- Edwin Catmull
Edwin Catmull, Ph.D. (born 1945 in
Parkersburg, West Virginia) is an Academy Awardwinning computer scientistand current president of Walt Disney Animation Studiosand Pixar Animation Studios. As a computer scientist, Catmull has contributed to many important developments in computer graphics.
Early in life, Catmull found inspiration in Disney movies such as "Peter Pan" and "Pinocchio" and dreamed of becoming a feature film animator. He even made primitive animation using so-called flip-books. However, he assessed his chances realistically and decided that his talents lay elsewhere. Instead of pursuing a career in the movie industry, he used his talent in
mathand studied physicsand computer scienceat the University of Utah. After graduating, he worked as a computer programmer at The Boeing Companyin Seattlefor a short period of time, before returning to Utah to go to graduate school in fall of 1970.
Back at the university he became one of
Ivan Sutherland's students, sharing classes with Fred Parke, James H. Clark, John Warnockand Alan Kay. Catmull saw Sutherland's computer drawing program Sketchpadand the new field of computer graphicsin general as a major fundament in the future of animation, which combined his love for both technology and animation, and decided to be a part of the revolution from the beginning. During his time there he made three fundamental computer graphicsdiscoveries: Z-buffering(independently from Wolfgang Straßerwho described it 8 months before Catmull in his PhD thesis [Straßer, Wolfgang. Schnelle Kurven- und Flächendarstellung auf graphischen Sichtgeräten, Dissertation, TU Berlin, submitted 26.4.1974] ), texture mapping, and bicubic patches, and invented algorithms for anti-aliasingand refining subdivision surfaces. In 1973 he made his earliest contribution to the film industry, an animated version of his left hand who was eventually picked up by a Hollywood producer and incorporated in the 1976 movie " Futureworld", the science fiction sequel to the film " Westworld" and the first film to use 3D computer graphics.
In 1974, Catmull graduated again and was hired by a company called
Applicon. But already in November the same year he was contacted by the founder of New York Institute of Technology, Alexander Schure, who offered him the position as the director of the new Computer Graphics Lab at NYIT, an offer Catmull couldn't refuse. Also Schure had a great interest in animation, and was working on a project with an animated feature called Tubby the Tuba. Frustrated with the slow progress, he had been looking for tools that could help speed up the process, which turned out to be the computer graphic facilities at the University of Utah. There he also heard about the man he felt was the right man for the job, Ed Catmull. In his new position, Catmull formed a talented research group working with 2D animation, mostly focusing on tools who could assist the animators in their work. Among the inventions was a paint program simply called Paint which could be seen as an early version of Disney's CAPS, the commercial animation program Tween (used in the video called 3Measure for Measure2), inspired by an experimental computer animation system created by Nestor Burtnykand Marcelli Wein, that automated the process of producing in-between frames, the animation program SoftCel and other software.
Catmull and his team eventually left 2D animation and started to concentrate on 3D computer graphics, moving into the field of motion picture production. By the end of the 70's, the Computer Graphics Lab was starting to struggle for several reasons and felt there was a lack of actual progress despite the technological development, but it had attracted the attention of
George Lucasat Lucasfilm, who wanted to create his own computer group. Like Schure before him, Lucas contacted Catmull in 1979 and gave him an offer he couldn't resist. He now had an opportunity to work with computer animation in the movie industry, as the Vice President at the computer graphics division at Lucasfilm.
At Lucasfilm he helped develop digital image compositing technology used to combine multiple images in a convincing way. Later, in 1986,
Steve Jobsbought Lucasfilm's digital division and founded Pixar, where Catmull became the Chief Technical Officer. At Pixar, he was a key developer of the RenderManrendering system used in films such as " Toy Story" and " Finding Nemo".
Disneyacquired Pixar in January 2006, Disney Chief Executive Bob Igerput Catmull and John Lasseterin charge of reinvigorating the Disney animation studios in Burbank. According to a Los Angeles Timesarticle, [cite web | author=Eller, Claudia | year=2006 | title=Ed Catmull: Pixar 's Superhero, Shakes Up Disney (offline) | format=HTML | work= | url=http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/la-fi-catmull12jun12,1,340636.story | accessdate=2006-06-13] part of this effort was to allow directors more creative control as collaborators on their projects and to give them the creative freedom to use traditional animation techniques — a reversal of former CEO Michael Eisner's decision that Disney would do only digital animation.
In 1993, the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencespresented Catmull with his first Academy Award "for the development of PhotoRealistic RenderMansoftware which produces images used in motion pictures from 3D computer descriptions of shape and appearance." In 1995 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Again in 1996, he received an Academy Award "for pioneering inventions in Digital Image Compositing". Finally, in 2001, he received an Oscar "for significant advancements to the field of motion picture rendering as exemplified in Pixar's RenderMan."
Catmull–Clark subdivision surface
Notes and references
Robert L. Cook, Loren Carpenter, and Edwin Catmull. "The Reyes image rendering architecture." "Computer Graphics ( SIGGRAPH'87 Proceedings)", pp. 95–102.
* Michael Rubin, "Droidmaker: George Lucas and the Digital Revolution" (2005), ISBN 0937404675
* [http://www.animatedbuzz.com/journal/04-05/01.html#Anchor-58402 Ed Catmull's visit to CalArts' Character Animation Program (Fall '04)]
* [http://www.electric-escape.net/node/1302 Ed Catmull: Pixar 's Superhero Shakes Up Disney]
* [http://www.usc.edu/isd/pubarchives/networker/97-98/Sep_Oct_97/innerview-catmull.html Networker magazine interviews Ed Catmull]
* [http://film.guardian.co.uk/interview/interviewpages/0,6737,1062064,00.html Fantastic Voyage: Guardian Unlimited interviews Ed Catmull, president of Pixar]
* [http://www.siggraph.org/conferences/reports/s2001/interview/catmull.html SIGGRAPH Interviews Edwin Catmull]
* [http://iinnovate.blogspot.com/2007/02/dr-ed-catmull-co-founder-and-president.html Stanford business school students of the iinnovate blog interview Ed Catmull]
* [http://splinedoctors.blogspot.com/2007/11/original-spline-doctor.html The Spline Doctors interview Ed Catmull]
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