- Merit Network
Merit Network Founder(s) Michigan State University, University of Michigan, and Wayne State University Type Non-profit member governed Founded 1966 Location Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Area served Primarily Michigan Focus Internet networking Mission Encourage and promote computer resource sharing by building and operating a leading high-speed network and providing related services to the research, education, government, and non-profit communities Formerly called Michigan Educational Research Information Triad Website http://www.merit.edu
Merit Network, Inc., is a nonprofit member-governed organization providing high-performance computer networking and related services to educational, government, health care, and nonprofit organizations, primarily in Michigan. Created in 1966, Merit operates the longest running regional computer network in the United States.
Created in 1966 as the Michigan Educational Research Information Triad by Michigan State University (MSU), the University of Michigan (U-M), and Wayne State University (WSU), Merit was created to investigate resource sharing by connecting the mainframe computers at these three Michigan public research universities. Merit's initial three node packet-switched computer network was operational in October 1972 using custom hardware based on DEC PDP-11 minicomputers and software developed by the Merit staff and the staffs at the three universities.
Over the next dozen years the initial network grew as new services such as dial-in terminal support, remote job submission, remote printing, and file transfer were added; as gateways to the national and international Tymnet, Telenet, and Datapac networks were established, as support for the X.25 and TCP/IP protocols was added; as additional computers such as WSU's MVS system and the UM's electrical engineering's VAX running UNIX were attached; and as new universities became Merit members.
Merit's involvement in national networking activities started in the mid-1980s with connections to the national supercomputing centers and work on the 56K bps National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), the forerunner of today's Internet. From 1987 until April 1995, Merit re-engineered and managed the NSFNET backbone service.
MichNet, Merit's regional network in Michigan was attached to NSFNET and in the early 1990s Merit began extending "the Internet" throughout Michigan, offering both direct connect and dial-in services, and upgrading the state-wide network from 56 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps, and on to 45, 155, 622 Mbps, and eventually 1 and 10 gigabits/sec. In 2003 Merit began its transition to a facilities based network, using fiber optic facilities that it shares with its members, that it purchases or leases under long term agreements, or that it builds.
In addition to network connectivity services, Merit offers a number of related services within Michigan and beyond, including: Internet2 connectivity, VPN, Network monitoring, Voice over IP (VOIP), Cloud storage, E-mail, Domain Name, Network Time, VMware and Zimbra software licensing, Colocation, and professional development seminars, workshops, classes, conferences, and meetings.
Creating the network: 1966 to 1973
The Michigan Educational Research Information Triad (MERIT) was formed in the fall of 1966 by Michigan State University (MSU), University of Michigan (U-M), and Wayne State University (WSU). More often known as the Merit Computer Network or simply Merit, it was created to design and implement a computer network connecting the mainframe computers at the universities.
In the fall of 1969, after funding for the initial development of the network had been secured, Bertram Herzog was named director for MERIT. Eric Aupperle was hired as senior engineer, and was charged with finding hardware to make the network operational. The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the State of Michigan provided the initial funding for the network.
In June 1970, the Applied Dynamics Division of Reliance Electric in Saline, Michigan was contracted to build three Communication Computers or CCs. Each would consist of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11 computer, dataphone interfaces, and interfaces that would attach them directly to the mainframe computers. The cost was to be slightly less than the $300,000 ($1,696,800, adjusted for inflation) originally budgeted. Merit staff wrote the software that ran on the CCs, while staff at each of the universities wrote the mainframe software to interface to the CCs.
The first completed connection linked the IBM S/360-67 mainframe computers running the Michigan Terminal System at WSU and U-M, and was publicly demonstrated on December 14, 1971. The MSU node was completed in October 1972, adding a CDC 6500 mainframe running Scope/Hustler. The network was officially dedicated on May 15, 1973.
Expanding the network: 1974 to 1985
In 1974, Herzog returned to teaching in the University of Michigan's Industrial Engineering Department, and Aupperle was appointed as director.
Use of the all uppercase name "MERIT" was abandoned in favor of the mixed case "Merit".
The first network connections were host to host interactive connections which allowed person to remote computer or local computer to remote computer interactions. To this, terminal to host connections, batch connections (remote job submission, remote printing, batch file transfer), and interactive file copy were added. And, in addition to connecting to host computers over custom hardware interfaces, the ability to connect to hosts or other networks over groups of asynchronous ports and via X.25 were added.
Merit interconnected with Telenet (later SprintNet) in 1976 to give Merit users dial-in access from locations around the United States. Dial-in access within the U.S. and internationally was further expanded via Merit's interconnections to Tymnet, ADP's Autonet, and later still the IBM Global Network as well as Merit's own expanding network of dial-in sites in Michigan, New York City, and Washington, D.C.
In 1978, Western Michigan University (WMU) became the fourth member of Merit (prompting a name change, as the acronym Merit no longer made sense as the group was no longer a triad).
To expand the network, the Merit staff developed new hardware interfaces for the Digital PDP-11 based on printed circuit technology. The new system became known as the Primary Communications Processor (PCP), with the earliest PCPs connecting a PDP-10 located at WMU and a DEC VAX running UNIX at U-M's Electrical Engineering department.
A second hardware technology initiative in 1983 produced the smaller Secondary Communication Processors (SCP) based on DEC LSI-11 processors. The first SCP was installed at the Michigan Union in Ann Arbor, creating UMnet, which extended Merit's network connectivity deeply into the U-M campus.
National networking, NSFNET, and the Internet: 1986 to 1995
In 1987, Merit, IBM and MCI submitted a winning proposal to NSF to implement a new NSFNET backbone network. The new NSFNET backbone network service began 1 July 1988. It interconnected supercomputing centers around the country at 1.5 megabits per second (T1), 24 times faster than the 56 kilobits-per-second speed of the previous network. The NSFNET backbone grew to link scientists and educators on university campuses nationwide and connect them to their counterparts around the world.
In September 1990 in anticipation of the NSFNET T3 upgrade and the approaching end of the 5-year NSFNET cooperative agreement, Merit, IBM, and MCI formed Advanced Network and Services (ANS), a new non-profit corporation with a more broadly based Board of Directors than the Michigan based Merit Network. Under its cooperative agreement with NSF, Merit remained ultimately responsible for the operation of NSFNET, but subcontracted much of the engineering and operations work to ANS.
In 1991 the NSFNET backbone service was expanded to additional sites and upgraded to a more robust 45 Mbps (T3) based network. The new T3 backbone was named ANSNet and provided the physical infrastructure used by Merit to deliver the NSFNET Backbone Service.
On April 30, 1995 the NSFNET project came to an end, when the NSFNET backbone service was decommissioned and replaced by a new Internet architecture with commercial ISPs interconnected at Network Access Points provided by multiple providers across the country.
Bringing the Internet to Michigan: 1985 to 2001
During the 1980s, Merit Network grew to serve eight member universities, with Oakland University joining in 1985 and Central Michigan University, Eastern Michigan University, and Michigan Technological University joining in 1987.
In 1990, Merit's board of directors formally changed the organization's name to Merit Network, Inc., and created the name MichNet to refer to Merit's statewide network. The board also approved a staff proposal to allow organizations other than publicly supported universities, referred to as affiliates, to be served by MichNet without prior board approval.
1992 saw major upgrades of the MichNet backbone to use Cisco routers in addition to the PDP-11 and LSI-11 based PCPs and SCPs. This was also the start of relentless upgrades to higher and higher speeds, first from 56 kbps to T1 (1.5 Mbps) followed by multiple T1s (3.0 to 10.5 Mbps), T3 (45 Mbps), OC3c (155 Mbps), OC12c (622 Mbps), and eventually one and ten gigabits (1000 to 10,000 Mbps).
In 1993 Merit started what would become an eight year phase out of its aging PCP and SCP technology. By 1998 the only PCPs still in service were supporting Wayne State University's MTS mainframe host. During their remarkably long twenty-year life cycle the number of PCPs and SCPs in service reached a high of roughly 290 in 1991, supporting a total of about 13,000 asynchronous ports and numerous LAN and WAN gateways.
In 1994 the Merit Board endorsed a plan to expand the MichNet shared dial-in service, leading to a rapid expansion of the Internet dial-in service over the next several years. In 1994 there were 38 shared dial-in sites. By 1996 there were 131 shared dial-in sites and more than 92% of Michigan residents could reach the Internet with a local phone call. And by the end of 2001 there were 10,733 MichNet shared dial-in lines in over 200 Michigan cities plus New York City, Washington, D.C., and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. As an outgrowth of this work, in 1997, Merit created the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Consortium.
During 1994 an expanded K-12 outreach program at Merit helped lead the formation of six regional K-12 groups known as Hubs. The Hubs and Merit applied for and were awarded funding from the Ratepayer fund, which as part of a settlement of an earlier Ameritech of Michigan ratepayer overcharge, had been established by Michigan Public Service Commission to further the K-12 community’s network connectivity.
During the 1990s, Merit added Grand Valley State University (1994), Northern Michigan University (1994), Lake Superior State University (1997), and Ferris State University (1998) as members. By 1999, Merit had 163 affiliate members, with 401 attachments from 353 separate locations.
Merit was involved in a number of projects in cooperation with organizations throughout Michigan, including:
- Project Connect, a 1992 cooperative effort among Merit, Novell, and GTE, that equipped five southeastern Michigan schools with Novell Local Area Networks with connections to MichNet;
- GoMLink, an early virtual library reference service operated by the University of Michigan;
- the Michigan Electronic Library (MEL), a networked virtual library service of the Library of Michigan and the University of Michigan;
- the Michigan Library Association's "Action Plan for Michigan Libraries"; Internet dial-in access for libraries sponsored by the Library of Michigan;
- development of the "Michigan Information Network (MIN) Plan";
- in cooperation with MiCTA, providing assistance to the K-12, library, and rural healthcare communities in understanding the federal Universal Service Fund (USF) E-Rate program; and
- the Society of Manufacturing Engineers CoNDUIT project, funded by the United States Department of Defense to train staff of small manufacturing businesses in the use of modern technology.
Transition to the commercial Internet, Internet2 and the vBNS: 1994 to 2005
In 1994, as the NSFNET project was drawing to a close, Merit organized the meetings for the North American Network Operators' Group (NANOG). NANOG evolved from the NSFNET "Regional-Techs" meetings, where technical staff from the regional networks met to discuss operational issues of common concern with each other and with the Merit engineering staff. At the February 1994 regional techs meeting in San Diego, the group revised its charter to include a broader base of network service providers, and subsequently adopted NANOG as its new name.
MichNet obtained its initial commodity Internet access, a T3 (45 Mbps), from the commercial ISP, internetMCI.
In 1996 Merit became an affiliate member of Internet2, in 1997 established its first connection to the NSF very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), and in February 1999 began serving as Michigan's GigaPOP for Internet2 service.
Following the NSFNET project Merit lead a number of activities with a national or international scope, including:
- the GateD Consortium (1995);
- the 1997 NSF funded Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit project;
- the 1997 NSF funded Internet Performance Measurement and Analysis (IPMA) project, a joint project with U-M's Electrical Engineering and Computer Science;
- the 1996 NETSCARF network statistics collection and analysis project, funded by the ANS Resource Allocation Committee; and
- the 1999 DARPA funded Lighthouse project focusing on large scale network attack recognition, remediation and survivable network infrastructure lead by the University of Michigan College of Engineering.
In 2000, Merit spun off two for-profit companies: NextHop Technologies, which developed and marketed GateD routing software, and Interlink Networks, which specialized in authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) software.
Creating a facilities based network, adding new services: 2003 to the present
In January 2005 Merit and Internet2 moved into the new Michigan Information Technology Center (MITC) in Ann Arbor.
In 2006, Dr. Donald J. Welch was named president and CEO of Merit Network, Inc.
During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s Merit operated what is known as a "value-added network" where individual data circuits were leased on a relatively short term basis (one to three or sometimes five years) from traditional telecommunications providers such as Ameritech, GTE, Sprint, and MCI and assembled into a larger network by adding routers and other equipment. This worked well for many years, but as data rates continued to increase from kilobits, to megabits, to gigabits the cost of leasing the higher speed data circuits became significant. As a result, the alternative of building its network using "dark fiber" that Merit owned or leased on a relatively longer term basis (10, 20, or more years) under what are known as "Indefeasible Rights of Use" (IRU) as well as using or sharing fiber that is owned by its members became attractive.
Merit's statewide fiber-optic network strategy began to take shape when:
- in 2003 a fiber ring was deployed in Lansing;
- in 2003 Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University launched the Michigan LambdaRail Network (MiLR) project to link the campuses to each other and to Chicago using privately-owned fiber, with Merit to operate MiLR on behalf of the three universities and using some of the MiLR fiber for its own network;
- in 2004 fiber rings were added in Grand Rapids and Chicago;
- in August 2005 Merit was utilizing dark fiber from Michigan Lambda Rail (MiLR) between Detroit and Chicago to support the southern portion of its network backbone;
- in July 2006 Merit began to use optical fiber that had been installed by a consortium of government and community organizations in the Alpena area;
- in February 2006 Merit and the Ontario Research and Innovation Optical Network (ORION) were linked using fiber optic cable across the US-Canada border through the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel, later in September 2008, a wireless connection across the Soo Locks between Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario provided a second link between Merit and ORION;
- in September 2007 Merit created the first high-speed network connection between Michigan's two peninsulas with fiber optic cable across the Mackinac Bridge;
- in November 2007 Merit completed Phase I of its fiber network expansion into the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, connecting Lake Superior State University (LSSU), Michigan Technological University (MTU), and Northern Michigan University (NMU) via fiber-optic cable at gigabit Ethernet speeds;
- in May 2008 Merit completes a new fiber optic link from Southfield to Toledo providing a 10 Mbps link to OSCnet, Ohio's regional research and education network, and a second path between Merit and the Internet2 network;
- in March 2009 a partnership between the City of Hillsdale, Hillsdale College, Hillsdale County Intermediate School District (ISD), and Merit, completed a fiber-optic ring to improve connectivity in the city and reduce network costs for the Hillsdale-area organizations; and
- in December 2009 Merit began to use a new fiber optic link between Mt. Pleasant and Big Rapids. This completed the 500 mile "Blue-Line" fiber optic network that links 16 cities in the lower half of Michigan's lower peninsula (Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Muskegon, Big Rapids, Mt. Pleasant, Midland, Saginaw, Flint, Pontiac, Rochester, Southfield, Ypsilanti, Ann Arbor, Jackson, East Lansing, and Battle Creek).
In July 2008, Merit began upgrading its core backbone network to 10 gigabits and installing five new Juniper MX480 routers. This upgrade was completed in May 2009 with seven backbone nodes in Grand Rapids, East Lansing, Detroit, Ann Arbor, Kalamazoo, and Chicago (2) all operating at 10 Gbps. Also during May 2009 Merit replaced its four 1 Gbps links to the commodity Internet with two 10 Gbps links over diverse paths to two different Teir 1 providers. And in October 2009 the links from Ann Arbor to Jackson and from Jackson and East Lansing were upgraded to 10 Gbps.
In January 2010 Merit and its partners, ACD.net; LYNX Network Group, LLC; and TC3Net; learned that their REACH-3MC (Rural, Education, Anchor, Community and Healthcare - Michigan Middle Mile Collaborative) proposal had been awarded ~$33.3M in grants and loans from the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP), part of the federal stimulus package. REACH-3MC will build a 1,017-mile optical fiber extension into rural and underserved communities in 32 counties in Michigan's lower peninsula.
In August 2010 Merit and its REACH-3MC partners were selected to receive $69.6M in a second round of federal stimulus funding to build an additional 1,270 miles of optical fiber in the northern lower peninsula and upper peninsula of Michigan and extending into Wisconsin.
At NANOG's 50th meeting in Atlanta in October 2010, members of the NANOG community supported a charter amendment to transition the hosting of NANOG following the February 2011 NANOG meeting to NewNOG, a newly formed non-profit.
Today, in addition to network connectivity, Merit offers:
- Internet2 connectivity
- Virtual Private Network (VPN) services
- Network monitoring
- Voice over IP (VOIP) services
- Cloud storage services
- E-mail hosting services
- Domain Name services
- Network Time Services
- VMware and Zimbra software licensing
- Colocation services, including business continuity and disaster recovery
- Routing Assets Database (RADb) public registry
- Professional development seminars, workshops, classes, conferences, and meetings
- Michigan Information Technology Executive Forum
- Merit Joint Technical Staff (MJTS) meetings and e-mail
- Discussion communities, including:
- ^ Bylaws of Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "Merit–Who, What, and Why, Part One: The Early Years, 1964-1983", Eric M. Aupperle, Merit Network, Inc., in Library Hi Tech, vol. 16, No. 1 (1998)
- ^ a b c d NSFNET: A Partnership for High-Speed Networking, Final Report, 1987-1995, Karen D. Frazer, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ A Chronicle of Merit's Early History, John Mulcahy, Merit Network, Inc., 1989
- ^ "Bert Herzog, 1929-2008: Remembrances and Recollections", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.28, no.5, pp. 6-9 (Sep./Oct. 2008), doi:10.1109/MCG.2008.91
- ^ "40 years and going strong: Internet pioneer [Eric Aupperle of] Merit celebrates and looks ahead", Jim Duffy, Network World, November 10, 2006
- ^ UM and Wayne State connect their computing centers via MERIT, University of Michigan Board of Regents, Regents' Proceedings, March 1972, p. 1416
- ^ "CDC 6000 Operating System (SCOPE/Hustler)", web page by Mark Riordan at Michigan State University
- ^ Merit Timeline: 1970-1979
- ^ "SIGGRAPH Community mourns the death of Bertram Herzog, an early advocate of computer networking", July 18, 2008, ACM SIGGRAPH web page
- ^ "Merit's Evolution—Statistically Speaking", Eric M. Aupperle, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol.32 No.10 (October 1983), pp. 881-902
- ^ Merit had the distinction of being the first network to concurrently support both connection-based protocols (its own internal protocol and X.25) and the connectionless TCP/IP protocols.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Merit–Who, What, and Why, Part Two: The Middle Years, 1983-1993", Eric M. Aupperle, Merit Network, Inc., in Library Hi Tech, vol. 16, No. 1 (1998)
- ^ From the NSFNET mid-project review conducted by NSF in May 1989: “One of the most important successes of the NSFNET backbone project has been the demonstration that universities and major high-tech corporations can combine and collaborate in running a large production facility and do it well. It is worth emphasizing this, since the popular wisdom holds that: (a) universities cannot run a production operation, and (b) that university-industry collaborations are only useful for advanced research projects. What the MERIT-IBM-MCI team has demonstrated is that a collaboration between academia and industry is very useful in setting up a production system involving innovative management and new technologies.”
- ^ "The Technology Timetable", Link Letter, November 1992, p. 8, NSFNET Information Services, Merit Network, Inc., Ann Arbor
- ^ The Beginnings and History of RADIUS, John Vollbrecht, 2006, Interlink Networks, LLC, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
- ^ a b c d e "Merit–Who, What, and Why, Part Three: Recent Events, 1993-1998", Eric M. Aupperle, Merit Network, Inc., in Library Hi Tech, vol. 16, No. 1 (1998)
- ^ "A Breed Apart: The Dial-In Men", David Greenfield, Network Magazine, December 1, 2000
- ^ a b Merit Timeline: 1990-1999
- ^ a b c Merit Timeline: 2000-2009
- ^ "About MiCTA", web page
- ^ Original 1994 NANOG Charter
- ^ NSF Solicitation 93-52 - Network Access Point Manager, Routing Arbiter, Regional Network Providers, and Very High Speed Backbone Network Services Provider for NSFNET and the NREN(SM) Program, May 6, 1993
- ^ The Routing Arbiter Project, Project History, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit–Who, What, and Why, Part Four: The Future, 1998+", Eric M. Aupperle, Merit Network, Inc., in Library Hi Tech, vol. 16, No. 1 (1998)
- ^ "Multi-threaded Routing Toolkit" on the Project History web page, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Internet Performance Measurement and Analysis (IPMA)", web page, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ Statistics Collection and Reporting Software (NetSCARF)" on the Project History web page, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ Merit GateD Consortium, Project History, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ About Interlink Networks, web site
- ^ "Regents' Roundup: Thirteen receive emeritus status", University Record, Vol.57, No.21 (February 18, 2002), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
- ^ "Applause: Aupperle receives Outstanding Engineer Award, Third Millennium Medal", University Record, Vol.55, No.31 (May 8, 2000), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
- ^ IEEE/SEM Section Award Recipients Outstanding Engineer Award, Wavelengths Newsletter, Vol.39, No.7 (April 2000), IEEE Southeastern Michigan Section (SEM) Section Website
- ^ Eric M. Aupperle receives the Alumni Society Medal, the highest honor given by the Alumni Society of the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor to graduates who have excelled in a technical field. Aupperle is a research scientist emeritus at the university in electrical and computer engineering, IEEE member recognitions, January 2004
- ^ "New President Arrives at Merit", Susan Harris, MichNet News, Vol.15 No.2 (September 2001), p. 1, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ Michael R. McPherson, web page, University of Virginia
- ^ "New Location for Merit!", January 1, 2005, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Donald Welch Selected as Merit President and CEO", Press Release, May 11, 2006, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network and OSTN Unite to Provide IPTV to Michigan Institutions", November 30, 2006, Press Release, Open Student Television Network
- ^ "Merit Network to End Dial-in Services as of July 2, 2007", February 7, 2007, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR), web page, ITS Networking & Telecommunications, Information and Technology Services (ITS), University of Michigan
- ^ "Merit Announces New Regional Fiber Rings", August 3, 2004, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network Completes First Phase of Facilities-Based Backbone", August 18, 2005, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Fiber Consortium Enhances Region", by Sue Latuszek, The Alpena News, July 10, 2006
- ^ "Ontario and Michigan Research Networks Achieve International Connection", February 2, 2006, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Beaming gigabits across Canada-U.S. border, August 27, 2008, reprinted from the Orion e-newsletter
- ^ "Merit Network Provides Another First for Michigan's Research and Education Community", October 19, 2007, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Completes Phase I of Upper Peninsula Fiber Project", November 12, 2007, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network Completes New Fiber Optic Link to Toledo", May 7, 2008, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "With New Broadband Infrastructure, Hillsdale Aims to Attract Information Technology Organizations to Area", March 24, 2009, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network Celebrates the Completion of its "Blue-Line" Fiber-Optic Network", January 12, 2010, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Completes 10G Router Upgrades", May 26, 2009, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network Finalizes New Commodity Service Agreement", May 18, 2009, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Upgrades Two Backbone Links to 10G", October 20, 2009, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network wins REACH-3MC Broadband Stimulus Proposal", January 20, 2010, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ "Merit Network Receives second Broadband Stimulus Award—REACH-3MC II", August 24, 2010, Press Release, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ NANOG Community Endorses Organizational Changes, October 6, 2010, in Merit Network News & Press Release Archive
- ^ Services, web page, Merit Network, Inc.
- ^ MITE, web page, Merit Network, Inc.
- Merit Network, Inc., web site
- Merit History, web page
- A Glimpse at Past Merit Projects, web page
- NSFNET: The Partnership That Changed The World, web site for an event held to celebrate the NSFNET, November 2007
- North American Network Operators' Group (NANOG), web site
- RADB.net Routing Assets Database (RADb), web site
- Merit Computer Network public collection, Hathi Trust Digital Library
- "Merit Network, Inc. records 1966-2002", Finding Aid, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
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