North Atlantic air ferry route in World War II


North Atlantic air ferry route in World War II
Air Transport Command emblem

The North Atlantic air ferry route was a series of Air Routes over the North Atlantic Ocean on which aircraft were ferried between the United States and Great Britain during World War II to support combat operations in the European Theater of Operations (ETO).

The route was developed as one of four major routes along which United States aircraft were ferried to the major combat areas. It originated at several Army Air Bases in New England, which permitted short range single-engined aircraft to be flown to Britain using a series of intermediate airfields in Newfoundland, Labrador, Greenland and Iceland. Long-range multi-engined aircraft could be flown from Newfoundland directly using Great Circle routes to airfields in Ireland and southwest England; or via the Azores to the UK or airfields in French Morocco to support Allied air forces in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO). Later in the war, air routes over the North Atlantic were developed from South Florida via Bermuda to the Azores.

Contents

Origins

With the outbreak of World War II in Europe, both the British and French governments contacted manufacturers in the United States with regards to purchasing combat aircraft to supplement existing Royal Air Force and Armée de l'Air peacetime forces.[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] As early as 1938 the British had ordered aircraft from American manufacturers and the British Direct Purchase Commission was established in January 1940 in New York. During the 1920s and 1930s, the British Imperial Airways had developed air routes across the British Empire,[6] [7] however air routes between Europe and North America consisted of seaplane service opeated by Pan American airways, using Boeing 314 long-range transatlantic flying boats. Although small airports existed in Newfoundland and Iceland, the only practical way to get the short-range fighter aircraft purchased in the United States by France and Britain to Europe was by cargo ship.

With the Fall of France in June 1940, and the loss of much war materiel on the continent, the need for the British to purchase replacement materiel from the United States was urgent. Aircraft ordered by France and also by the Netherlands were impounded. The aircraft purchased in the United States by Britain were flown to airports in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, partially dis-assembled and loaded on ships and transported to England where they were unloaded and re-assembled, a process that could take several weeks, not counting any damage to the aircraft incurred in the shipment. In addition, German U-boats operating in the North Atlantic Ocean were a constant menace to shipping routes in the North Atlantic making it very hazardous for merchant shipping between Newfoundland and Great Britain.[8] Larger aircraft could be flown to the UK and the "Atlantic Ferry Organization" was setup to manage this using civilian pilots.

In the summer of 1940, President Roosevelt began negotiating with the British Ambassador to the United States for the American lease of British bases, the "rental" to take the form of fifty over-age destroyers. On 2 September 1940, the Destroyers for Bases Agreement was completed. In exchange for the destroyers, the U. S. got ninety-nine-year leases for air and naval bases in the Dominion of Newfoundland, Bermuda, British Guiana, Antigua, Trinidad, St. Lucia, Jamaica and the Bahamas[9]

While the exchange of destroyers for a string of Atlantic bases was under negotiation, and then, while plans and preparations for developing the new bases were getting under way, Great Britain and Canada were consolidating their position in the North Atlantic by stationing troops in Iceland and were attempting to counter German activities in Greenland.[8]

Neither the United States, nor Canada or Great Britain desired any Nazi facilities or armed forces in Greenland. However, although Iceland was viewed as a part of Europe, Greenland was viewed as part of the North American Continent and Roosevelt felt that the British developing a military presence ran counter to the Monroe Doctrine of no European presence in the Americas. The US Department of State reached an agreement on 9 April 1941 with the Danish Foreign Minister that as a result of the European war there was a danger that Greenland might be converted into a point of aggression against nations of the American Continent by Nazi Germany. The agreement, after explicitly recognizing Danish sovereignty over Greenland, granted to the United States the right to locate and construct aircraft landing fields and other facilities for the defense of Greenland and for the defense of the North American continent. As soon as the agreement with the Danish Government was concluded, President Roosevelt authorized the War Department to go ahead with the preparations for building airfields and other facilities in Greenland. The United States had also taken over the defense of Iceland under an agreement with the Danish and British in July 1941, relieving the British from having to garrison forces there which were needed on the home front and in Egypt battling Rommel in the Western Desert Campaign. United States Army engineers began improving the airstrips previously begun by the British.[10][11]

Using these new airfields in Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland, land based air routes were developed to transport United States aircraft, soldiers and war supplies between the United States and the United Kingdom

North Atlantic Route

Under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement, the first United States troops arrived in Newfoundland on 29 January 1941. The first USAAF presence in Newfoundland was in May 1941 when six Douglas B-18 Bolos from the First Air Force 21st Reconnaissance Squadron arrived at RCAF Station Gander. As an alternate, the Canadian government in September 1941 began the development of Goose Bay in Labrador.[10][11]

During the preceding July the United States had sent engineers to Narsarsuaq in Greenland for the building of the air base that came to be known as Bluie West 1 (BW-1), which later became the headquarters of the Greenland Base Command. In the following September work began on Bluie West 8, a much more northerly base at Sondrestrom on the western coast of Greenland. On the east coast, an airfield was built at Angmagssalik (Bluie East 2).[12] These airfields, along with airfields in Iceland established an air route of "stepping stones" across the North Atlantic Ocean though which aircraft could be ferried to Great Britain from manufacturing plants in different locations in the United States to Prestwick Airport, near Glasgow, Scotland. This air route was known as the North Atlantic Route, and became one of the major transport and supply routes of World War II.

The North Atlantic Route was initially operated by the 23d Army Air Forces Ferrying Wing, Army Air Forces Ferrying Command, initially headquartered at Presque Isle Army Air Field, Maine. Ferrying Command was re-designated Air Transport Command on 1 July 1942. The 23d Ferrying Wing was replaced by the ATC North Atlantic Division, Grenier Army Air Base, New Hampshire on 1 January 1944.[11] The Royal Air Force counterpart organization was RAF Ferry Command (before mid-1941 known as RAF Atlantic Ferry Service and after March 1943 No. 45 (North Atlantic) Group within RAF Transport Command).

The winter of 1942-43 presented major problems all along the North Atlantic Route. A high accident rate due to weather was experienced beginning in September 1942 and it continued to climb. On 22 November Air Transport Command suspended the transportation of passengers across the North Atlantic for the duration of the winter. ATC traffic to Great Britain was diverted to the South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II. The distance to Britain by this route was significantly longer than the North Atlantic route, but distance dis-advantage was eclipsed by the fact that operations that could be maintained on a year-round basis.[10]

Mid-Atlantic Route

Efforts on another front were also productive. Prior to 1943 the Portuguese government only allowed German U-boats and navy ships to refuel in the Azores. However, diplomatic efforts in 1943 persuaded Portuguese Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar to lease bases on Azores Islands to the British. This represented a change in policy and was a key turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic allowing the Allies to provide aerial coverage in the middle of the Atlantic.[10]

The British established RAF Lagans Field at an existing airport on Terceira Island, and the United States constructed Santa Maria Field on Santa Maria Island. On 1 December 1943, British and United States military representatives at RAF Lagans Field signed a joint agreement outlining the roles and responsibilities for the USAAF and United States Navy use of RAF Lagans Field. In return, the US agreed to assist the British in improving and extending existing facilities at Lagens. Air Transport Command transport planes began landing at Lagens Field immediately after the agreement was signed. On 31 December 1943, Prime Minister Salazar gave his consent to the arrangement with the understanding the Americans would be under British control. By the end of June 1944, more than 1,900 American airplanes had passed through these two airfields in the Azores.[13]

The air routes established allowed long range multi-engined aircraft fitted with auxiliary fuel tanks to be ferried from Morrison Field, in South Florida through Kindley Field, Bermuda to one of the two airfields in the Azores. then on to RAF St Mawgan in Cornwall throughout the year. Single-engine aircraft, however, had to be ferried on the North Atlantic Route due to their shorter ranges. Also aircraft were ferried from Newfoundland via the Azores to Cornwall. This route was subsequently designated as the Mid-Atlantic Route. In addition, ATC ferried aircraft to French Morocco to support forces in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) from the Azores.[10][14]

Crimson Route

The Crimson Route was a planned Great Circle route to ferry aircraft from manufacturing plants in Southern California via Montana over Canada to Greenland using Sub-Arctic air routes. This route had the advantage of avoiding the poor weather over the North Atlantic by flying over the high latitudes of northern Canada to Greenland, then across Greenland to Iceland and on to Great Britain. Aircraft manufactured in the Midwest and Eastern United States could be flown north over Ontario or Quebec to Greenland as well, avoiding the often stormy North Atlantic. Several airfields were developed in northern Canada, and the route was tested by some RAF aircraft, however the project was ended in 1943 by the development of the Mid-Atlantic Route from Florida to the Azores and never fully developed.[10][11]

Airfields

North Atlantic Route

Name Location Coordinates Notes
Grenier Army Air Base New Hampshire 42°55′57″N 071°26′08″W / 42.9325°N 71.43556°W / 42.9325; -71.43556 (Grenier AAB) Initially First Air Force base, jurisdiction assumed by Air Transport Command in 1 January 1944.[15][16] Grenier became the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of Air Transport Command (ATC), its primary mission was the ferrying of aircraft from the United States to Great Britain.[17] Operated by 1377th AAFBU, ATC. Approximately 300-400 aircraft transited the airfield each month over North Atlantic Route.[11] Placed on standby status on 30 October 1946.[18]
Presque Isle Army Airfield Maine 46°41′20″N 68°02′41″W / 46.68889°N 68.04472°W / 46.68889; -68.04472 (Presque Isle AAF) Presque Isle Airport taken over by the Army Air Corps on 15 September 1941.[19] 23d Ferrying Wing AAC Ferrying Command headquarters was established, later 1380th AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC. The mission of the wing was to facilitate the transfer of Lend-Lease aircraft to England and act as an embarkation point for movement of Army Air Corps personnel and equipment. From Presque Isle, most ferried aircraft were flown to RCAF Station Gander, Newfoundland, then switching to Goose Bay, Labrador in mid-1942.
The airport remained Corporate HQ of Northeast Airlines, and was operated as a Civil/Military airfield throughout the war. Presque Isle remained the primary point of departure on the North Atlantic Route throughout the war. Returned to civil control September 1945.
Dow Army Airfield Maine 44°48′51″N 068°49′51″W / 44.81417°N 68.83083°W / 44.81417; -68.83083 (Dow AAF) Commercial airport taken over by USAAC in September 1941. Assigned to Air Service Command. Its initial mission was the maintenance and preparation of Lend-Lease aircraft bound for Great Britain, being transported by AAC Ferrying Command to RCAF Stations in Newfoundland.[20] After American entry into World War II, performed any necessary servicing on aircraft transiting over North Atlantic route. In addition, beginning in early 1943, it acquired the additional mission of training engineer aviation personnel and staging hundreds of 4-engined heavy bombers and preparing them for the overseas flight to European and Mediterranean combat theaters. Jurisdiction transferred to Air Transport Command March 1944.[11] Controlled by 1379th AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC. Over 8,400 aircraft passed though Dow in 1944, and approximately 2,150 in the last five months of the European conflict in 1945. After the end of the European war in May 1945, Dow was a stop on the return leg for aircraft returning to the United States, and remained part of ATC's North Atlantic Transport route for strategic air transportation between the United States and the United Kingdom.[10] Placed on standby status May 1946.[21]
Stephenville Air Base Newfoundland 48°32′38″N 058°33′12″W / 48.54389°N 58.55333°W / 48.54389; -58.55333 (Stephenville AB) 460 miles (740 km) from Presque Isle.[14] Developed by the United States and Newfoundland as a ferrying staging field in mid-1941 as a result of the 1940 Destroyers for Bases Agreement under Newfoundland Base Command.[9] Specifically developed with long runways to accommodate large multi-engined aircraft capable of Trans-Atlantic crossings when equipped with internal auxiliary fuel tanks.[11][22][23] Used by Air Transport Command for direct flights to RAF St Mawgan in Cornwall, an air distance of 2,357 miles (3,793 km).[14] Was capable by use of the largest United States aircraft and was the largest military airfield located outside of the Continental United States when constructed. The base became a frequent stopping and refueling point for USAAF aircraft crossing the Atlantic in both directions.[14] Remained active after the war, renamed Ernest Harmon Air Force Base in 1948. Turned over to Canadian national government in 1966 with expiration of United States agreement with Canada for use of military bases.
RCAF Station Gander Newfoundland 48°56′13″N 054°34′05″W / 48.93694°N 54.56806°W / 48.93694; -54.56806 (RCAF Station Gander) 643 miles (1,035 km) from Presque Isle.[14] Established as civil airport, turned over to RCAF in 1940. Became part of Newfoundland Base Command.[9][10] Heavily used by Ferrying Command and ATC for transporting military aircraft from Canada and the United States to the European Theater of Operations (ETO) via Greenland and Iceland airfields.[24]
RCAF Station Goose Bay Labrador 53°19′09″N 060°25′33″W / 53.31917°N 60.42583°W / 53.31917; -60.42583 (Goose Bay Airdrome) 569 miles (916 km) from Presque Isle.[14] Established in 1941 by RCAF, became joint airfield with United States AAF and Royal Air Force. Became part of Newfoundland Base Command. In 1943, RCAF Station Goose Bay was the busiest airport in the world transiting aircraft being ferried to Greenland by ATC.[10][11]
Bluie West 1 Greenland 61°10′00″N 045°25′59″W / 61.1666667°N 45.43306°W / 61.1666667; -45.43306 (Bluie West 1) 776 miles (1,249 km) from Goose Bay.[14] Established in 1941 by United States Army. HQ Greenland Base Command. Primary refueling/servicing stop in Greenland for North Atlantic Route. Remained under United States Air Force control until end of Cold War.[10][11]
Bluie West 8 Greenland 67°00′38″N 050°42′33″W / 67.01056°N 50.70917°W / 67.01056; -50.70917 (Bluie West 8) 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Goose Bay.[14] Established in 1941 by United States Army. Alternate refueling/servicing stop in Greenland for North Atlantic Route, also planned for use on Crimson Route over Canada. Used when weather in southern Greenland prohibited ferrying over direct route to Iceland. Remained under United States Air Force control until end of Cold War.[10][11]
Bluie East 2 Greenland 65°34′59″N 37°37′00″W / 65.58306°N 37.6166667°W / 65.58306; -37.6166667 (Bluie East 2) 375 miles (604 km) from BW-8.[14] Established in 1941 by United States Army. Used as refueling/servicing stop on ferrying route across Greenland, also planned for use on Crimson Route over Canada.[10][11]
Meeks Field Iceland 63°59′03″N 22°36′24″W / 63.98417°N 22.60667°W / 63.98417; -22.60667 (Meeks Field) 748 miles (1,204 km) from BW-1, 455 miles (732 km) from BE-2.[14] Built in 1941, headquarters of Iceland Base Command. Long runway used for ferrying of multi-engined aircraft. 1386th AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC. Became NATO interceptor base during the Cold War as Keflavik Airport. Turned over to Iceland Government 2006.[25]
Patterson Field Iceland 63°57′31″N 22°32′58″W / 63.95861°N 22.54944°W / 63.95861; -22.54944 (Patterson Field) Originally Svidningar field, used by Iceland Base Command as a fighter base for air defense, however also used by ATC as an overflow base for ferrying single-engine aircraft due to its short runways. USAAF air activity ended at the airfield in March 1947.[25][26]
Reykjavík Airport Iceland 64°07′48″N 021°56′26″W / 64.13°N 21.94056°W / 64.13; -21.94056 (Reykjavík Airport) Built by Royal Air Force in October 1940 and also known as "RAF Reykjavik". Used as a civil/military airfield during the war, also used by ATC as an overflow base.[10] Turned over to Icelandic government in July 1946 and since then it has been operated by the Icelandic Civil Aviation Authority (now named Flugstoðir Airport).[25][26]
RAF Vágar Faroe Islands 62°03′49″N 007°16′38″W / 62.06361°N 7.27722°W / 62.06361; -7.27722 (RAF Vágar) 491 miles (790 km) from Iceland. Used as refueling/servicing/emergency landing base. Built by British Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers in 1942 after the pre-emptive occupation by British forces of the Danish Faroe Islands in 1940 following the occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany. Control of the islands reverted to Denmark following the war
Prestwick Airport Scotland 55°30′34″N 004°35′40″W / 55.50944°N 4.59444°W / 55.50944; -4.59444 (Prestwick Airport) 467 miles (752 km) from RAF Vágar, 852 miles (1,371 km) from Iceland.[14] Initial ATC base in United Kingdom for receiving ferried aircraft from the United States. 1403d AAFBU, European Division. Began operations in July 1941 as Eastern Terminus, Atlantic Division, Ferrying Command.[27] Remained as primary terminus of North Atlantic route throughout the war. Under United States control until 31 May 1945.
RAF Nutts Corner Northern Ireland, UK 54°37′45″N 06°09′00″W / 54.62917°N 6.15°W / 54.62917; -6.15 (RAF Nutts Corner) 519 miles (835 km) from RAF Vágar, 863 miles (1,389 km) from Iceland.[14] Opened in 1941, ATC base established in June 1943, 1404th AAFBU, European Division. Detachment also at RAF Langford Lodge, Northern Ireland. Langford Lodge also was used as a servicing facility (403d Air Depot).[28] Closed 30 June 1945.[29]
RAF Valley Wales, UK 53°14′53″N 04°32′07″W / 53.24806°N 4.53528°W / 53.24806; -4.53528 (RAF Valley) 621 miles (999 km) from RAF Vágar, 979 miles (1,576 km) from Iceland.[14] An established RAF Station, it was brought into use in April 1943 as an ATC base, 1407th AAFBU, European Division. Was the closest ATC controlled airfield to most of the USAAF Eighth and Ninth Air Force stations located in the East Anglia region of eastern England. 60-70 aircraft arrived each day, then forwarded to operational bases.[30] Returned to sole RAF use in September 1945.

[11] During the 1950s, MATS operated WB-50 Superfortress weather aircraft (28th Weather Squadron) from the base.[31]

RAF St Mawgan Cornwall, England 50°26′16″N 05°00′21″W / 50.43778°N 5.00583°W / 50.43778; -5.00583 (RAF St Mawgan) Pre-war civil airport taken over by RAF initially as a satellite of nearby RAF St Eval. Rebuilt in new location with longer wider runways.[32] Turned over to Air Transport Command, 1 June 1943[11] for long-distance transports arriving from Stephenville Air Base, Newfoundland and aircraft being ferried to England from the Azores.[14] Operated by 1406th AAFBU, ATC European Division.[33] Served as hub for North African Division, ATC flights from French Morocco, along with ferried aircraft over the South Atlantic Route by ATC South Atlantic Division originating in South Florida.[14] Was also terminal for ferrying of aircraft to Twelfth Air Force in French West Africa and Tunisia from United Kingdom, along with transport of supplies and materiel. From 1943 it was also used by RAF Ferry Command and BOAC. RAF control from February 1946.[34]

Mid-Atlantic Route

Name Location Coordinates Notes
Morrison Field Florida 26°41′05″N 080°05′21″W / 26.68472°N 80.08917°W / 26.68472; -80.08917 (Morrison Field) Initially a Third Air Force Base, reassigned to Army Air Forces Ferrying Command (later Air Transport Command) on 19 January 1942, and for the balance of the war became Headquarters for the Caribbean Wing of ATC.[35] Operated by 1103d AAFBU, ATC. Primary mission was to operate the South Atlantic Transport Route,[11] although when Azores bases became available in the summer of 1943, also handled ferrying of long-range aircraft via Bermuda to United Kingdom.[10] Also operated intermediate emergency refueling/servicing airfield at Grand Bahama Airport (Detachment, 1103d AAFBU), Freeport.[14] Aircraft likely ferried over Mid-Atlantic Route from Homestead AAF (1104th AAFBU) and Miami Army Airfield 1105th AAFBU.[14][36] Placed in reserve status on 1 July 1947.[37]
Kindley Field Bermuda 32°21′58″N 064°41′16″W / 32.36611°N 64.68778°W / 32.36611; -64.68778 (Kindley Field) 1,005 miles (1,617 km) from Morrison Field. Built by United States after basing rights obtained via Destroyers For Bases Agreement.[9][38] Part of Bermuda Base Command, Ferrying operations began 1943 with opening of Mid-Atlantic route.[11] 1389th AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC. Performed servicing/refueling en-route to Azores. Remained active after World War II, became Kindley Air Force Base in 1948.[38]
RAF Lagans Field Terceira Island, Azores 38°45′42″N 027°05′17″W / 38.76167°N 27.08806°W / 38.76167; -27.08806 (RAF Lagans Field) 2,145 miles (3,452 km) from Bermuda, 1,698 miles (2,733 km) from Newfoundland, 1,346 miles (2,166 km) from RAF St Mawgan. Usage rights obtained in December 1943 from British, former civil airport. Operated by 1390th AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC, used as servicing/refueling airfield between bases in Bermuda, Great Britain and French Morocco. Air Transport Command traffic increased from approximately 90 planes in January 1944 to more than 600 planes in June 1944. By the end of June 1944 more than 1,900 American aircraft had passed through the base. In order for aircraft to operate on schedule, a 45-minute period was the average time limit allowed to service the aircraft after landing [11][13] United States granted military rights, September 1946, remained active as Lajes Field, active today as joint Portuguese Air Force/USAF/Civil Airport.[39]
Santa Maria Army Airfield Santa Maria Island, Azores 36°58′28″N 025°10′10″W / 36.97444°N 25.16944°W / 36.97444; -25.16944 (Santa Maria AAF) Built by United States, early 1944. Operated by 1391st AAFBU, North Atlantic Division, ATC. Used as overflow airfield for RAF Lagans.[11] Later became Azores Air Transfer Station.[40] Turned over to Portuguese Government, 1 September 1946,[41] now civil airport.
Menara Airport Marrakech, French Morocco 31°36′25″N 008°02′11″W / 31.60694°N 8.03639°W / 31.60694; -8.03639 (Menara Airport) Seized from Vichy French control as part of Operation Torch, November 1942. Became ATC base, operated by 1257th AAFBU, North African Division, ATC. Received ferried aircraft on South Atlantic route primarily from Roberts Field, Liberia, supporting Twelfth Air Force.[11] Air route to Azores 1,182 miles (1,902 km) established in January 1944.[13]
Anfa Airport Casablanca, French Morocco 33°33′25″N 007°39′38″W / 33.55694°N 7.66056°W / 33.55694; -7.66056 (Anfa Airport) Seized from Vichy French control as part of Operation Torch, November 1942. Became ATC base, operated by 1251st AAFBU, North African Division, ATC. Received ferried aircraft on South Atlantic route primarily from Roberts Field, Liberia, supporting Twelfth Air Force.[11] Air route to Azores 1,140 miles (1,830 km) established in January 1944.[13]

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ Northrop A-17[dead link]
  2. ^ Curtiss P-40D (Kittyhawk I)
  3. ^ Airacobra I for RAF, P-400
  4. ^ Mitchell with Royal Air Force
  5. ^ Brewster F2A-1
  6. ^ Imperial Airways
  7. ^ Global Networks Before Globalisation: Imperial Airways and the Development of Long-Haul Air Routes
  8. ^ a b The Early Development of Air Transport and Ferrying
  9. ^ a b c d The New Bases Acquired for old Destroyers
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n The North Atlantic Route
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s John D. Carter, “The Air Transport Command,” The Army Air Forces in World War II, vol. 7, Services Around the World, ed. Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, 42, 44–45 (Washington, D.C., Office of Air Force History, new imprint, 1983).
  12. ^ US Air Defense in the Northeast, Lydus H. Buss, USAF Continental Air Defense Command, 1957
  13. ^ a b c d Lajes Field History - The U.S. Enters the Azores
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Interesting facts about the Atlantic Air Routesof WWII
  15. ^ AFHRA Document 00172794
  16. ^ MANCHESTER, NH AIRPORT (MHT) The World War Two Years by Tom Hildreth
  17. ^ AFHRA Document 00172817
  18. ^ AFHRA Document 00172847
  19. ^ AFHRA Document 00176742
  20. ^ AFHRA Document 00171555
  21. ^ AFHRA Document 00171573
  22. ^ AFHRA Document 00007448
  23. ^ MacLeod, Malcolm (1986). Peace of the continent: The impact of Second World War Canadian and American bases in Newfoundland.. St. John's, Nfld.: Harry Cuff Publications. ISBN 0-919095-96-8.
  24. ^ AFHRA Document 00180719
  25. ^ a b c Establishing the Iceland Base Command
  26. ^ a b Historical buildings and sites in Iceland
  27. ^ AFHRA Document 00240544
  28. ^ AFHRA Document 00097383
  29. ^ AFHRA Document 00007547
  30. ^ RAF Valley History
  31. ^ AFHRA Document 00497356
  32. ^ http://www.controltowers.co.uk/S/St_Mawgan.htm
  33. ^ AFHRA Document 00007558
  34. ^ AFHRA Document 00193321
  35. ^ AFHRA Document 00175860
  36. ^ AFHRA Document 00178808
  37. ^ AFHRA Document 00175886
  38. ^ a b American Military Bases in Bermuda from 1941 to 1995
  39. ^ Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799536
  40. ^ AFHRA Document 01099524
  41. ^ 00007512

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