- Megger Group Limited
Megger Group Limited Type Private Industry Electrical power Founded 1889 Founder(s) Sydney Evershed and Ernest Vignoles Headquarters Dover (UK); Dallas, Texas; Valley Forge, Pennsylvania (USA), Täby (Sweden) Products Electrical test and measurement equipment Revenue $19.2m  Employees 1500 Website www.Megger.com
Megger Group Limited is a company that manufactures electric test equipment and measuring instruments for electrical power applications.
The company is known for their original electrical insulation testers, and supply products related to the following areas: cable fault locating, earth/ground testing, low resistance measuring, power quality, electrical wiring, insulation testers, multimeters, portable appliance testers, clamp-on meters, current transformers, etc.
The company logo depicts the word Megger with red capital "M" and the remaining letters in black, all on white background.
- 1 History
- 2 Present times
- 3 Intellectual property
- 4 Products
- 5 Research
- 6 Charity
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Over the years there were several companies whose names were associated or assimilated into Megger.
Evershed & Vignoles
Sydney Evershed (1858–1939) and Ernest Vignoles bought the instrument section of Goolden and Trotter (where they both worked) and founded Evershed & Vignoles Limited on 5 February 1895.  However, it is likely that the origins of Megger can be traced back to 1889.  The company was based at Acton Lane Works, Chiswick, London, England where it moved from Westbourne Park in 1903.
One of them was a "hand dynamo",  which allowed generation of voltages high enough to measure resistance in the megohm range and thus construction of a first portable insulation tester. The MEGaohm metER was then named as Megger and the word became a trademark name registered on 25 May 1903.  The invention became a popular method of insulation testing and by 1920s it was "well-known" by other engineers.  
Due to electromagnetic interference the first Megger insulation testers were built as two separate boxes – one for voltage generation and one for measurement. They were later integrated into a single device in a Bakelite case and special foldable handle for driving the dynamo. The most popular was the so-called "Wee Megger" (voltage up to 500 V and resistance up to 20 megohms), but there were larger devices like the "Major Megger", "Meg" or "Megger insulation tester", which could generate up to 2500 V and measure resistance up to 20,000 megohms.   (Modern version of Megger - model MJ15 - can generate up to 5 kV.)
In 1965 Evershed & Vignoles Ltd. Became a part of the George Kent Group. 
H.W. Sullivan Ltd
The company (established in 1922) was producing precision laboratory equipment (e.g. resistors, inductors, shunts, galvanometers, etc.). H.W. Sullivan Ltd was incorporated into Megger in 2002.
The invention of the first multimeter is attributed to a Post Office engineer Donald Macadie,  who became dissatisfied with having to carry many separate instruments required for the maintenance of the telecommunication circuits. Macadie invented a first instrument, which could measure Amps, Volts and Ohms, so the multifunctional meter was then named as AVO. 
Macadie took his idea to the Automatic Coil Winder and Electrical Equipment Company (ACWEECO, founded probably in 1923). The first AVO was put on sale in 1923, and although it was initially a DC-only instrument many of its features remained almost unaltered right through to the last Model 8.
ACWEECO later became known as AVO Limited and manufactured instruments with the AVO trademark.
The original AVO multimeter was manufactured continuously since its first appearance in 1923. The final model was made in October 2008, when its production was terminated only due to increasing problems with obtaining the spare mechanical parts. The final AVO Model 8 introduced in 1951 became an electronic device present in the market for 57 years without major modifications.
AVO Training Institute
In 1963 Multi-Amp and AVO created Multi-Amp Institute. In 2004 the Institute became AVO Training Institute, Inc. with the headquarters in Dallas, Texas. AVO Training Institute was established for providing training in electrical engineering, particularly regarding safety, maintenance and testing of electrical equipment, also by using instruments from competitive manufacturers.
In 1996 the Institute was certified with ISO 9001 and so far over 230,000 electrical maintenance and testing technicians and engineers from around the world have attended training courses.
The Institute has a Technical Resource Center - an online store offering books, standards, training materials, Personal Protective Equipment, and tools.  The actual training can be organised in different sites around the world, for example at the Megger facility in Paris. 
In 1970, along with other members of the George Kent Group the company was acquired by Thorn Electrical Industries founded in 1936.  The company was taken over by Thorn EMI in 1967 (linked with company EMI), which at the same time also bought AVO Limited.
In 1987 the name of the company was for the first time changed to Megger Instruments Limited. 
Megger Instruments Limited was based at AVO’s Dover site, in Archcliffe Road, Dover, CT17 9EN, Kent, England, which is also the present location of the UK branch of the company.
In 1991, due to the popularity of the AVO products the company changed the name to AVO Megger Instruments Limited. In 2000 the company became known as AVO International Holdings Limited and in 2002 as AVO International Limited.
Finally the whole Megger group changed its name to Megger Group Limited in 2002, as it is known today.
The Dover site employs around 230 people.  In total (including the sales channels) Megger Group Limited employs around 1500 people worldwide.
In recognition of the ground breaking inventions, which made it possible to build the Megger group the main meeting rooms at the Dover site are named after Evershed and Macadie.
For many years, the James G. Biddle Company in Pennsylvania, was the USA importer of Megger products, as well as a manufacturer of equipment under their own name. In 1989, using concepts introduced by Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago, Biddle started development of a range of equipment to test the integrity of large battery systems, which led to the BITE (Battery Impedance Test Equipment) line of products.
In 1991 Biddle, Megger and MultiAmp joined together to form AVO International. The use of the Biddle trademark was retained for many of products still available today. Biddle was one of the first companies to provide commercial cable fault locators. 
PowerDB was acquired in autumn 2005. They provide "acceptance and maintenance test data management software" which is compatible with many Megger products. 
Programma Electric AB is a Swedish electrical test and measurement equipment manufacturer and was founded in 1976.  It provided products including: circuit breaker analysers, battery load testers, primary injection testers, vacuum interrupter testers, microhmmeters and protective relay test instruments. The production plant facility is located in Täby, Sweden.
In October 2008 Megger Group Ltd. acquired Pax Diagnostics in Sweden. Pax manufactures transformer testing and insulation diagnostics equipment. Pax Diagnostics was founded in 2004 by former employees of Programma Electric, and it is also based in Täby. 
The first trademark of the company, the name Megger was registered in 1903 and it remains the intellectual property of the Megger Ltd.
It is incorrect to use the word "Megger" as a verb, noun or in the plural form.  It is an infringement of the trademark if used in reference to a product not made by the Megger Group or its subsidiaries., see genericized trademark.
Most of the names and trademarks of the acquired companies are now owned by Megger Group Ltd. Apart from "Megger" itself, the best known ones are: AVO, Biddle, Biddle AVO, Biddle Megger, States, PowerDB, and recently Programma and Pax Diagnostics.
However, some of the names of the products are also protected: Megger, AVO, DLRO, MFT, MIT, MPRT, etc.
It is difficult to assess the actual number of patents, because some of them were obtained before acquired companies joined Megger Group. The original Megger insulation tester patent is over 100 years old.
On 25 May 2003 Megger Group celebrated a century of innovation. 
The table shows a timeline of some typical devices introduced by Megger Group companies (not necessarily covered with patents). In recent years the company has also paid more attention to the ergonomics and design of their products. 
Year Device 1889 Portable insulation tester (Megger) 1908 Low resistance Ohmmeter (LRO) 1923 Multimeter with Amps, Volts and Ohms (AVO) 1928 Multistation watt-hour meter test board 1942 Resistive load box 1950 Cable fault locator 1951 Protective relay test set 1953 Partial discharge (Corona) detection system 1968 Portable digital multimeter 1979 Digital line earth loop impedance tester 1985 Microprocessor-based high current test set 1989 Battery impedance test equipment (BITE) 1990 Automatic 10kV insulation power factor test set 1990 Microprocessor-based protective relay test set 1994 DSP-driven watthour meter test set 1996 Windows-based Testing Software Program 1999 Time-domain reflectometer with TX Null technology (TDR) 2000 Micro-weight Low Resistance Ohmmeter (DLRO) 2003 High power Relay test set with user features 2003 Multi-function tester with ergonomic design 2005 Noise immune 10kV insulation tester 2007 Loop impedance in an RCCB electrical test circuit tester  2009 Three-phase transformer turns ratio test sets (TTR) 2010 Transformer ohmmeter (MTO) 2010 Cable fault location system (PFL) 2011 Automatic 12kV insulation power/dissipation factor test set (DELTA)
Megger Group has manufacturing sites and sales centres in several countries worldwide. The main production sites are in: Dover, Dallas, Valley Forge and Täby.
Certificates of Conformity are supplied with most instruments. Depending on product and site the metrology can be traceable to:
- ANSI/NCSL Z540-1
- Nuclear 10CFR Appendix B PART 21
- MIL STD 45662-A
- ISO 10012
- ISO 17025
- National Physics Laboratory
Dover site has its own EMC laboratory and SMT machines. However, many of the mechanical parts are purchased from other suppliers. (This was one of the factors why production of AVO Model 8 was discontinued.)
All manufacturing sites have ISO 9001:2000 and Dover and Täby sites are certified to ISO 14001.
Sales and technical support
The Group has over 1000 distribution points in 132 countries. 85% of sales are made via the distribution network. There are sales centres in several countries and products are also sold via specialised distributors including RS Components and more recently Test Equipment Connection Corporation.  
Types of products
Megger produces over 1000 products in around 25 groups:
- Battery test equipment
- Cable fault locating equipment
- Circuit breaker testers
- Data communication testers
- Fiber optic testers
- Ground resistance testers
- Insulation power factor testers
- Insulation resistance testers
- Line testing equipment
- Low resistance ohmmeters
- Motor and phase rotation testers
- Oil testers
- Partial discharge test equipment
- Portable appliance and tool testers
- Power quality instruments
- Recloser test equipment
- Relay testers
- T1 network testers
- Tachometers and speed measurement instruments
- Time domain reflectometry testers
- Transmission impairment testers
- Watt-hour meter tester
- States terminal block and test switches
- Professional hands-on technical and safety training programs
The equipment is roughly divided into three groups: Power, Building and Wiring, and Telecommunications.
Megger donated 5% of its Chinese sales revenue (for three months) to the local Red Cross after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. This was also preceded with 15% reduction on all their equipment sold in China immediately after the earthquake. 
Over $9,000 of electrical testing equipment has been donated to Mesalands Community College’s North American Wind Research and Training Center (NAWRTC). 
- ^ http://www.indeed.com/cmp/Megger
- ^ http://archives.theiet.org, Evershed & Vignoles Ltd
- ^ www.megger.com / about
- ^ US Patent 611,809 (4 Oct 1898)
- ^ US Patent 642,743 (6 Feb 1900)
- ^ US Patent 639,849 (26 Dec 1899)
- ^ Megger trademark
- ^ US Patent 1,358,179 mentioning Megger (1920)
- ^ Megger is "well-known" by 1927, US Patent 1,616,387
- ^ Vintage Communication Pages, Major Megger
- ^ Megger advert from 1943
- ^ Megger MJ15
- ^ www.gracesguide.co.uk / Evershed_and_Vignoles
- ^ http://archives.theiet.org / Evershed_and_Vignoles
- ^ www.porthcurno.org.uk / Sullivan
- ^ H.W. Sullivan Limited in the Companies House
- ^ http://www.glias.org.uk/news/237news.html
- ^ a b www.gracesguide.co.uk / AVO
- ^ http://archives.theiet.org / AVO
- ^ www.electronicsweekly.com / Megger bids farewell to AVO 8
- ^ www.electricalportal.co.uk / AVO Model 8 retires after 58 years
- ^ www.occupationalhealthdirectory.com / AVO Training Institute Inc
- ^ www.avotraining.com / about
- ^ www.megger.com / AVO Training Institute in Paris
- ^ AVO Electrical Engineering Division
- ^ http://archives.theiet.org / Thorn Electrical Industries
- ^ http://archives.theiet.org / Automatic Coil Winder and Electrical Equipment Company
- ^ www.east-kent.co.uk / Megger
- ^ www.biddlemegger.com / about
- ^ www.statesproducts.com / about
- ^ Power DB
- ^ www.programma.se / about
- ^ www.gepower.com / GE Sells Programma to Megger
- ^ www.programma.se / about
- ^ www.paxdiagnostics.com Pax joins Megger Group
- ^ www.ramseylawgroup.com / trademark usage
- ^ http://www.ipo.gov.uk/tm
- ^ http://www.uspto.gov
- ^ Nick Hilditch (Editor), Electrical Tester, Quarterly published by Megger, Spring 2008
- ^ Meg Megger clocks up a century of innovation
- ^ Product design company chosen for Megger
- ^ Patent 7271577: Testing loop impedance in an RCCB electrical test circuit by Smithson, Edward, Xu, Rongkai, Mandala, Agung Kurniawan Sadya, Chin, Freddie Yun Heng
- ^ Megger products in RS Components
- ^ Test Equipment Connection Corporation announces new distribution agreement with Megger
- ^ http://www.megger.com
- ^ E. Langan et al., A guide to low resistance testing, Megger, MEG-429_V-04/MIL/2.5M/7.2005
- ^ Kent student wins Megger prize
- ^ Megger Responds to Chinese Disaster
- ^ Megger donates equipment to NAWRTC
- ^ http://www.blood.co.uk/
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