 Calcium Carbonate Equivalent 90-100% Relative Neutralizing Value [.95x(99-90)/2+99] 98% Minimum Passing #20 Mesh Screen 99% Minimum Passing #100 Mesh Screen 65% Typical Moisture Content 14-20%
Dry weight basis:
Calcium 26-28% Magnesium 6-8% Calcium Carbonate Equivalent 90-100% Minimum Passing #20 Mesh Screen 99% Minimum Passing #60 Mesh Screen 90% Minimum Passing #100 Mesh Screen 75% Typical Moisture Content 10-18% Relative Neutralizing Value [.95x(99-90)/2+99] 98%
Soluble silicon release:
Material Tested Range of Soluble Silica as % of Control Mineral CSA 113-149 Vansil – Control 100 Titanium Iron Slag 73-97 Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag 13-68 Furnace Slag (BOF) 37-38 Silica Steel Slag 49-53
- Acid mine drainage remediation
- Operating surface and deep mines
- Abandoned mines
- Passive treatment
- Anaerobic wetlands
- Alkalinity Producing Systems (APS)
- Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS)
- Anoxic Limestone Drains (ALD)
- Limestone ponds
- Diversion wells
- Direct application into streams
- Active treatment
- Refuse piles
- Engineered fill and construction
- Sludge treatment and stabilization
- Mine buffering agent
- AMD plant feed stock
- Asphalt filler
- Road base
- UST backfill
- Pipe bedding
- Pipe backfill
- Landfill daily cover
- Clay pigeons
- ^ "About Mineral CSA". Harsco Minerals. http://www.harscominerals.com/csa/csa.pdf. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- ^ "Recmix.com About Us". http://www.aboutus.org/Recmix.com#-. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- ^ "EX-21 Subsidiaries of the Registrant". Harsco Corp 10-K for 12/31/07. http://www.secinfo.com/d1znFa.tYq.9.htm. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- ^ a b c Ziemkiewicz, Paul. "The Use of Steel Slag in Acid Mine Drainage Treatment and Control". http://wvmdtaskforce.com/proceedings/98/98zie/98zie.htm. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- ^ Skousen, Jeff. "Chemicals". Overview of Acid Mine Drainage Treatment with Chemicals. West Virginia University Extension Service. http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/landrec/chemtrt.htm#Chemicals. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- ^ Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Philip L. Sibrell; Harvey E. Belkin. "Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage". Applied Geochemistry (18): p.1710–1714. http://mine-drainage.usgs.gov/pubs/AG_18-1705-1721.pdf. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- ^ Calcium Silicon-Based Mineral CSA. Harsco Minerals.
- Acid mine drainage remediation
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