Mid-central vowel


Mid-central vowel
Mid-central vowel
ə
IPA number 322
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ə
Unicode (hex) U+0259
X-SAMPA @
Kirshenbaum @
Sound

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IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
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Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ə
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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The mid-central vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ə, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨e⟩. The same symbol may be used for the rounded and the unrounded mid-central vowel.

Contents

Mid-central unrounded vowel

The mid-central unrounded vowel is frequently written with the symbol [ə]. However, this symbol does not specifically represent an unrounded vowel, and is frequently used for almost any unstressed obscure vowel. If precision is desired, the symbol for the close-mid central unrounded vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic, [ɘ̞].

Features

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a a close-mid vowel and an open-mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its vowel roundedness is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian është [ˈəʃtə] 'is'
Armenian ընկեր [əŋˈkɛɹ] 'friend'
Catalan amb [əm(b)] 'with' See Catalan phonology.
Dutch beter [ˈbeːtər] 'better' See Dutch phonology
English RP[1] fur [fɜ̝ː] 'fur' See English phonology
German[2] bitte [ˈbɪtə] 'please' See German phonology.
Kashubian jãzëk [jãzək] 'language'
Palauan tilobęd [tilobəd] 'came'
Portuguese European[3] pagar [pɜ̝ˈɡaɾ] 'to pay' May be closer to the near-open vowel [ɐ] in Brazilian Portuguese.[4] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian măr [mər] 'apple' See Romanian phonology.
Russian конденсатор [kəndən'satər] 'capacitor' See Russian phonology
Welsh Cymru About this sound [ˈkəmrɨ] 'Wales' See Welsh phonology.
West Frisian gewoan [gəʋoǝn] 'normal'

Mid-central rounded vowel

Languages may have a mid-central rounded vowel (a rounded [ə]), distinct from both the close-mid and open-mid vowels. However, since no language is known to distinguish all three, there is no separate IPA symbol for the mid vowel, and the symbol [ɵ] for the close-mid central rounded vowel is generally used instead. If precision is desired, the lowering diacritic can be used: [ɵ̞].

Features

  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its vowel roundedness is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch kopen [ˈkopə] 'to buy' See Dutch phonology
French[5] je [ʒɵ̞] 'I' This may be more front for a number of speakers. See French phonology
Russian[6][7] тётя [ˈtʲɵ̞tʲə] 'aunt' Allophone of /o/ in the environment of palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
Swedish energi [ˌɛnːərˈɧiː] 'energy' Unstressed allophone of /ɛ/, see Swedish phonology
West Frisian skowe [skoːͧwə] 'to shove'

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232 
  • Crosswhite, Katherine Margaret (2000), "Vowel Reduction in Russian: A Unified Account of Standard, Dialectal, and 'Dissimilative' Patterns", University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 1 (1): 107–172, http://people.ucsc.edu/~padgett/locker/vreductpaper.pdf 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76 
  • Jones, Daniel; Dennis, Ward (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245 

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mid central vowel — The mid central vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|ə, and the equivalent X SAMPA symbol is @. The IPA symbol is a turned printed… …   Wikipedia

  • Central vowel — A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a central vowel is that the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel. The central vowels identified by the… …   Wikipedia

  • mid-central — ˈ ̷ ̷| ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ adjective of a vowel : articulated with the tongue arched in the middle midway between its highest and its lowest elevation …   Useful english dictionary

  • Near-open central vowel — ɐ Image …   Wikipedia

  • Close-mid central rounded vowel — ɵ Image …   Wikipedia

  • Open-mid central rounded vowel — ɞ Image …   Wikipedia

  • Close-mid central unrounded vowel — ɘ Image …   Wikipedia

  • Open-mid central unrounded vowel — ɜ Image …   Wikipedia

  • Mid vowel — IPA vowel chart Front Near ​front Central Near ​back …   Wikipedia

  • Mid front unrounded vowel — e̞ IPA number 302 430 Encoding Entity (decimal) #101;​ #798; …   Wikipedia


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