Theatrical release poster
Directed by Steven Lisberger
Produced by Donald Kushner
Screenplay by Steven Lisberger
Story by Steven Lisberger
Bonnie MacBird
Starring Jeff Bridges
Bruce Boxleitner
David Warner
Cindy Morgan
Barnard Hughes
Dan Shor
Music by Wendy Carlos (score)
Journey (songs)
Cinematography Bruce Logan
Editing by Jeff Gourson
Studio Walt Disney Productions
Distributed by Buena Vista Distribution
Release date(s) July 9, 1982 (1982-07-09)
Running time 96 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $17,000,000
Box office $33,000,000

Tron is a 1982 American science fiction film written and directed by Steven Lisberger, and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It stars Jeff Bridges as the protagonist Kevin Flynn; Bruce Boxleitner in a dual role as security program Tron and Tron's "User", computer programmer Alan Bradley; Cindy Morgan in a dual role as program Yori and her "User", Dr. Lora Baines; Barnard Hughes in a dual role as the tower guardian Dumont and his "User", Dr. Walter Gibbs; Tony Stefano in a dual role as Ed Dillinger's secretary Peter and Sark's otherwise-nameless Lieutenant; and Dan Shor as Ram. David Warner plays all three main antagonists: the program Sark, his "User", Ed Dillinger, and the voice of the artificially intelligent Master Control Program. The film also features cameo roles by Jackson Bostwick and Michael Dudikoff (who makes his acting debut as a video game-conscript).

The film tells the story of Flynn as he attempts to hack into the ENCOM mainframe to prove that Dillinger has appropriated his work, but ends up being transported into the Digital World itself as a unique program/User. There, he teams up with Tron to defeat the Master Control Program, who has been controlling the Digital World.

Development of Tron began in 1976 when Lisberger became fascinated with Pong. Along with producer Donald Kushner, he set up an animation studio to develop Tron with the intention of making it an animated film. Lisberger decided to include live-action elements with the computer animation. Various film studios had rejected the storyboards for the film before the project was set up at Disney. There, backlighted animation was combined with the computer animation and live-action. Tron was released on July 9, 1982 in 1,091 theaters in the United States.

The film received positive reviews from critics. Critics praised the visuals and acting, but criticized the storyline. The film also was a box office success, grossing $33 million in the United States (approx. $74 million in 2010). Tron received nominations for Best Costume Design and Best Sound at the 55th Academy Awards, and received the Academy Award for Technical Achievement 14 years later. Over time, Tron developed into a cult film and eventually spawned into a franchise, which consists of multiple video games, comic books and an animated television series.[1] A sequel titled Tron: Legacy was directed by Joseph Kosinski and was released on December 17, 2010; it also saw the return of Lisberger, Bridges, and Boxleitner to the franchise.

Tron was re-released in its original 70mm format in a number of cinemas across the USA and UK during 2011.



Kevin Flynn (Jeff Bridges) is a software engineer attempting to invade the mainframe of his former employer, software company ENCOM, in order to find evidence that senior executive Ed Dillinger (David Warner) plagiarised several video games invented by Flynn. He is prevented by the Master Control Program (M.C.P.), an artificial intelligence that controls the ENCOM mainframe and seeks control over other mainframes as well.

When ENCOM's employees Alan Bradley (Bruce Boxleitner) and Lora Baines (Cindy Morgan) tell Flynn that Dillinger has tightened security in response to Flynn's invasions, Flynn persuades them to admit him into ENCOM's buildings wherein to forge a higher security clearance for Bradley's program "Tron", which would monitor communications between the M.C.P. and the outside world. In ENCOM's laboratory, the M.C.P. uses a laser developed for "quantum teleportation" to digitize Flynn into the ENCOM mainframe.

In the mainframe, computers' programs appear in the likeness of the human "users" who created them, and wield as their chief weapon an "identity disc" thrown at their enemies. Here, the M.C.P. and its assistant Sark (Warner) seek complete control over input/output in the system. Programs resistant to their rule are forced to play in gladiatorial games in which the losers are destroyed. Imprisoned by Sark, Flynn meets Tron (Boxleitner) and another program named 'Ram', with whom they escape into the mainframe during a Light Cycle match, and are later separated. In the attempt to reunite with Tron, Flynn discovers that, as a User, he is capable of manipulating the reality of the digital world. Shortly after learning of Flynn's "User" status, Ram is mortally wounded by Sark's minions and dissolves.

At an input/output junction, Tron communicates with Alan and receives instructions to destroy the M.C.P. Tron and another program named Yori (Morgan) board a "solar sailer simulation" to reach the M.C.P.'s core. Flynn boards the sailer early in the journey, and later reveals his 'User' status to the others. Before they reach the M.C.P., Sark's command ship destroys the sailer, capturing Flynn and Yori. Sark leaves the command ship and orders its destruction; but Flynn keeps it intact while Sark reaches the M.C.P.'s core on a shuttle, carrying captured programs. Tron—thought killed in the collision— confronts Sark outside the core while the M.C.P. attempts to consume the captives. Tron damages Sark and attacks the M.C.P. directly; whereupon the M.C.P. raises a shield around its core and re-empowers Sark against Tron. To destroy the M.C.P., Flynn leaps into it, distracting it long enough to reveal a gap in its shield, through which Tron destroys it. Thereafter input/output junctions are illuminated as programs begin to communicate with their users, and Flynn is reconstructed in the world outside. A nearby printer prints the evidence that Dillinger had plagiarized his code. Dillinger, entering his office, finds the proof broadcast and the M.C.P. inactive. Flynn takes his place as executive of ENCOM, while Alan and Lora remain his closest friends.


  • Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn. Bridges also portrays Clu (Codified Likeness Utility), a hacking program intended to find evidence of Dillinger's plagiarism in the mainframe.
  • Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley, a friend of Kevin Flynn and employee of ENCOM. Boxleitner also plays Tron, a security program developed by Bradley.
  • David Warner as Ed Dillinger. Warner also plays Sark, a command program, and provides (uncredited) the voice of the Master Control Program, an artificial intelligence created by Dr. Walter Gibbs and expanded by Dillinger.
  • Cindy Morgan as Dr. Lora Baines, Alan's co-worker at ENCOM and assistant to Dr. Walter Gibbs. Implied to have later married Alan. Morgan also plays Yori, a program created by Baines and a confidante of Tron.
  • Barnard Hughes as Dr. Walter Gibbs, a founder and employee of ENCOM. Hughes also plays Dumont, a guardian program protecting input/output junctions.
  • Dan Shor as Ram, an actuarial program for an unnamed insurance company and close friend of Tron and Crom in the mainframe.
  • Peter Jurasik as Crom, an accounting program.



The inspiration for Tron occurred in 1976 when Steven Lisberger, then an animator of drawings with his own studio, looked at a sample reel from a computer firm called MAGI and saw Pong for the first time.[2] He was immediately fascinated by video games and wanted to do a film incorporating them. According to Lisberger, "I realized that there were these techniques that would be very suitable for bringing video games and computer visuals to the screen. And that was the moment that the whole concept flashed across my mind".[3] "Everybody was doing backlit animation in the 70s, you know. It was that disco look. And we thought, what if we had this character that was a neon line, and that was our Tron warrior – Tron for electronic. And what happened was, I saw Pong, and I said, well, that's the arena for him. And at the same time I was interested in the early phases of computer generated animation, which I got into at MIT in Boston, and when I got into that I met a bunch of programmers who were into all that. And they really inspired me, by how much they believed in this new realm."[4] He was frustrated by the clique-like nature of computers and video games and wanted to create a film that would open this world up to everyone. Lisberger and his business partner Donald Kushner moved to the West Coast in 1977 and set up an animation studio to develop Tron.[3] They borrowed against the anticipated profits of their 90-minute animated television special Animalympics to develop storyboards for Tron with the notion of making an animated film.[2]

The film was then conceived to be predominantly an animated film with live-action sequences acting as book ends.[3] The rest would involve a combination of computer generated visuals and back-lit animation. Lisberger planned to finance the movie independently by approaching several computer companies but had little success. However, one company, Information International, Inc., was receptive.[3] He met with Richard Taylor, a representative, and they began talking about using live-action photography with back-lit animation in such a way that it could be integrated with computer graphics. At this point, Lisberger already had a script written and the film entirely storyboarded with some computer animation tests completed.[3] He had spent approximately $300,000 developing Tron and had also secured $4–5 million in private backing before reaching a standstill. Lisberger and Kushner took their storyboards and samples of computer-generated films to Warner Bros., MGM, and Columbia Pictures – all of which turned them down.[2]

In 1980, they decided to take the idea to Disney, which was interested in producing more daring productions at the time.[3] However, Disney executives were uncertain about giving $10–12 million to a first-time producer and director using techniques which, in most cases, had never been attempted. The studio agreed to finance a test reel which involved a flying disc champion throwing a rough prototype of the discs used in the film.[3] It was a chance to mix live-action footage with back-lit animation and computer generated visuals. It impressed the executives at Disney and they agreed to back the film. The script was subsequently re-written and re-storyboarded with the studio's input.[3] At the time, Disney rarely hired outsiders to make films for them and Kushner found that he and his group were given a less than warm welcome because "we tackled the nerve center – the animation department. They saw us as the germ from outside. We tried to enlist several Disney animators but none came. Disney is a closed group...."[5]


Because of the many special effects, Walt Disney Pictures decided in 1981 to film Tron completely in 65-mm Super Panavision (except for the computer-generated layers, which were shot in Vistavison and some scenes in the "real" world which were filmed in anamorphic 35mm and "blown up" to 65mm). Three designers were brought in to create the look of the computer world.[3] Renowned French comic book artist Jean Giraud (aka Moebius) was the main set and costume designer for the movie. Most of the vehicle designs (including Sark's aircraft carrier, the light cycles, the tank, and the solar sailer) were created by industrial designer Syd Mead, of Blade Runner fame. Peter Lloyd, a high-tech commercial artist, designed the environments.[3] Nevertheless, these jobs often overlapped, leaving Giraud working on the solar sailer and Mead designing terrain, sets and the film's logo. The original 'Program' character design was inspired by Lisberger Studios' logo of a glowing body-builder hurling two discs.[3]

To create the computer animation sequences of Tron, Disney turned to the four leading computer graphics firms of the day: Information International Inc. of Culver City, California, who owned the Super Foonly F-1 (the fastest PDP-10 ever made and the only one of its kind); MAGI of Elmsford, New York; Robert Abel and Associates of California; and Digital Effects of New York City.[3] Bill Kovacs worked on this movie while working for Robert Abel before going on to found Wavefront Technologies. The work was not a collaboration, resulting in very different styles used by the firms.

Tron was one of the first movies to make extensive use of any form of computer animation, and is celebrated as a milestone in the industry; but only fifteen to twenty minutes of such animation were used,[6] mostly scenes that show digital "terrain" or patterns or include vehicles such as light-cycles, tanks and ships. Because the technology to combine computer animation and live action did not exist at the time, these sequences were interspersed with the filmed characters. The computer used had only 2MB of memory, with a disc that had no more than 330MB of storage. This put a limit on detail of background; and at a certain distance, they had a procedure of mixing in black to fade things out, a process called "depth cueing". The movie's Computer Effects Supervisor Richard Taylor told them "When in doubt, black it out!", which became their motto.[7]

Most of the scenes, backgrounds, and visual effects in the film were created using more traditional techniques and a unique process known as "backlit animation".[3] In this process, live-action scenes inside the computer world were filmed in black-and-white on an entirely black set, printed on large format Kodalith high-contrast film, then colored with photographic and rotoscopic techniques to give them a "technological" appearance.[5] With multiple layers of high-contrast, large format positives and negatives, this process required truckloads of sheet film and a workload even greater than that of a conventional cel-animated feature. The Kodalith was specially produced as large sheets by Kodak for the film and came in numbered boxes so that each batch of the film could be used in order of manufacture for a consistent image; but this was not understood by the filmmakers, and as a result glowing outlines and circuit traces occasionally flicker as the film speed varied between batches. After the reason was discovered, this was no longer a problem as the batches were used in order and "zinger" sounds were used during the flickering parts to represent the computer world malfunctioning as Lisberger described it.[8] Lisberger later had these flickers and sounds digitally corrected for the 2011 DVD and Blu-ray release as they were not included in his original vision of the film. Due to its difficulty and cost, this process was not repeated for another feature film.[3][clarification needed]

Sound design and creation for the film was assigned to Frank Serafine,[9] who was responsible for the sound design on Star Trek: The Motion Picture in 1979. Tron was a 1983 Academy Awards nominee for Best Sound.[10]

At one point in the film a small entity called "Bit" advises Flynn with only the words "yes" and "no" created by a Votrax speech synthesizer.

More than 500 people were involved in the post-production work, including 200 inker and hand-painters in Taiwan's Cuckoo's Nest Studio.[5] (Unusual for an English-language production, in the end credits the personnel are listed with their names written in Chinese characters.)

This film features parts of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the multi-story ENCOM laser bay was the target area for the SHIVA solid-state multi-beamed laser. Also, the stairway that Alan, Lora, and Flynn use to reach Alan's office is the stairway in Building 451 near the entrance to the main machine room. The cubicle scenes were shot in another room of the lab. Tron is the only movie to have scenes filmed inside this lab.[11]

The original script called for "good" programs to be colored yellow and "evil" programs (those loyal to Sark and the MCP) to be colored blue. Partway into production, this coloring scheme was changed to blue for good and red for evil, but some scenes were produced using the original coloring scheme: Clu, who drives a tank, has yellow circuit lines, and all of Sark's tank commanders are blue (but appear green in some presentations). Also, the light-cycle sequence shows the heroes driving yellow (Flynn), orange (Tron) and red (Ram) cycles, while Sark's troops drive blue cycles; similarly, Clu's tank is red, while tanks driven by crews loyal to Sark are blue.

Budgeting the production was difficult by reason of breaking new ground in response to additional challenges, including an impending Directors Guild of America strike and a fixed release date.[3] Disney predicted at least $400 million in domestic sales of merchandise, including an arcade game by Bally Midway and three Mattel Intellivision home video games.[5]

The producers also added Easter eggs: during the scene where Tron and Ram escape from the Light Cycle arena into the system, Pac-Man can be seen behind Sark; whereas a "Hidden Mickey" outline can be seen below the solar sailer during the protagonists' journey.


The soundtrack for Tron was written by pioneer electronic musician Wendy Carlos, who is best known for her album Switched-On Bach and for the soundtracks to many films, including A Clockwork Orange and The Shining. The music, which was the first collaboration between Carlos and her partner Annemarie Franklin,[12] featured a mix of an analog Moog synthesizer and Crumar's GDS digital synthesizer (complex additive and phase modulation synthesis), along with non-electronic pieces performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra (hired at the insistence of Disney, which was concerned that Carlos might not be able to complete her score on time). Two additional musical tracks were provided by the band Journey after British band Supertramp pulled out of the project.


Box office

Tron was released on July 9, 1982, in 1,091 theaters grossing USD $4 million on its opening weekend. It went on to make $33 million in North America, moderately successful considering its $17-million budget.[13]

Critical reception

Critical reviews were mostly positive; Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four out of four stars and described the film as "a dazzling movie from Walt Disney in which computers have been used to make themselves romantic and glamorous. Here's a technological sound-and-light show that is sensational and brainy, stylish, and fun".[14] However, near the end of his review, he noted (in a positive tone), "This is an almost wholly technological movie. Although it's populated by actors who are engaging (Bridges, Cindy Morgan) or sinister (Warner), it is not really a movie about human nature. Like [the last two Star Wars films], but much more so, this movie is a machine to dazzle and delight us".[14] Ebert was so convinced that this film had not been given its due credit by both critics and audiences that he decided to close his first annual Overlooked Film Festival with a showing of Tron.[15] Perhaps unsurprisingly, InfoWorld's Deborah Wise was impressed, writing that "it is hard to believe the characters acted out the scenes on a darkened soundstage... We see characters throwing illuminated Frisbees, driving 'lightcycles' on a video-game grid, playing a dangerous version of jai alai and zapping numerous fluorescent tanks in arcade-game-type mazes. It's exciting, it's fun, and it's just what video-game fans and anyone with a spirit of adventure will love—despite plot weaknesses."[16]

On the other hand, Variety disliked the film and said in its review, "Tron is loaded with visual delights but falls way short of the mark in story and viewer involvement. Screenwriter-director Steven Lisberger has adequately marshalled a huge force of technicians to deliver the dazzle, but even kids (and specifically computer game geeks) will have a difficult time getting hooked on the situations".[17] In her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin criticized the film's visual effects: "They're loud, bright and empty, and they're all this movie has to offer".[18] The Washington Post's Gary Arnold wrote, "Fascinating as they are as discrete sequences, the computer-animated episodes don't build dramatically. They remain a miscellaneous form of abstract spectacle".[19] In his review for the Globe and Mail, Jay Scott wrote, "It's got momentum and it's got marvels, but it's without heart; it's a visionary technological achievement without vision".[20]

In the year it was released, the Motion Picture Academy refused to nominate Tron for a special-effects award because, according to director Steven Lisberger, "The Academy thought we cheated by using computers".[21] The film did, however, earn Oscar nominations in the categories of Best Costume Design and Best Sound (Michael Minkler, Bob Minkler, Lee Minkler and James LaRue).[22] In 1997, Ken Perlin of the Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. won an Academy Award for Technical Achievement for his invention of Perlin noise for Tron.[23]

In 2008, Tron was nominated for AFI's Top 10 Science Fiction Films list.[24]


A novelization of Tron was released in 1982, written by American science fiction novelist Brian Daley. It included eight pages of color photographs from the movie.[25] Also that year, Disney Senior Staff Publicist Michael Bonifer authored a book entitled The Art of Tron which covered aspects of the pre-production and post-production aspects of Tron.[26][27]

Cultural impact

The film, considered groundbreaking, has inspired several individuals in numerous ways. John Lasseter, head of Pixar and Disney's animation group, described how the film helped him see the potential of computer-generated imagery in the production of animated films stating "without Tron there would be no Toy Story".[28][29] The two members of the French house group Daft Punk, who scores the sequel, have held a joint, life-long fascination with the film.[30] Tron developed into a cult film and was ranked as 13th in a 2010 list of the top 20 cult films published by The Boston Globe.[31]


On January 12, 2005, Disney announced it had hired screenwriters Brian Klugman and Lee Sternthal to write a sequel to Tron.[32] In 2008, director Joseph Kosinski negotiated to develop and direct "TR2N", described as "the next chapter" of the 1982 film and based on a preliminary teaser trailer shown at that year's San Diego Comic-Con, with Lisberger co-producing.[33] Filming began in Vancouver, British Columbia in April 2009.[34] During the 2009 Comic-Con, the title of the sequel was revealed to be changed to Tron: Legacy.[35][36] The second trailer (also with the "Tron: Legacy" logo) was released in 3D with Alice In Wonderland. A third trailer premiered at Comic-Con 2010 on July 22. At Disney's D23 Expo September 10–13, 2009 they also debuted teaser trailers for Tron: Legacy as well as having light cycle and other props from the movie there. The film was released on December 17, 2010.[Tron-Legacy-Release 1]

Home media

Tron was first released on DVD in 2000 with no special features. In 2002, the film received a 20th Anniversary Collector's Edition re-release in a 2-Disc DVD set.

To tie in with Tron's sequel, Tron: Legacy, the movie was re-released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Special Edition DVD and for the first time on Blu-ray Combo on April 5, 2011, with the subtitle "Original Classic" to distinguish it from its sequel. Tron was also featured in a 5-Disc Blu-ray Combo with the 3D copy of Tron: Legacy. The film was re-released on Blu-ray and DVD in the UK on June 27, 2011.

See also

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  1. ^ Michael Schneider (4 November 2010). "Disney XD orders 'Tron: Legacy' toon". Variety. Retrieved 9 November 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c Culhane, John (July 4, 1982). "Special Effects are Revolutionizing Film". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Patterson, Richard (August 1982). "The Making of Tron". American Cinematographer. 
  4. ^ Interview: Justin Springer and Steven Lisberger, co-producers of Tron: Legacy
  5. ^ a b c d Ansen, David (July 5, 1982). "When You Wish Upon a Tron". Newsweek. 
  6. ^ Interview with Harrison Ellenshaw, supplemental material on Tron DVD
  7. ^ The influence of Disney's Tron in filmmaking | Tron and CG moviemaking
  8. ^ The Making of Tron (DVD Feature)
  9. ^ Tron Wiki – interview about Tron sound effects
  10. ^
  11. ^ The People of NIF: Rod Saunders: Each Day is an Adventure
  12. ^ Moog, Robert (November 1982). "The Soundtrack of TRON". Keyboard Magazine: 53–57.*.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-16. 
  13. ^ "Tron". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  14. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1982). "Tron". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  15. ^ "Roger Ebert's Overlooked Film Festival #1 Schedule". Retrieved December 18, 2009. 
  16. ^ Deborah Wise, "Unabashed fan and critics' critic talk about Disney's Tron," InfoWorld Vol. 4, No. 30 (Aug 2, 1982): 70-71.
  17. ^ "Tron". Variety. January 1, 1982. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  18. ^ Maslin, Janet (July 9, 1982). "Tron". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  19. ^ Arnold, Gary (July 10, 1982). "Duel of Two Disneys". Washington Post: pp. C1. 
  20. ^ Scott, Jay (July 10, 1982). "Tron Beautiful but Heartless". Globe and Mail. 
  21. ^ Helfand, Glen (January 9, 2002). "Tron 20th Anniversary". San Francisco Gate. 
  22. ^ "The 55th Academy Awards (1983) Nominees and Winners". Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  23. ^ Kerman, Phillip. Macromedia Flash 8 @work: Projects and Techniques to Get the Job Done. Sams Publishing. 2006.
  24. ^ AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
  25. ^ Daley, Brian (1 October 1982). Tron. New English Library Ltd. ISBN 0450055507. 
  26. ^ Bonifer, Michael (November 1982). The Art of Tron. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671455753. 
  27. ^ Tron Sector Biography of Mike Bonifer
  28. ^ Thompson, Anne (December 9, 2010). "What Will Tron: Legacy’s 3D VFX Look Like in 30 Years?". Tron Legacy VFX – Special Effects in Tron Legacy. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 24 December 2010. 
  29. ^ Lyons, Mike (November 1998). "Toon Story: John Lasseter's Animated Life". Animation World Magazine. Retrieved 13 October 2010. 
  30. ^ IGN Staff (12 October 2010). "Listen to Daft Punk in TRON: Legacy". IGN. Retrieved 13 October 2010. "Having grown up with admiration of Disney's original 1982 film Tron..." 
  31. ^ Staff. "Top 20 cult films, according to our readers". The Boston Globe. Retrieved December 27, 2010. 
  32. ^ Fleming, Michael (January 12, 2005). "Mouse uploads Tron redo". Variety. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  33. ^ Kit, Borys (September 11, 2007). "New Tron races on". Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  34. ^ "Feature films currently filming in BC". 
  35. ^ "Comic Con: Disney Panel, Tron 2 Revealed Live From Hall H!". Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  36. ^ Roush, George (23 July 2009). "Comic-Con 2009: Disney Panel TRON Legacy & Alice In Wonderland!". Latino Review. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  37. ^ McKinney, Bruce (1997-07-07): Hardcore Visual Basic, Chapter 1.1. ISBN 1572314222. Freely available online:

External links

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