Middle distance running


Middle distance running

Middle distance running events are track races longer than sprints, up to 3000 metres. The standard middle distances are the 800 metres, 1500 metres and mile run, although the 3000 metres may also be classified as a middle distance event.[1] The 880 yard run, or half mile, was the forebear to the 800 m distance and it has its roots in competitions in the United Kingdom in the 1830s.[2] The 1500 m came about as a result of running three laps of a 500 m track, which was commonplace in continental Europe in the 20th century.[3]

Contents

Events

600 m

This middle distance length is rather uncommon, and is mainly run by sprinters wishing to test their endurances at a longer distance. The 600 m is also used as an early season stepping stone by 800 m runners before they have reached full race fitness. In 1880, American Lon Myers set what was then a world record at 600 m, running it in 1:11.4.[4] The record at this distance is for men:

For women:

800 m

The 800 m consists of two laps around a standard 400 m track, and has always been an Olympic event. In 1882, American Lon Myers set what was then a world record at 800 m, running it in 1:44.4.[4] It was included in the first women's track programme in 1928, but suspended until 1960 because of shock and the exhaustion it caused the competitors. Without the benefits of modern training, men of the era were, in contrast, expected to run themselves to complete exhaustion during competitions[citation needed].

The current record is for men:

  • David Lekuta Rudisha 1:41.01 Rieti 30 August 2010

For women:

1000 m

This distance is not commonly raced, though it is more common than the 500 m event is for sprinters. This is commonly raced as an indoor men's heptathlon event, or as an indoor high school event. In 1881, Lon Myers set what was then a world record at 1000 m, running it in 2:13.0.[4] The record at this distance for men is:

For women:

1200 m

Three laps. A distance seldom raced on its own, but commonly raced as part of the Distance Medley Relay.

1500 m

Also known as the metric mile, this is a premier middle-distance race, covering three and three-quarter laps around a standard Olympic-sized track. In recent years, races over this distance have become more of a prolonged sprint, with each lap averaging 55 seconds for the world record performance by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco in 1998 at Rome (two 1:50 s 800 m performances back to back). Thus, speed is necessary, and it seems that the more aerobic conditioning, the better. This is a difficult distance to compete at, mentally, in addition to being one of the more tactical middle-distance track events. The distance is often witness to some of the most tactical, physical races in the sport, as many championship races are won in the final few metres. The record at this distance for men is:

For women:

1600 m

At exactly four laps of a normal 400 m track, this distance is raced as a near replacement for the mile (it is, in fact, 9.344 m, about 30.6 feet, shorter; however, it is still colloquially referred to as "the mile"). The 1600 meters is the official distance for this range of races in US High Schools. The 1500 m, however, is the most common distance run at the college and international levels.

An accurate way to run an actual mile on a metric track would be to run the additional 9.34 meters before starting the first marked 400 meter lap. On a metric track, there will be a relay zone 10 meters before the common start/finish line, frequently marked by a triangle pointed toward the finish. In many configurations, that triangle is about half a meter wide, making its point extremely close to the mile start line, which would be slightly less than two feet from the marked relay zone (the widest part of the triangle, or line).[6]

Mile

This length of middle-distance race, 1760 yards, (1609.344 metres), is very common in countries that don't use the metric system, and is still often referred to as the "Blue Riband" of the track.

When the International Amateur Athletic Federation decided in 1976 to recognize only world records for metric distances, it made an exception for the mile and records are kept to this day.

Historically, the mile took the place that the 1500 m has today. It is still raced on the world class level, but usually only at select occasions, like the famous Wanamaker Mile held annually at the Millrose Games. Running a mile in less than four minutes is a famously difficult achievement, long thought impossible by the scientific community. The first man to break the four minute barrier was Englishman Roger Bannister at Oxford in 1954. The record at this distance for men is:

For women:

2000 m

  • Another event that is rarely run, a miler's speed will generally allow him/her to prevail at this distance over less balanced challengers. The record at this distance for men is:

For women:

3000 m

  • Truly on the borderline between middle and longer distances, the 3000 m (7.5 laps) is a standard race in the United States, though it is not raced at the outdoor IAAF World Championships. This race requires decent speed, but a lack of natural quickness can be made up for with superior aerobic conditioning and supporting race tactics. The record at this distance for men is:

For women:

3200 m

At exactly 8 laps on a standard 400 m track, this event is typically run only in American high schools along with the 1600 m. It is colloquially called the "two-mile", as the distance is only about 19 metres shorter than two miles (3 km). In college, the typical runner of this event would convert to the 3,000 metre run. It should be noted that in most Eastern-American high schools, colleges, and middle schools, this event is often considered a long distance event, depending on the region. For example, in New Hampshire and Kentucky, the 3200m run is considered a long distance event.[7]

2,000 metre steeplechase

Another race only run in high school or Masters meets. The typical specialist in this event would move up to the 3000m steeplechase in college.

3,000 metre steeplechase

  • The 3,000 metre Steeplechase is a distance event requiring greater strength, stamina, and agility than the flat 3,000 metre event. This is because athletes are required to jump over five barriers per lap, after a flat first 200 m to allow for settling in. One barrier per lap is placed in front of a water pit, meaning that runners are also forced to deal with the chaffing of wet shoes as they race. The world record for men is:

For women:

  • Gulnara Samitova (Russia) 8:58.81 Beijing 17 August 2008[5]

United States and Japan youth running

In the United States, the 3000 m is more common at the high school and collegiate levels (along with the US two mile). In Japan, the 800, 1500 and 3000 meter events are competed in both genders for junior high school and high school, except that high school boys jump to 5000 meters. Both 3000 and 5000 meter distances are sometimes described as long distance[8] but also frequently as middle distance,[9][10][11] depending on the context. From the perspective of a longer race like a half marathon, marathon or relays such as the ekiden relay, the 5000 meter race might be viewed as middle distance.

The tables below do not focus on record times but rather on the performance of many runners in a given year (in this case, 2007 and 2008). These are the top 100 (or even 500) junior high school and high school runners in Japan and the USA.

800 meters

800 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys Junior High School Japan Top 200[10] 1:56.06 - 2:03.91
Boys Middle School USA Top 500[12][13] 2:00.67 - 2:29.00
Boys High School Japan Top 100[9][14] 1:51.66 - 1:56.34 1:50.85 - 1:57.87
Boys High School USA Top 100[15] 1:48.63 - 1:53.82 1:48.6 - 1:53.77
Girls Junior High School Japan Top 100[10][12] 2:09.87 - 2:19.02
Girls Middle School USA Top 500[12][13] 2:18.03 - 2:48.00
Girls High School Japan Top 100[9][14] 2:07.34 - 2:16.34 2:06.47 - 2:15.70
Girls High School USA Top 100[15] 2:02.38 - 2:12.83 2:01.61 - 2:13.09

1500 meters

A few states of the USA use this distance, among them Oregon, Florida and Massachusetts.

1500 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys Junior High School Japan Top 150[10] 3:59.40 - 4:13.77
Boys Middle School USA Top 200[12][13] 4:21.07 - 5:17
Boys High School Japan Top 100[9][14] 3:51.65 - 3:59.10 3:44.21 - 3:57.87
Boys High School USA Top 31, Top 100[13][15][16] 3:47.31 - 3:59.68 3:49.51 - 4:08.0
Girls Junior High School Japan Top 200[10] 4:23.92 - 4:45.49
Girls Middle School USA Top 200[12][13] 4:58.73 - 6:01.00
Girls High School Japan Top 200[9][14] 4:20.44 - 4:37.68 4:17.13 - 4:36.64
Girls High School USA Top 28, Top 200[13][15][16] 4:16.98 - 4:39.92 4:14.50 - 4:55.0

1600 meters

1600 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys Middle School USA Top 200[12][13] 4:39.0 - 5:24.0
Boys High School USA Top 100, Top 200[13][15][16] 4:04.9 to 4:15.05 4:00.29 to 4:18.0
Girls Middle School USA Top 200[12][13] 5:09.26 - 6:07.5
Girls High School USA Top 100, Top 200[13][15][16] 4:38.15 to 4:58.15 4:33.82 to 5:03.0

3000 meters

A few states of the USA use this distance, among them Oregon, Massachusetts and Florida.

3000 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys Junior High School Japan Top 250[10] 8:27.57 - 9:09.8
Boys Middle School USA Top 100[12][13] 9:36.35 - 12:05
Boys High School Japan Top 50[9][14] 8:17.85 - 8:40.14 7:59.12 - 8:32.69
Boys High School USA Top 23, Top 100[13][15][16] 8:09.09 - 8:31.80 8:28.46 - 9:04.0
Girls Junior High School Japan Top 100[10] 9:12.89 - 10:06.89
Girls Middle School USA Top 30[12][13] 10:54.8 - 12:47.67
Girls High School Japan Top 400[9][14] 9:04.63 - 9:59.02 8:58.77 - 9:56.75
Girls High School USA Top 50, Top 100[13][15][16] 9:26.9 - 10:06.6 9:15.11 - 10:25.0

3200 meters

3200 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys Middle School USA Top 150[12][13] 10:54.33 - 13:10
Boys High School USA Top 100[15] 8:46.04 - 9:13.1 8:34.23 - 9:15.54
Girls Middle School USA Top 70[12][13] 12:03.05 - 15:40/28
Girls High School USA Top 100[15] 10:04.07 - 10:52.32 9:52.13 - 10:51.52

2000 meter steeplechase

In the USA, the steeplechase is still relatively uncommon in high school. One example is New York state, where high school boys compete in the 3000 meter steeplechase and the high school girls compete in the 2000 meter steeplechase. In many states, both boys and girls compete in the 2000 meter steeple chase.[16]

2000 meter steeplechase Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys High School USA Top 5, Top 100[16][17] 5:52.63 - 6:03.33 5:54.58 - 7:48.40
Girls High School Japan Top 2[14] 7:06.62 and 7:23.11
Girls High School USA Top 5, Top 100[16][17] 16:36.34 - 16:50.47 6:42.86 - 8:11.0

3000 meter steeplechase

3000 meter steeplechase Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys High School Japan Top 100[9][14] 9:06.10 - 9:26.91 8:54.55 - 9:25.34
Boys High School USA Top 10, Top 100[16][17] 9:08.11 - 9:35.80 9:07.02 - 10:50.0
Girls High School Japan Top 2[14] 10:50.14 and 10:52.84
Girls High School USA Top 1,[16][17] 10:52.82 10:42.22

5000 meters

(Not a middle distance event)

Japanese high school boys regularly run 5000 meters on the track rather than 3000 meters. USA high school boys rarely run this distance except during cross country.

5000 meters Age Group Country # of Athletes Time Range 2007 Time Range 2008
Boys High School Japan Top 500[9][14] 14:00.8 - 14:57.57 13:33.24 - 14:56.94
Boys High School USA Top 5[17] 13:55.96 - 14:41.96
Girls High School Japan Top 200[9][14] 15:27.98 - 17:24.99 15:02.28 - 17:19.84
Girls High School USA Top 5[17] 16:36.34 - 16:50.47 16:18.91 - 17:20.07

References and notes

  1. ^ Middle-distance running. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 5 April 2010.
  2. ^ 800 m – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 5 April 2010.
  3. ^ 1500 m – Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 5 April 2010.
  4. ^ a b c Joe D. Willis and Richard G. Wettan (November 2, 1975). "L. E. Myers, “World’s Greatest Runner”". Journal of Sport History. http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/JSH/JSH1975/JSH0202/jsh0202b.pdf. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/recbycat/location=O/recordtype=WR/event=0/age=N/area=0/sex=W/records.html IAAF Records, accessed January 6, 2010
  6. ^ http://www.trackinfo.org/marks.html TrackInfo Marking guide
  7. ^ http://www.khsaa.org/track/ Kentucky High School Athletic Association, Accessed May 7, 2010
  8. ^ Yamashita Makoto, Long Distance: Preparation Season Training, Track and Field Magazine (Japan), Vol 56 No 3, February 2006, page 220.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 2008 High School Middle Distance Detailed List, All Japan High School Ekiden Spectator's Guide, January Supplement, Track and Field Magazine (Japan), Vol 59 No 1, January 2009, pages 87-90.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g 2008 Japan and Junior High School Middle Distance Top 100, Track and Field Magazine (Japan), Vol 59 No 1, January 2009, pages 152-153.
  11. ^ New Athletes in Middle Distance and Race Walking Top 10 lists, Track and Field Magazine (Japan), Vol 59 No 1, January 2009, pages 154.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Athletic.Net middle school
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p www/.Milesplit.us/rankings, National Outdoor TF Rankings, accessed 25 January 2009
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k 2007 High School Detailed List by Year-in-School, Track and Field Magazine (Japan), Vol 58 No 6, April 2008, pages 182-196.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j www.Dyestat.com, accessed 25 January 2009
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Athletic.Net high school
  17. ^ a b c d e f Track and Field News, accessed 25 January 2009
  • (Japanese) Track and Field Magazine (Rikujou kyougi magazine); contact Baseball Magazine Company, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 102-0073; sportsclick.jp/track.
  • Milesplit. US, as of 2008, represents results primarily from the eastern states of USA.
  • Athletic.net, as of 2008, represents results from all states of USA, but especially the western states.
  • The centralized collection of high school and especially middle school data in the USA is relatively new, and there is more 2008 data than 2007 data. For both high school and middle school, many good performances may not have been reported to the various agencies.
  • Middle school often implies the students are one year younger than junior high. Japanese junior high corresponds with USA 7th, 8th and 9th grades.

See also


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