- Military Medal of Honor (Japan)
Military Medal of Honor (従軍記章 jugun kisho ) was a military decoration for meritorious service to the Empire of Japan, formerly awarded to all military personnel who participated in battles in a war. These war medals and accompanying certificates specifically identify the conflict for which the decoration will have been awarded.
These decorations were effectively abolished during the Allied Occupation of Japan in the post-war years (1945–1951). The plausible re-institution of a modern equivalent was made unlikely by the adoption of Japan's post-war Constitution which disavows the right of the state to engage in aggressive war; but on-going political pressure for an amending Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution renders that prospect marginally possible.
Japanese War Medals
1874 Formosa Expedition War Medal
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War Medal
1900 Boxer War Medal
Imperial Edict No. 142 was issued on April 21, 1901 ordering a commemorative medal for those who had participated in the relief of the Beijing legations during the Boxer Rebellion.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War Medal
A unique jugun kiso was ordered on March 31, 1906 by Imperial Edict No. 51 in recognition of those who served in the war which occurred during the 37th and 38th years of the Meiji period -- Meiji 37-38 (1904–1905). This is more commonly known as the Russo-Japanese War.
A rough translation of the body of the document explains:
- "A medal of honor (jugun kisho) is hereby given, on March 30, 1906, to Ernesto Burzagli, Lieutenant of the Italian Navy, on application by the Naval Minister of Japan and with the Emperor's approval, pursuant to the Regulation Relating to the Medals Honoring Participation in Battles (1904-05). Dated April 1, 1906."
- "After review of this certificate, [the presentation to Lt. Bruzagli of the Medal] has been recorded on the Roll of Medals of Honor."
An image of the front of the medal itself is shown at the bottom center of the certificate—crossed Army and Navy flags on either side of the Imperial Crysanthemum crest above and the Imperial Paulownia crest below.
Although it is not clear from the certificate whether Lt. Bruzagli did in fact participate in the battles or the award was honorary, we know from photographic sources that he was aboard one of the ships which contributing to the naval bombardment and blockade of Port Arthur in 1904. He was with the Japanese naval forces which aided in the capture of that strategic objective. Photographic records also place Burzagli with the entourage of the Japanese Minister of the Navy visiting the captured city of Dalny, just north of Port Arthur in January 1905. and with the occupying Japanese forces in January 1905.
1914-20 First World War Medal
Japanese participation in World War I was commemorated by medals created on November 6, 1915 by Imperial Edict No. 203.
Allied First World War Victory Medal
1931-34 China Incident War Medal
1937-45 China Incident War Medal
The China Incident Medal (Sina jihen jugun kisho) medal was created by Imperial Edit No. 496 on July 27, 1939; and was awarded for service in China from during the 12th through the 20th years of the Shōwa period -- Shōwa 12-20 (1937–1945). An amendment was promulgated by Imperial Edict No. 418 in 1944; and the decoration was abolished in 1946 by government ordinance No. 177.
Although the Japanese government still uses "China Incident" in formal documents, media in Japan often paraphrase with other expressions like Japan-China Incident (日華事変 Nikka jihen ) or (日支事変 Nisshi jihen ). These terms were used by media even in the 1930s, and the word Shina is now construed by China as a derogatory term.
1939 Border War Medal
1942 China Incident War Medal
1941-45 Great East Asia War Medal
A special jugun kiso was created on June 21, 1944 by Imperial Edict No. 417.
- Kodama Gentarō, 1906.
- Kuroki Tamemoto, 1906.
- Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton, British Indian Military Attaché, 1906.
- John Charles Hoad, Australian Military Attaché, 1906.
- Herbert Cyril Thacker, Canadian Military Attaché, 1906.
- Granville Roland Fortescue, American Military Attaché, 1906.
- Masanobu Tsuji, 1939.
- ^ Boxer War Medal
- ^ Russo-Japanese War Medal
- ^ Aboard Japanese war ship en route to Port Arthur, 1904.
- ^ Admiral Yamamoto Gombei visiting Dalny, 1905.
- ^ War's destruction at Port Arthur, 1905.
- ^ First World War Medal
- ^ a b China Incident War Medal
- ^ Rottman, Gordon et al. (2005). Japanese Infantryman 1937-45: Sword of the Empire, p. 45.
- ^ Great East Asia War Medal
- ^ National Diet Library (NDL): Tōgō Heihachirō
- ^ Senato della Repubblica: Ernesto Burzagli
- ^ "A Victory for the Chinese; Japanese Driven with Heavy Loss from Ping-yang", New York Times, August 22, 1894.
- ^ Honor awarded 1907 -- Barry, Richard. "The Passing of Japan's Supreme Genius," New York Times, July 29, 1906.
- ^ NDL: Kuroki, Tamemoto
- ^ Australian Dictionary of Biography: John Charles Hoad
- ^ editor unknown (1922). Prominent People of the Maritime Provinces, p. 193.
- ^ Arlington National Cemetery: Granville Roland Foretscue
- ^ "The Last Last Soldier?" Time. January 13, 1975.
- ^ Kawaguchi, Judit. "Words to Live By: Hiroo Onoda," Japan Times (Tokyo). January 16, 2007.
- ^ Kristof, Nicholas D. "Shoichi Yokoi, 82, Is Dead; Japan Soldier Hid 27 Years," New York Times. September 26, 1997; Guam: Shoichi Yokoi
- First Sino-Japanese War (日清戦争 Nisshin sensō ), Meiji 28-29 (1894–1895)
- Manchurian Incident (滿洲事變 Kyūjitai ) or Manshujihen (満州事変), Shōwa 6-16 (1931–1941).
- Fifteen Year War (十五年戦争 Jūgonen Sensō ), Shōwa 6-20 (1931–1945).
- Second Sino-Japanese War (日中戦争 Nicchū Sensō ), Shōwa 12-20 (1937–1945).
- Greater East Asia War (大東亜戦争 Daitōa Sensō senkum ), Shōwa 16-20 (1941–1945).
- Pacific War (太平洋戦争 Taiheiyō sensō ), Shōwa 16-20 (1941–1945).
- Peterson, James W., Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley. (2001). Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. 10-ISBN 1-8909-7409-9
- Rottman, Gordon L. and Michael Welply. (2005). Japanese Infantryman 1937-45: Sword of the Empire. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. 10-ISBN 1-841-76818-9; 13-ISBN 978-1-841-76818-2
- Japan, Cabinet Office: Decorations and Medals -- the Jugun kisho is unmentioned in current schema[disambiguation needed ] of honors
- Japan Mint: Production Process
- Japanese War Medals of WWI
- Japanese War Medals of WWII
Japanese honors system Current orders Former orders
Order of the Golden Kite • Military Medals of Honor
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