- Armed Forces of the Empire of Brazil
Brazilian Armed Forces
Emperor Dom Pedro II, Commander-in-Chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces (1831–89) dressed as an Admiral.
Service branches Brazilian Army
Leadership Commander-in-Chief Pedro I (1822–31)
Pedro II (1831–89)
Minister of War
Minister of Navy
Expenditures Budget Rs 30.400:000$000 (1888) Related articles History Military history of Brazil
Brazilian War of Independence
War of the Triple Alliance
Ranks Military ranks of Brazil
The Armed Forces of the Empire of Brazil were the overall unified military forces of the Empire of Brazil. The Brazilian military was first formed by Emperor Dom Pedro I to defend the new nation against the Portuguese Empire in the Brazilian War of Independence. The Army and Armada (as the Navy was called) were commissioned in 1822 with the objective of defeating and expelling the Portuguese troops from Brazilian soil.
From the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the Empire of Brazil. A sense of national unity and identity was forged out of the victorious War of the Triple Alliance. The Emperor was commander-in-chief of the military, with the Ministries of War and Navy, as the main organs by which military policy was carried out.
- 1 Organization
- 2 Armada
- 3 Army
- 4 See also
- 5 Footnotes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Brazilian Armed Forces were subordinated to the Emperor, its Commander-in-Chief. He was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in regard to matters concerning the Army and the Armada, respectively. Traditionally, the holders of the office of Ministers of War and Navy were civilians but there were some exceptions. The model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces had unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while keeping distance from political decisions and also from the ones referring to borders's security".
The military personnel were allowed to run and serve in political offices while staying on active duty. However, they did not represent the Army or the Armada but instead the population of the city or province that they were elected by. Dom Pedro I chose nine military personnel as Senators and five (out of 14) to the State Council. During the Regency, two were chosen to the Senate and none to the State Council as there was none at the time. Dom Pedro II chose four military personnel to become Senators during the 1840s, two in 1850s and three until the end of his reign. He also chose seven military personnel to be State Counselors during the 1840s and 1850s and three after that.
Early years, 1822–31
The National Armada (later known as the Brazilian Navy), informally known as Imperial Armada, appeared with the independence of the country. It was formed almost in its totality by ships, staff, organizations and doctrines proceeding from the transference of the Portuguese Royal Family in 1808. Some of its members were native-born Brazilians, who under Portugal had been forbidden to serve. Other members were Portuguese who adhered to the cause of separation and foreign mercenaries. Some establishments created by King João VI of Portugal were used and incorporated such as the Department of Navy, Headquarters of the Navy, the Intendancy and Accounting Department, the Arsenal (Shipyard) of the Navy, the Academy of Navy Guards, the Naval Hospital, the Auditorship, the Supreme Military Council, the powder plant, and others. The Brazilian-born Captain Luís da Cunha Moreira was chosen as the first minister of the Navy on October 28, 1822.
Britisher Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane was nominated the commander of the Brazilian Armada and received the rank of "First Admiral". At that time, the fleet was composed of one ship of the line, four frigates, and smaller ships for a total of 38 warships. The Secretary of Treasury Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada created a national subscription to generate capital in order to increase the size of the fleet. From all over Brazil contributions were sent. Even the Emperor Dom Pedro I acquired at his own expense a merchant brig (that was renamed "Caboclo") and donated it to the State. The navy fought in the north and also south of Brazil where it had a decisive role in the independence of the country.
After the suppression of the revolt in Pernambuco in 1824 and prior to the Argentina-Brazil War, the navy increased significantly in size and strength. From its 38 ships in 1822, the navy had in its possession 96 modern warships of various types with over 690 cannons. The Armada blocked the estuary of the Rio de la Plata hindering the contact of the United Provinces (as Argentina was called back then) with the Cisplatine rebels and the outside world. Several battles had occurred between Brazilian and Argentine ships until the defeat of an Argentine flotilla composed of two corvettes, five brigs and one barquentine near the Island of Santiago in 1827. When Pedro I abdicated in 1831, he left a powerful navy made up of two ships of the line and ten frigates in addition to corvettes, steamships, and other ships for a total of at least 80 warships in peace time.
Quelling rebellions, 1831–49
During the 58-year reign of Dom Pedro II the Brazilian Navy reached the point at which it was strongest in relation to various navies around the world. The Arsenal, Navy department, and the Naval Jail were improved and the Imperial Mariner Corps (formed then by volunteers) was created. Steam navigation was definitively adopted. Brazil quickly modernized the fleet acquiring ships from foreign sources while also constructing others locally. It also substituted the old smoothbore cannons for new ones with rifled barrels, which were more accurate and had longer ranges. Improvements were also made in the Arsenals (shipyards) and naval bases that were equipped with new workshops. Ships were constructed in the Arsenal of the Navy in Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife, Santos, Niterói and Pelotas. The Armada also successfully fought against all revolts that occurred during the Regency (where it made blockades and transported the Army troops) such as: Cabanagem, War of Tatters, Sabinada, Balaiada, amongst others.
When Emperor Pedro II was declared of legal age and assumed his constitutional prerogatives in 1840, the Armada had over 90 warships: six frigates, seven corvettes, two barque-schooners, six brigs, eight brig-schooners, 16 gunboats, 12 schooners, seven armed brigantine-schooners, six steam barques, three transport ships, two armed luggers, two cutters and thirteen larger boats.
During the 1850s the State Secretary, the Accounting Department of the Navy, the Headquarter of the Navy and the Naval Academy were reorganized and improved. New ships were bought and the ports administrations were better equipped. The Imperial Mariner Corps was definitively regularized and the Marine Corps was created, taking the place of the Naval Artillery. The Service of Assistance for Invalids was also established, along with several schools for sailors and craftsmen.
Platine Wars, 1849–70
Year Navy (number of ships) 1822 38 1825 96 1831 80 1840 90 1851 59 1864 40 1870 94 1889 60
The conflicts in the Platine region did not cease after the war of 1825. The anarchy caused by the despotic Rosas and his desire to subdue Bolívia, Uruguay and Paraguay forced Brazil to intercede. The Brazilian Government sent a naval force of 17 warships (a ship of the line, 10 corvettes and six steamships) commanded by the veteran John Pascoe Grenfell. The Brazilian fleet succeeded in passing through the Argentine line of defence in Toneleros under heavy attack and transported the troops to the theater of operations. The Brazilian Armada had a total of 59 vessels of various types in 1851: 36 armed sailing ships, 10 armed steamships, seven unarmed sailing ships and six sailing transports.
More than a decade later the Armada was once again modernized and its fleet of old sailing ships was converted to a fleet of 40 steamships armed with more than 250 cannons. In 1864 the navy fought in the Uruguayan War and immediately afterwards in the War of the Triple Alliance where it annihilated the Paraguayan navy in the Battle of Riachuelo. The navy was further increased with the acquisition of 20 ironclads and six fluvial monitors. At least 9,177 navy personnel fought in the five years' conflict. Brazilian naval constructors such as Napoleão Level, Trajano de Carvalho and João Cândido Brasil planned new concepts for warships that allowed the country's Arsenals to keep their competitiveness with other nations. All damage suffered by ships was repaired in addition to various improvements to the ships. In 1870, Brazil had 94 modern warships and had the fifth most powerful navy in the world.
Final years, 1870–89
During the 1870s, the Brazilian Government strengthened the navy as the possibility of a war against Argentina over Paraguay's future became quite real. Thus, it acquired a gunboat and a corvette in 1873, an ironclad and a monitor in 1874 and immediately afterwards two cruisers and another monitor. The improvement of the Armada continued during the 1880s. The Arsenals of the Navy in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco, Pará and Mato Grosso continued to build dozens of warships. Also, four torpedo boats were bought.
On November 30, 1883, the Practical School of Torpedoes was created and also a workshop devoted to construction and repairing torpedoes and electric devices in the Arsenal of Navy of Rio de Janeiro. This Arsenal constructed four steam gunboats and one schooner, all with iron and steel hulls (the first of these categories constructed in the country). The Imperial Armada reached its apex with the incorporation of the ironclad battleships Riachuelo and Aquidabã (both equipped with torpedo launchers) in 1884 and 1885, respectively. Both ships (considered state-of-the-art by experts from Europe) allowed the Brazilian Armada to retain its position as one of the most powerful naval forces. By 1889, the navy had 60 warships and was the fifth or sixth most powerful of the world.
In the last cabinet of the monarchic regime, the Minister of the Navy, Admiral José da Costa Azevedo (the Baron of Ladário), left an unfinished project of reorganization and modernization of the navy. The coup that ended the monarchy in Brazil in 1889 was not well accepted by the personnel of the Armada. Imperial Mariners were attacked when they tried to give their support to the imprisoned Emperor in the City Palace. The Marquis of Tamandaré begged Pedro II to allow him to fight back the coup, however, the Emperor refused to allow any bloodshed. Tamandaré would later be imprisoned by order of the dictator Floriano Peixoto under the accusation of financing the monarchist military in the Federalist Revolution.
The Baron of Ladário remained in contact with the exiled Imperial Family, hoping to restore the monarchy, but ended up being ostracized by the republican government. Admiral Saldanha da Gama led the Revolt of the Armada with the objective of restoring the Empire and allied himself with other monarchists that were fighting in the Federalist Revolution. However, all the attempts at restoration were violently crushed. High ranking Monarchist officers were imprisoned, banished or executed by firing squad without due process of law and their subordinates also suffered harsh punishments.
Early years, 1822–31
The National Army, or Imperial Army, during the monarchy was divided into two branches: the 1st Line, which was the Army itself; and the 2nd Line that was formed by the Militias and Orderlies inherited from the colonial times. With the refusal to join the Independence cause by the Portuguese military in the provinces of the Bahia, Maranhão, Pará and Cisplatine, Emperor Pedro I reorganized the troops at his disposal for the imminent conflict. Most of the personnel stationed in the country remained loyal to the monarch, who made use of troops, equipment and forts for the war operations. The terrestrial force efficiently fought in the north and the south of Brazil, defeating the loyal troops of Portugal. In 1824 the Army of 1st Line had 24,000 men disciplined, trained and equipped just as well as its European equivalents. At the end of the war of Independence, the Brazilian Armed Forces were already well organized and equipped. This occurred mainly because Pedro I heavily supported the Army. In the same year a battalion was sent to Pernambuco where it successfully quelled the revolt of the Confederation of the Equator.
Army officers' training was completed in the Military Academy (now Academia Militar de Agulhas Negras and also the only engineering school in Brazil up to 1874), although it was not obligatory for personnel to study there to advance in the profession. Personnel from the infantry and cavalry branches only needed to study the disciplines of the 1st (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry and technical drawing) and 5th years (tactical, strategy, camping, fortification in campaign, terrain reconnaissance and chemistry), while the engineers and artillerymen were obliged to carry through the complete course, which resulted in their branches being considered the most prestigious. However, infantrymen and cavalrymen were allowed to study the disciplines of the 2nd (algebra, geometry, analytical geometry, differential and integral calculus, descriptive geometry and technical drawing), 3rd (mechanics, ballistics and technical drawing), 4th (spherical trigonometry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, geography and technical drawing), 6th (regular and irregular fortification, attacking and defending strongholds, civil architecture, roads, ports, canals, mineralogy and technical drawing) and 7th years (artillery, mines and natural history) if they desired to.
The Empire declared war against the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (now Argentina) in 1825 as it was aiding the secessionist revolt of the Brazilian province of Cisplatine. The Argentine and the Cisplatine secessionist troops made use of guerrilla tactics that prevented the much stronger Brazilian Army (1st Line with 27,242 men and 2nd Line with 95,000) from delivering an overwhelming blow against its enemies. By the end of the conflict more than 8,000 Brazilians had died and the esteem with which a career in the military was viewed in the country declined. In the aftermath, the military blamed the Emperor for not being able to convince the Parliament to allow more financial aid to purchase equipment, munitions and provisions, while the liberals, on the other hand, considered the monarch responsible for the high costs of the conflict.
Quelling rebellions, 1831–49
Pedro I's abdication resulted in the reduction of the size of the Army contingent. The liberals were against the Army for ideological and economic reasons. Their objective was to prevent any possibility of return of Pedro I to Brazil, therefore weakening one of the institutions most connected to the former Emperor. Some battalions were dissolved while others were transferred to distant provinces. Most of the soldiers were discharged, enlistment was suspended and the promotion of any officer was forbidden. On August 30, 1831, the liberal regency reduced the Army to less than 10,000 men and later to only 6,000. The battalions formed by mercenaries were also disbanded.
With the intention of assisting the reduced Army, the Government created the National Guard on August 18, 1831. The new institution would substitute the old Militias and Orderlies that were extinguished at the same time. The National Guard was formed by all male Brazilians who had an annual income superior to Rs 200$000 (the same value to be an elector). The majority of the male population had condition to be part of the National Guard: someone who worked as a craftsman or clerk reached the demanded minimum value. Even the “ingenuous” (free children of slaves of ex-slaves) were allowed to enlist themselves in the force. Its members were not remunerated and, except for weapons with which they were supplied by the Government, they had to pay all expenses related to uniforms and equipment. However, the Guard's members had little if any military skills and they were completely inadequate for the wars of the Industrial Age. It did not have permanent troops nor barracks in which to be lodged. In war times the National Guard was incorporated to the Army of 1st Line and it was, for all effects, a reserve force of the Imperial Army.
The result of the Liberal's policy towards the Army were soon felt. The Government was incapable of fighting the rebellions that occurred in the country during the second half of the 1830s. The election of the conservative Pedro de Araújo Lima for the office of regent in 1837 completely changed the situation. The Conservative Party restored the Army, reorganizing and reequipping it and increased it to 18,000 men. The Imperial Army achieved several victories over the provincial revolts, such as in: Cabanagem, Sabinada, War of Tatters, among others. At the beginning of the 1840s a new reorganization of the Army gave it more cohesion and made it more capable.
Platine Wars, 1849–70
In 1845 the Military College (known before as the Military Academy) was divided into two halves: one remained with the old name, while the other one became the Central College. A new reform (Decree nº 585) on September 6, 1850, considerably improved the quality of the officers of the Imperial Army. Progression in the military career from then on would occur through antiquity, merit and academic resume, beyond a clear preference for the personnel who completed the Military College over the ones who did not. On September 20, 1851, the conservative cabinet created a branch of the Military College in Porto Alegre that had a course of infantry and cavalry which included disciplines taken from the 1st and 5th years of study. The National Guard was reorganized in the same month and became subordinated not to the locally elected Judges of Peace anymore, but directly to the Minister of Justice. In 1851 the Imperial Army had more than 37,000 men and participated in the Platine War during which it defeated the Argentine Confederation with the contribution of Uruguayan troops and Argentine rebels.
Year Army (1st Line) Army (2nd Line) 1824 24,000 Unknown 1827 27,242 95,000 1832 6,000 Unknown 1838 18,000 Unknown 1851 37,000 Unknown 1864 18,000 440,000 1869 82,271 Unknown 1875 17,000 Unknown 1883 13,000 Unknown 1889 14,300 Unknown
The Uruguayan War (which was followed by the War of the Triple Alliance) revealed the complete neglect that the Imperial Army had been subjected to after 1852. It did not have enough equipment, ammunition, uniforms or transportation. With only 18,000 men in 1864 it was necessary to search for reserve forces to collaborate with the war effort. The National Guard had 440,000 men on 1864. However, although with impressive numbers, the lack of training and equipment and the resistance of most of its members to be sent to the theater of operations considerably reduced the military potential of the institution. From then on the National Guard would be gradually put aside in favor of the Army. The Fatherland Volunteer Corps was created on January 7, 1865, and received Brazilians who had joined spontaneously and later conscripted ones. The nomination of the Marquis of Caxias as the commander of the Imperial Army in the middle of 1866 put an end to the anarchy. Of the 18,000 men deployed in enemy territory in 1865, it grew to 67,365 in 1866, 71,039 in 1867 and finally 82,271 in 1869.
The Marquis of Caxias reorganized the troops who received uniforms, equipment and weapons just as good as the ones in the Prussian Army. The health service of the Armed Forces was not as good as the one in the American Civil War, but was superior to the one of the Crimean War. The armed conflict lasted for more than five years and cost the lives of 50,000 Brazilians. However, the Empire came out of it victorious and kept its supremacy over the rest of South America. The Imperial Army mobilized 154,996 men for the war, divided into the following categories: 10,025 Army personnel who were in Uruguay in 1864, 2,047 who were in the province of Mato Grosso, 55,985 Fatherland Volunteers, 60,009 National Guardsmen, 8,570 ex-slaves and another 18,000 National Guardsmen who remained in Brazil to defend it.
Final years, 1870–89
In 1873, the role of the National Guard was restricted when it was decided that it would no longer act as a police force. As a result it effectively became a reserve force of the Army, however, its definitive dissolution, would not occur until 1918. From the Military School in 1874 the Polytechnical College of Rio de Janeiro it was created, which focused on the provision of civil engineering courses. For the fiscal year of 1873–74, the Government allocated about 27 percent of the budget for the Army and the Armada.
A new generation of turbulent and undisciplined military personnel began to appear at the beginning of the 1880s. The old monarchist officers, such as Luis Alves de Lima e Silva (Duke of Caxias), Polidoro da Fonseca Quintanilha Jordão (Viscount of Santa Teresa), Antonio de Sampaio, Manuel Marques de Sousa (Count of Porto Alegre) and Manuel Luis Osório (Marquis of Herval) had deceased. In an Army with only 13,000 men, 7,526 were sent to jail in 1884 for bad behavior. The cadets in the Military College learned about Positivism and discussed politics while completely ignoring military matters. These men advocated the implantation of a military dictatorship. In 1882, the murder of a journalist that had criticized the behavior of the Army by military officers in broad day light went unpunished. The republicans stimulated the undisciplined behavior of these personnel during the years of 1887 and 1888 having alleged a lack of attention and consideration on the part of the Government towards the Army.
On November 15, 1889, the monarchy was overthrown by Army troops led by Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca who became the leader of the first Brazilian dictatorship. Marshal Câmara (Viscount of Pelotas), affirmed that about 20 percent of the Imperial Army supported the coup. In the following days several battalions of the Army spread across the country fought against republican forces with intention of stopping the coup. In Desterro (now Florianópolis), the 25th Infantry Battalion attacked the Republican Club on November 17, 1889. A month later on December 18, in Rio de Janeiro, the 2nd Artillery Regiment also tried to restore the monarchy. In 1893, Monarchist soldiers participated in the Federalist Revolution with intention of restoring the Empire. The Monarchists that did not die in battles were imprisoned, deported or murdered.
- Empire of Brazil
- History of the Empire of Brazil
- Military history of Brazil
- List of wars involving Brazil
- Brazilian Army
- Brazilian Navy
- ^ See Articles 102 and 148 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1824
- ^ a b Carvalho (2007), p.193
- ^ Lyra, p.84
- ^ Pedrosa, p.289
- ^ Holanda, pp.241–242
- ^ Holanda, p.260
- ^ Maia, p.53
- ^ Maia, pp.58–61
- ^ a b Holanda, p.261
- ^ Maia, pp.54–57
- ^ a b Holanda, p.272
- ^ Maia, pp.133–135
- ^ a b c Holanda. p. 264
- ^ Maia, p.216
- ^ Maia, pp.205–206
- ^ Maia, p.210
- ^ Janotti, p.207, 208
- ^ Holanda, p.265
- ^ Carvalho (1975), p.181
- ^ Holanda, p.266
- ^ a b Salles (2003), p.38
- ^ Maia, p.219
- ^ a b c Janotti, p.208
- ^ Schwarcz, p.305
- ^ Doratioto (1996), p.23
- ^ Doratioto (2002), p.466
- ^ a b Maia, p.225
- ^ Maia, p.221
- ^ Maia, p.221, 227
- ^ Calmon (2002), p.265
- ^ Calmon (1975), p.1603
- ^ Janotti, p.66
- ^ Janotti, p.209
- ^ a b Pedrosa, p.229
- ^ a b Nabuco, p.463
- ^ a b c d e Vainfas, p.548
- ^ Nabuco, p.58
- ^ Vianna, p.433
- ^ Holanda, p.238
- ^ Souza, p.110
- ^ Souza, p.113
- ^ Lustosa, p.277
- ^ Nabuco, p.466
- ^ a b Holanda, p.243
- ^ a b Vainfas, p.318
- ^ Souza, p.209
- ^ a b Souza, p.205
- ^ a b Holanda, p.244
- ^ Pedrosa, p.225
- ^ a b Souza, p.208
- ^ Souza, p.192
- ^ Vainfas, p.319
- ^ Pedrosa, p.226
- ^ Pedrosa, p.227
- ^ Holanda, p.245
- ^ Pedrosa, p.207
- ^ a b c Vainfas, p.549
- ^ a b Vainfas, p.320
- ^ Doratioto (2002), p.28
- ^ a b Costa, p.290
- ^ Pedrosa, p.234
- ^ Pedrosa, p.235
- ^ Nabuco, p.503
- ^ Pedrosa, p.242
- ^ Pedrosa, p.237
- ^ Schwarcz, p.303
- ^ Versen, p.99
- ^ Salles (1990), p.129
- ^ Holanda, p.255
- ^ Holanda, p.239
- ^ Lima, p.114
- ^ Lima, pp.112–113
- ^ Lima, p.109
- ^ Holanda, p.253
- ^ Lima, p.112
- ^ Holanda, p.256
- ^ Lima, p.117
- ^ Lyra, p.194
- ^ Janotti, p.17
- ^ Janotti, p.21
- ^ Salles (1996), p.195
- ^ Bueno, pp.254–255
- Brazilian Constitution of 1824. (Portuguese)
- Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (Portuguese)
- Calmon, Pedro. História de D. Pedro II. Rio de Janeiro: J. Olympio, 1975. (Portuguese)
- Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002.
- Carvalho, Affonso. Caxias. Brasília: Biblioteca do Exército, 1976. (Portuguese)
- Carvalho, José Murilo de. Os Bestializados: o Rio de Janeiro e a República que não foi. 3. ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996. (Portuguese)
- Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (Portuguese)
- Costa, Wilma Peres. A Espada de Dâmocles. São Paulo: HUCITEC, 1996. (Portuguese)
- Doratioto, Francisco. O conflito com o Paraguai: A grande guerra do Brasil. São Paulo: Ática, 1996. (Portuguese)
- Doratioto, Francisco. Maldita Guerra: Nova história da Guerra do Paraguai. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. (Portuguese)
- Holanda, Sérgio Buarque de. História Geral da Civilização Brasileira: Declínio e Queda do Império (2a. ed.). São Paulo: Difusão Européia do Livro, 1974. (Portuguese)
- Janotti, Maria de Lourdes Mônaco. Os Subversivos da República. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1986. (Portuguese)
- Lima, Manuel de Oliveira. O Império brasileiro. São Paulo: USP, 1989. (Portuguese)
- Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v.3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (Portuguese)
- Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (Portuguese)
- Maia, Prado. A Marinha de Guerra do Brasil na Colônia e no Império (2a. ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra, 1975. (Portuguese)
- Nabuco, Joaquim. Um Estadista do Império. Volume único. 4 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Aguilar, 1975. (Portuguese)
- Nassif, Luís. Os cabeças-de-planilha. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Ediouro, 2007. (Portuguese)
- Pedrosa, J. F. Maya. A Catástrofe dos Erros. Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército, 2004. (Portuguese)
- Salles, Ricardo. Guerra do Paraguai: Memórias & Imagens. Rio de Janeiro: Bibilioteca Nacional, 2003. (Portuguese)
- Salles, Ricardo. Nostalgia Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 1996. (Portuguese)
- Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As Barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2. ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. (Portuguese)
- Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (Portuguese)
- Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. (Portuguese)
- Versen, Max von. História da Guerra do Paraguai. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1976. (Portuguese)
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- Brazilian Army official website (Portuguese)
- Brazilian Navy official website (Portuguese)
- Military Orders and Medals from Brazil (Portuguese)
- South American Military History
Empire of Brazil General topicsHistory · Politics · Economy · Armed Forces WarsBrazilian Independence (1822–1824) · Cisplatine War (1825–1828) · Platine War (1851–1852) · Uruguayan War (1864–1865) · Paraguayan War (1864–1870) Emperors StatesmenJosé Bonifácio de Andrada · Marquis of Paraná · Viscount of Rio Branco Military Abolitionists
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