List of modern conflicts in the Middle East


List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
Middle East
Middle East
Countries (2011) Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, *Gaza Strip, Iran, Iraq, *Iraqi Kurdistan, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, *Northern Cyprus, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, *West Bank, Yemen

Note:

  • "Modern" is defined as post-Ottoman period, from 1918 until today.
  • "Middle East" is traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia, Levant, Egypt) and neighbouring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the West to Iran and the Persian Gulf at the East.[1]
  • "Conflict" is defined as a separate 100+ casualty incident.
  • In all cases conflicts are listed by total deaths, including subconflicts.
Date Conflict Location Casualties
1918–1922 Simko Shikak revolt [2][verification needed] Flag of Persia (1910).svg Persia 1,000–5,500
1918–1920 First Nejd-Hejaz War [3] Flag of the Second Saudi State.svg Kingdom of Nejd Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Kingdom of Hejaz 1,392
1919 Egyptian Revolution of 1919 [4][5] Egypt Sultanate of Egypt 800-3,000
1919–1921 Franco-Syrian War[citation needed] Arab Revolt Syrian Hashemite Kingdom Flag of Syria French mandate.svg Syria French Mandate 5,000
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence (Asia Minor Catastrophe) [a][verification needed]  Turkey  Greece  Armenia  Soviet Union 170,500–873,000
1920–1922 Iraqi revolt against the British [6] Iraq British Mandate of Mesopotamia 9,000
1921 Kuwait-Najd Border War [3] Standard of the Emir of Kuwait, 1956.svg 1st Kingdom of Kuwait Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Sultanate of Nejd 200
1922–1924 Ikhwan raids on Transjordan [7] Jordan Transjordan 500
1923 Adwan Rebellion Jordan Transjordan 100
1924–1927 Syrian Revolution (Druze War) [8][verification needed] Lebanese French flag.svg Lebanese French Mandate Flag of Syria French mandate.svg Syria French Mandate Flag of Jabal ad-Druze (state).svg Jabal Druze Flag of the State of Damascus.svg State of Damascus

Flag of France.svg France

12,000
1924–1925 Second Nejd-Hejaz War [3] Flag of Nejd (1921).svg Kingdom of Nejd Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Kingdom of Hejaz 450
1925 Sheikh Said rebellion[9][3]  Turkey 15,000–250,500
1927–1930 Ikhwan Revolt [3] Iraq British Mandate of Mesopotamia
Standard of the Emir of Kuwait, 1956.svg Kuwait Emirate
Flag of Nejd (1926).svg Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz
2,000
1929 Palestine riots of 1929 [10][11][verification needed]  British Mandate for Palestine 251
1930 Ararat rebellion [12][13][14][15][16]  Turkey Flag of the Republic of Ararat.svg Republic of Ararat 4,500–47,000
1933 Simele massacre[17]  Kingdom of Iraq 1,000–3,000
1934 Saudi-Yemeni War[18]  Saudi Arabia Flag of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.svg Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 2,100
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion [19]  Imperial State of Iran 151
1936–1939 Arab Revolt in Palestine[20]  British Mandate for Palestine 5,000
1937 Dersim Rebellion [21][22][verification needed]  Turkey 40,000–70,000
1938–1948 British-Zionist conflict [20]  British Mandate for Palestine 1,000
1939–1945 Middle East Theatre of World War II [23][b][verification needed]  Kingdom of Iraq  Imperial State of Iran Egypt Kingdom of Egypt Lebanese French flag.svg State of Greater Lebanon  British Mandate for Palestine Syria Syrian Republic 46,000
1946 Egyptian Student Riots [24][verification needed][25] Egypt Kingdom of Egypt 100–300
1946–1947 Iran crisis of 1946 [26][3][c]  Imperial State of Iran  Republic of Mahabad Azerbaijan people's government flag.svg Azerbaijan People's Government  Soviet Union 2,000
1947– Israeli-Palestinian conflict[citation needed]  British Mandate for Palestine  Israel  Palestinian territories 14,500–20,000
1947–1948 Yahya clan coup [26] Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 4,000–5,000
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising[citation needed]  Kingdom of Iraq 300–400
1948–1973 Arab-Israeli Wars [27][d] Egypt Kingdom of Egypt  Egypt  United Arab Republic  Syrian Republic  Syria  Jordan  Lebanon  Israel 43,000–62,468
1952 Egyptian Revolution [26] Egypt Kingdom of Egypt  Egypt 1,000
1953 1953 Iranian coup d'état [3][26][28]  Imperial State of Iran 300-800
1954-1960 Jebel Akhdar War [3] Flag of Muscat.svg Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 100
1955–1959 Makarios crisis [17][20] Cyprus Cyprus protectorate 400–600
1956–1960 Yemeni-Adenese clans violence [26]  Aden 1,000
1958 1958 Lebanon Crisis [17][26][29]  Lebanon 1,300–4,000
1958–1959 Iraqi Revolution[26]  Arab Federation  Iraq 2,000–4,000
1961–1970 First Kurdish Iraqi War [9][30]  Iraq  Iraq 105,000
1962–1970 North Yemen Civil War [30][31] Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen  Yemen  Saudi Arabia 100,000–200,000
1962–1975 Dhofar Rebellion [3]  Oman  Imperial State of Iran  Imperial State of Iran  Jordan Flag of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman.svg Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman 10,000
1963 White Revolution (Iran) [3]  Imperial State of Iran 100
1963 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état in Iraq[citation needed]  Iraq  Iraq 5,000
1963 1963 Syrian coup d'état [32]  United Arab Republic  Syria 820
1963–1967 Aden Emergency [33]  Federation of South Arabia  South Yemen 2,096
1964 1964 Hama riot [34][35]  Syria 70–100
1966 1966 neo-Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria [3]  Syria 400
1970–1971 Jordan-Palestinian Civil War (Black September) [17]  Jordan  Lebanon 2,000–25,000
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus [18]  Turkey[citation needed]  Greece[citation needed]  Cyprus 965–2,000
1974–1975 Second Kurdish Iraqi War [36]  Iraq 9,000
1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War [9]  Lebanon  Federation of Arab Republics  Syria  Israel 150,000
1976–1979 Turkish civil strife [37][38][39]  Turkey 5,000–5,388
1976–1982 Islamic uprising in Syria [40]  Federation of Arab Republics  Syria 40,000
1977 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots [41][verification needed][42]  Egypt 70–800
1977– Turkey – Kurdistan Workers' Party conflict [43][verification needed]  Turkey  Iraq  Federation of Arab Republics  Syria  Iraqi Kurdistan 30,000–35,000
1978–1979 Iranian Revolution [44][45]  Imperial State of Iran  Iran 3,164–60,000
1978–1980 Kurdish Rebellion in Iran [46][47]  Iran 10,000
1979–1983 Saudi Eastern Province unrest [48]  Saudi Arabia 182–219
1979 Grand Mosque Seizure [49]  Saudi Arabia 307
1980 1980 Turkish coup d'état [50][51]  Turkey 127–550
1980 Iraqi Shia uprising (1st Sadr uprising)[52]  Iraq 1,000–30,000
1980–1988 Iran-Iraq war [18][53]  Iran  Iraq  Kuwait 1,000,000–1,250,000
1986 South Yemen Civil War [54]  South Yemen 5,000–12,000
1986 1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot [55]  Egypt 107
1986 1986 Damascus bombings[citation needed]  Syria 204
1987 Iranian pilgrim riot (Mecca massacre) [56]  Saudi Arabia 402
1990–1991 Gulf War [9]  Iraq  Kuwait  Saudi Arabia 40,000–57,000
1991 1991 uprisings in Iraq [52][57]  Iraq  Iraqi Kurdistan 50,000–100,000
1992–2000 Terrorism in Egypt [58][page needed]  Egypt 1,300–2,000
1994–1997 Iraqi Kurdish Civil War [59]  Iraqi Kurdistan 3,000
1994 1994 civil war in Yemen[citation needed]  Yemen 7,000–10,000
1995– Islamic Insurgency in Saudi Arabia[citation needed]  Saudi Arabia 300
1998 Operation Desert Fox [17][20]  Iraq 600–2,000
1999 Iraqi Shia uprising (2nd Sadr uprising)[60][3]  Iraq 100-200
2003–2010 Iraq War [61][62][63][64][65][66]  Iraq  Iraq  Iraqi Kurdistan 109,032–150,726
2003– Baluchi insurgency in Iran [67][unreliable source?][68]  Iran 155-400
2004 Qamishli massacre (2004)[69][70]  Syria 30–100
2004–2010 Sa'dah insurgency [71][72][verification needed][73]  Saudi Arabia  Yemen 8,000-25,000
2004–2011 Iran-PJAK conflict[citation needed]  Iran  Iraqi Kurdistan 300
2006 Second Lebanon War[citation needed]  Lebanon  Israel 1,900
2006– Fatah–Hamas conflict [74][75]  Palestinian territories 600–700
2007 Nahr al-Bared fighting  Lebanon 470–532
2008 2008 Lebanon conflict  Lebanon 105
2009– South Yemen Insurgency [76]  Yemen 1,554
2009–2010 Iranian election protests [77]  Iran 27–150
2010– Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown [78][79]  Yemen 944
2010– Arab Spring[i]  Bahrain  Egypt  Syria  Yemen  Lebanon 5,300-7,300

Casualties breakdown

[a].^ Turkish War of Independence (combined figure 170,500-873,000+) of:

Greco-Turkish War - 70,000–400,000 casualties[9][verification needed]
Franco-Turkish War - 40,000 casualties[citation needed]
Turkish-Armenian War - 60,000–432,500 casualties[80]
Koçkiri Rebellion - 500 killed[citation needed]
Revolt of Ahmet Anzavur - unknown
Kuva-i Inzibatiye revolt - unknown

[b].^ Middle Eastern theatre of World War II 40,000 (combined casualty figure 12,338-14,898+) of:

Anglo-Iraqi War - at least 560 killed[81][82]
Farhud 175-780 killed
Syria-Lebanon Campaign 10,404-12,964 killed
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 100[3]-1,062 killed
Bombing of Palestine in World War II 137 deaths[83]

[c].^ Iran crisis of 1946 2,000 casualties (combined casualty figure 921+) of:

Azerbaijan People's Republic crisis - 421 killed[84]
Republic of Mahabad crisis - unknown
Civil interregnum - 500 killed[85]

[d].^ Arab-Israeli Wars 51,000-65,000 casualties (combined casualty figure 51,438-62,468+) of:

Arab-Israeli War (1948-1949) - 14,400 casualties
Retribution Operations (1950s) - 3,456 casualties
Suez War (1956) - 3,203 killed
Six Day War (1967) - 13,976 killed
War of Attrition (1967-1970) - 6,403 killed
Yom Kippur War (1973) 10,000–21,000[86]

[e].^ North Yemen Civil War 100,000-200,000 casualties

1962 Coup d'état in Yemen
Ramadan offensive
Haradh offensive
Royalist offensive 1965
Siege of Sana'a 1967


[f].^ Lebanese Civil War 150,000 mortal casualties of:

Karantina massacre
Damour massacre
Tel al-Zaatar massacre
Operation Litani
1982 Lebanon War
Sabra and Shatila massacre
War of the Camps 1986-1987
War of Liberation 1989-1990

[g].^ Iran-Iraq war 500,000-1,200,000 mortal casualties (combined death count 184,000+) of

Iraqi invasion 1980
Mujahedin al-Halq uprising 1981-1982
Liberation of Khorramshahr 1982 - 17,000 casualties
Operation Undeniable Victory 1982 - 50,000 mortal casualties
Operation Ramadan 1982 - 80,000 killed
Kurdish Rebellion 1983-1988 (including the Al-Anfal Campaign) 160,000-312,000 killed
Operation before the Dawn 1983 - 6,000+ killed
Operation Dawn 3 - 162,000 killed
Operation Dawn 5 1984 - 50,000 killed
Operation Dawn 6 1984
Operation Khaibar 1984 - 49,000 killed
Tanker War 1984
Operation Badr (1985) - 30,000-32,000
War of the Cities 1985-1987
Operation Dawn-8 1986
Operation Karbala-4 1986 - 15,000 killed
Operation Karbala-5 - 85,000 killed
Operation Nasr 4
Operation Karbala-10
Operation Mersad 1987 - 4,900 killed
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 2,000[87] - 30,000 executed


[h].^ Iraq War

2003 invasion of Iraq
Civil war in Iraq 2006-2008


[i].^ Arab Spring in Syria, Yemen, Egypt and Bahrain, combined casualty figure 5,282-7,318 of:

2011 Syrian uprising - 2,550[88][89][90]-4,500[91]
killed
2011 Yemeni uprising - 1,784-1,870 killed
2011 Egyptian revolution - 846 killed
Aftermath of the Egyptian Revolution - 38[92][93][94] killed
2011 Bahraini uprising - 46 killed
2011 Lebanese protests - 18 killed

See also

References

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  2. ^ Maria T. O'Shea. Trapped Between the Map and Reality: Geography and Perceptions of Kurdistan. Routledge, 2004: p.100 "Simultaneously, 1000 Christians were killed in Salmas, in a massacre instigated by Simko"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Political Science. Middle East/North Africa/Persian Gulf Region. University of Central Arkansas. Retrieved 2011. [1]
  4. ^ New York Times
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  6. ^ Jonathan Glancey (2003-04-19). "Our last occupation". London: Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/apr/19/iraq.arts. Retrieved 2011-02-01.  "The rebellion was thwarted, with nearly 9,000 Iraqis killed."
  7. ^ Noel Joseph Guckian. British Relations with Trans-Jordan, 1920–1930. University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. Ph.D Thesis: pp. 217–218. May 1985.
  8. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls". Users.erols.com. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat6.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 
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  10. ^ Great Britain, 1930: Report of the Commission on the disturbances of August 1929, Command paper 3530 (Shaw Commission report), p. 65.
  11. ^ NA 59/8/353/84/867n, 404 Wailing Wall/279 and 280, Archdale Diary and Palestinian Police records.
  12. ^ Yusuf Mazhar, Cumhuriyet, 16 Temmuz 1930, ... Zilan harekatında imha edilenlerin sayısı 15,000 kadardır. Zilan Deresi ağzına kadar ceset dolmuştur...
  13. ^ Ahmet Kahraman, ibid, p. 211, Karaköse, 14 (Özel muhabirimiz bildiriyor) ...
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  16. ^ "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert."
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  29. ^ [7]
  30. ^ a b [8]
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  49. ^ Riyadh (10 January 1980). "63 Zealots beheaded for seizing Mosque". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=wesNAAAAIBAJ&sjid=rG0DAAAAIBAJ&pg=6824,1266876&dq=grand-mosque&hl=en. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
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    [21]
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  80. ^ Vahakn N. Dadrian. (2003). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 360–361. ISBN 1-5718-1666-6;
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  85. ^ Tadeusz Swietochowski, Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in Transition. New York: Columbia. University Press, 1995. p. 154. "Rossow conservatively estimated 500 killed during the lawless interregnum that preceded the coming of the Iranian troops. Hundreds of others were tried and jailed, and scores were hanged."
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  91. ^ Breakaway Syrian Soldiers Seeking No-Fly Zone in Effort to Overthrow Assad
  92. ^ Thousands of demonstrators re-occupy square, after a violent attempt by security forces to evict them leaves 11 dead.
  93. ^ ... leaving behind 24 protesters dead, 329 injured and a divided and confused public
  94. ^ Three people were killed and 1,049 were wounded in the clashes that began on Friday and raged into the early hours of Saturday...

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