- Pollard alphabet
Type Abugida with elements of an Alphabet Languages Hmong, Nasu Creator Sam Pollard Time period Circa 1936 to the present ISO 15924 Plrd, 282 Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols.
The Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao, is an abugida loosely based on the Latin alphabet and invented by Methodist missionary Sam Pollard. Pollard invented the script for use with A-Hmao, one of several dialects of the Hmong language. The script underwent a series of revisions until 1936, when a translation of the New Testament was published using it. The introduction of Christian materials in the script that Pollard invented caused a great impact among the Lisu. Part of the reason was that they had a legend about how their ancestors had possessed a script but lost it. According to the legend, the script would be brought back some day. When the script was introduced, many Lisu came from far away to see and learn it (Enwall 1994).
Pollard credited the basic idea of the script to the Cree syllabics designed by James Evans in 1838–1841, “While working out the problem, we remembered the case of the syllabics used by a Methodist missionary among the Indians of North America, and resolved to do as he had done” (1919:174). He also gave credit to a Chinese pastor, “Stephen Lee assisted me very ably in this matter, and at last we arrived at a system” (1919:174). In listing the phrases he used to describe devising the script, there is clear indication of intellectual work, not revelation: “we looked about”, “resolved to attempt”, “adapting the system”, “solved our problem” (Pollard 1919:174,175).
Changing politics in China led to the use of several competing scripts, most of which were romanizations. The Pollard script remains popular among Hmong in China, although Hmong outside China tend to use one of the alternative scripts. A revision of the script was completed in 1988, which remains in use. The Pollard script was proposed, in 1997, for inclusion in Unicode  by John Jenkins at Apple Computer. It has been released as part of The Unicode Standard version 6.1.0 beta release, and is anticipated to be formally release in February 2012. 
As with most other abugidas, the Pollard letters represent consonants, whereas vowels are indicated by diacritics. Uniquely, however, the position of this diacritic is varied to represent tone. For example, in Western Hmong, placing the vowel diacritic above the consonant letter indicates that the syllable has a high tone, whereas placing it at the bottom right indicates a low tone.
- Enwall, Joakim. 1994. A Myth Become Reality: History and Development of the Miao Written Language, two volumes. (Stockholm East Asian Monographs, 5 & 6.) Stockholm: Institute of Oriental Languages, Stockholm University.
- Pollard, Samuel. 1919. Gathering up the Fragments. London: Hooks.
- Wen, You 1938. Lun Pollard Script. Xinan bianjiang 1, 43-53.
- Wen, You.1951. Guizhou Leishan xin chu canshi chukao. Huaxi wenwu. Reprinted in Wen You, 1985. Wen You lunji, Beijing: Zhongyang minzu xueyuan keyanchu.
- Description of the Pollard script
- Edwin Dingle. "Across China on Foot". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=95137&pageno=73. Retrieved July 29, 2005. – Dingle describes how Sam Pollard used positioning of vowel marks relative to consonants to indicate tones.
Types of writing systems Overview Lists Types Abjads Abugidas BrahmicAhom · Balinese · Batak · Baybayin · Brāhmī · Buhid · Burmese · Chakma · Cham · Devanāgarī · Dhives Akuru · Eastern Nagari · Grantha · Gujarati · Gupta · Gurmukhī · Hanunó'o · Javanese · Kadamba · Kaithi · Kalinga · Kannada · Khmer · Lanna · Lao · Lepcha · Limbu · Lontara · Malayalam · Meitei Mayek · Mithilakshar · Modi · Mon · Nāgarī · Nepali · Old Kawi · Oriya · Pallava · 'Phags-pa · Ranjana · Rejang · Rencong · Śāradā · Saurashtra · Sinhala · Siddhaṃ · Soyombo · Sundanese · Sylheti Nagari · Tagbanwa · Tai Dam · Tai Le · Takri · Tamil · Telugu · Thai · Tibetan · Tocharian · Varang Kshiti Others Alphabets LinearArmenian · Avestan · Bassa Vah · Borama · Coptic · Cyrillic · Deseret · Duployan shorthand · Eclectic shorthand · Elbasan · Fraser · Gabelsberger shorthand · Georgian · Glagolitic · Gothic · Gregg shorthand · Greek · Greco-Iberian alphabet · Hangul · International Phonetic · Kaddare · Latin · Manchu · Mandaic · Mongolian · Neo-Tifinagh · New Tai Lue · N'Ko · Ogham · Ol Chiki · Old Hungarian · Old Italic · Old Permic · Orkhon · Osmanya · Runic · Shavian alphabet · Visible Speech · Vithkuqi Non-linear Ideo/Pictograms Logograms Chinese Chinese-based Other logo-syllabic Logo-consonantal Numerals Semi-syllabaries Full Redundant Syllabaries
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pollard script — Infobox Writing system name=Pollard [Miao] type=Abugida typedesc=with elements of an Alphabet time=Circa 1936 to the present creator=Sam Pollard languages=Hmong iso15924=PlrdThe Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao, is an abugida loosely… … Wikipedia
Pollard-Schrift — Die Pollard Schrift ist eine Abugida, die von Sam Pollard zur Benutzung in den Hmong Sprachen erfunden wurde. Sie wurde 1905 erstellt und bis 1936 reformiert. Die Schrift basiert auf dem lateinischen Alphabet, ist aber, bedingt durch ihren Status … Deutsch Wikipedia
Alphabet — [ William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia .] An alphabet is a standardized set of letters mdash basic written symbolsmdash each of which roughly represents a phoneme, a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in… … Wikipedia
Sam Pollard — Samuel Pollard (20 April 1864 in Camelford, Cornwall ndash; 16 September 1915 in China) was a British Methodist missionary to China with the China Inland Mission who converted many of the Big Flowery Miao (now called the Hmong) in Guizhou to… … Wikipedia
Greek alphabet — Type Alphabet … Wikipedia
International Phonetic Alphabet — Not to be confused with NATO phonetic alphabet. IPA redirects here. For other uses, see IPA (disambiguation). For usage of IPA in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:IPA or Wikipedia:IPA/Introduction International Phonetic Alphabet … Wikipedia
Georgian alphabet — Type Alphabet Languages Georgian and other Kartvelian languages Time period … Wikipedia
Coptic alphabet — Type Alphabet Languages Coptic language Time period c. 300 AD to 14th century AD (Still used today in Coptic churches in Egypt and … Wikipedia
Syriac alphabet — Type Abjad … Wikipedia
Nabataean alphabet — Nabataean Type Abjad Languages Nabataean language Time period 2nd century BC to 4th century AD Parent systems Proto Sinaitic alphabet … Wikipedia