caption=A BTR-80 in
Zvornik, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Armoured personnel carrier
crew=3 (+7 passengers)
length= 7.65 m
width= 2.90 m
height= 2.35 m
weight= 13.6 tonnes
primary_armament= 14.5mm KPVT machine gun
secondary_armament= 7.62mm PKT machine gun
engine= diesel KamAZ-7403
engine_power= 260 hp (190 kW)
suspension= wheeled 8×8
speed= 80 km/h, swim 9 km/h
pw_ratio= 19 hp/tonne
vehicle_range= 600 km
BTR-80 is an 8x8 wheeled
armoured personnel carrier(APC) designed in the Soviet Union. Production started in 1986and replaced the previous versions, BTR-60and BTR-70in the Soviet army.
The Soviets based the BTR-80 on the
BTR-70APC. It has a single 260-hp, V-8 turbocharged, water-cooled, diesel engine, an improvement over the twin gasoline engines installed in the BTR-60 and BTR-70 vehicles. The reconfigured rear portion of the hull accommodates a new, single engine. The Soviets removed the roof chamfers of the modified BTR-70, raised the rear, and squared off the rearward-sloping engine compartment. Standard equipment include TNPO vision blocks, optical devices TNP-B and TKN-3 for the driver and commander, an OU-3GA2M infra-red search light, six 81mm smoke grenade launchers 902V "Tucha", a radioset (R-173 or R-163-50U), an intercom and hydrojets.
The Soviets modified the truncated cone turret used on the BTR-70 for the BTR-80 by redesigning the mantlet. This allows the 14.5-mm and coaxial 7.62-mm machine guns to be elevated to a maximum of 60 degrees. This high angle of fire is useful in engaging targets on steep slopes, in urban fighting, and for engaging helicopters. [Zaloga 1990: "The turret on the BTR-80 uses a new trunnion mounting which gives greater elevation for firing at enemy helicopters."] The Soviets have also modified the design and positioning of the firings ports; the ports are now round, rather than tear-shaped, and have ball mounts similar to those used on the BMP. The forward firing ports now sit in angled recesses which allow the individual weapons to fire to the front of the vehicle.
As indicated by armed conflicts, wheeled armored personnel carriers (APC's) are capable of considerably enhancing any army's combat potential. They are used to transport infantry units to the battlefield and engage in reconnaissance, combat security and patrolling, military cargo transportation, the towing of artillery guns and mortars. They are also used as medical and staff vehicles, mobile radio stations, recovery vehicles, repair shops, etc. In a number of cases they can accomplish fire support missions for infantry acting in combat formations. Developed by GAZ designers and manufactured since 1986 at Arzamas Engineering Plant, now known as AMZ joint stock company, the BTR-80 replaced previous versions, BTR-60PB and BTR-70. The BTR-80 armored personnel carrier is a four-axle, eight- wheeled vehicle, with all drive wheels, an independent suspension and water jet propulsion system. The APC is capable of following tanks and negotiating emplacements, trenches and water obstacles. It is equipped with ten seats to accommodate the personnel.
The APC mounts devices for collective protection of the personnel from blast action and initial radiation during explosions of nuclear ammunition and from radioactive dust, bacteriological materials and toxic agents during the vehicle's operation on contaminated terrain. The vehicle is armed with a turret machine gun mount, designed to fight ground and low-flying air targets at ranges of up to 2,000 meters. The turret mount accommodates a 14.5-mm large-caliber machine gun (KPVT) and a coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun (PKT) with a traverse of 360° and an elevation of +60° to -4°. For battlefield illumination during night firing, there is an OU-3GA2M searchlight on the machine gun bracket. Six 3D6 smoke grenade launchers have been placed on the turret mount to provide smoke screens for camouflage purposes. The BTR-80's high mobility is ensured by the KamAZ-7403 turbocharged diesel engine, eight-wheel drive, the wheels' independent torsion suspension, large ground clearance, and centralized tire air pressure control system. The engine is a V-form eight-cylinder, with a maximum power of 260hp at 2,600
rpmand a maximum torque of 785Nm at 1,600-1,800 rpm.
Since 1993 the BTR-80 is powered by the YaMZ-238M2 with similar characteristics. Thanks to its design features, the BTR-80 can keep moving, even if one or two wheels are completely disabled. The vehicle remains totally intact, even if it hits an anti-personnel mine. If hit by an anti-tank mine, as proved in Afghanistan, it can keep moving as the blast energy normally damages only one of the eight wheels. The centralized tire air control system enables the driver to set pressure to suit changing movement conditions, ensuring low unit soil pressure and high cross-country capacity, which is comparable with tracked vehicles. The BTR-80 can use KI-80 or KI-126 bullet-resistant tires. Even when damaged by multiple hits of all calibers of bullets and in a total absence of air pressure, the BTR-80 can still keep going for another several hundred kilometers. The BTR-80 is equipped with a self-recovery winch, mounted in the hull nose, with a tractive force of 43,120 - 60,000 N, which can be doubled with the aid of the pulley attached to the vehicle. The power unit preheater enhances the vehicle's combat readiness at low ambient temperatures, however, the design of the engine and its systems ensures the APC's start without preliminary heating, when the outside temperature is as low as -25°C. The semi-automatic fire extinguishing system for the power unit and two carbon dioxide fire extinguishers in the personnel compartment enhance the survivability of the armored personnel carrier. Thanks to the availability of four hatches, positioned in the hull roof, and two double-wing doors on the right and left sides of the vehicle its crew and infantry men can easily mount and dismount at a rapid pace. The bottom wing of the door forms a step as it is opened, thereby enabling mounting and dismounting, when the vehicle is on the move. In other words, the BTR-80 meets the best world standards, and even surpasses them in terms of some characteristics.
The BTR-80 surpasses its foreign counterparts in the following areas:
- the ports for small arms fire by the infantry men are better arranged, adding to the APC's fire potential. The seven ports on its sides are turned forward, with one positioned in the hull front (straight ahead) and two on the roof (the latter allow for fire at high-set targets). Two ports enable machine gun fire;
- the ports are equipped with spherical bearings that enable firing from inside the vehicle without depressurizing the fighting compartment even on contaminated terrain, as the filter-ventilation unit supplies purified air inside the APC;
- the front projection of the APC hull ensures protection of the infantry men from 7.62-mm assault rifle and also 12.7-mm machine gun fire;
- the APC is equipped with an anti-roll-down mechanism, which prevents the rolling down of the APC, when it comes to a halt or starts moving on grades, and facilitates the driver's actions in mountainous areas;
- the APC can negotiate water barriers in its stride without any preliminary preparation. Owing to its water jet propulsion system, the APC can move easily across shallow waters and overgrown water bodies as it is not damaged in this case. The armored personnel carrier can be transported by any means of ground, sea or air transport.
The redesigned side doors are split horizontally. The upper portion opens forward; this gives dismounting troops some protection against small arms fire from the front of the vehicle. The lower portion opens down, forming a step. Six smoke grenade projectors are mounted on the rear of the turret.
The side firing ports are angled forward. This design prevents mounted infantrymen from engaging targets directly to the sides and rear of the vehicle with small arms fire. The inability for the infantrymen to direct small arms fire to the sides and rear makes it somewhat unsuitable for counter insurgency operations. The armor on the BTR-80 is limited to stopping small arms fire and shell fragments but can be easily penetrated by an RPG round. It also has some shortcomings against mines and IED's compared to its western counterparts.
In 1984, the Soviets began production of a
diesel-engined variant of the BTR-70, which they called the BTR-80. The Soviets have retrofitted some BTR-70s with several of the improvements incorporated into the BTR-80, including the high-angle-of-fire turret.
* BTR-80 (GAZ-5903) - armoured personnel carrier.
** BTR-80M - improved model with DMZ-238M2 engine of 240 hp and new tyres. In production since 1993.
* BTR-80K (GAZ-59031) ("komandnyj") - command vehicle APC with telescopic antenna mast, TNA-4 navigation device and R-168 series of radio equipment.
* BTR-80A (GAZ-59034) - IFV [http://www.armyrecognition.com/Russe/vehicules_a_roues/BTR-80/BTR-80A/BTR-80A_Russie__diaporama.htm See pictures] with 30mm gun 2A72 and 300 rounds as primary weapon. The turret is called BPPU and is equipped with sights 1PZ-9 (day) and TPN-3 or TPN-3-42 "Kristall" (night).
** BTR-80S - variant of the BTR-80A with
** BTR-80AK - command variant of the BTR-80A with two whip antennas in the rear corners and with only 1 firing port on the right hull side.
*** BRDM-3 ("bronirovannaya razvedivatel’no-dozornaya mashina") - reconnaissance vehicle, based on the BTR-80AK and with a new day/night vision device in front of the commander's position. The crew consists of 6 men. Note that in some Western sources, the name BRDM-3 is incorrectly used for the 9P148 ATGM carrier.
* 2S23 "Nona-SVK" - fire support vehicle with the same 120mm 2A60 rifled gun/mortar as the
2S9 Anonaand a crew of 4.
* BREM-K (GAZ-59033) ("bronirovannaya remontno-evakuatsionnaya mashina") - armoured recovery vehicle with towbars, a winch, welding equipment and a light crane.
* KM-80 or BTR-80 PBKM - command vehicle.
* RKhM-4 ("razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina") - NBC reconnaissance vehicle with detection devices including the IMD-21BA and DP-5V, an automatic chemical alarm system GSA-12, a detection set for chemical agents KPKhR-3, an MK-3M meteo set, a KPO-1 sampling device, the automatic detector ASP and a KZO-2 flag dispenser to mark contaminated areas.
** RKhM-4-01 - improved version with more modern equipment, including the GSA-13, IMD1-R, ASP-12 systems, a semi-automatic detection device PGO-11 and radio sets R-171M and R-173M instead of the older R-123M.
** RKhM-4-02 - upgraded model with additional detection systems.
*** NKR ("nazemnij kompleks radiatsionnoj razvedki") - mobile radiological reconnaissance station with KRPI system. Entered service in 2000.
* R-149BMRA - command and signals vehicle.
* R-439-BK1 - SatCom station.
* "Tajfun" - planned version for Strategic Rocket (RVSN) units that will replace the base security vehicles MBP on BTR-60/70 chassis. The BTR-80 version will have a new turret with 7.62mm machine gun, new observation device TKN-4S and a "Kredo-1" radar.
* ZS-88 ("zvukoveshchatel’naya stantsiya") - PsyOps vehicle with loudspeaker set.
* ZS-96 ("zvukoveshchatel’naya stantsiya") - PsyOps vehicle with loudspeaker set.
* K1Sh1 (GAZ-59032) - command post vehicle with bigger hull and unarmed turret. Also known as UNSh ("unifitsirovannyj shassi"). This version serves as the basis for several specialised vehicles, but Estonia uses the type as APC with machine gun turret.
** BMM-80 "Simfoniya" (GAZ-59039) ("bronirovannaya mnogofunktsionalnaya meditsinskaya mashina") - armoured ambulance, comes in three versions: BMM-1 (first aid and evacuation from the battle field), BMM-2 (initial medical treatment at battalion-level) and BMM-3 (mobile field hospital). Each vehicle can transport 9 patients, including two on stretchers on the rear hull. Developed in 1993.
** E-351BrM - mobile electric power station. The vehicle is equipped with an AD-30T/400 diesel-electric generator that can deliver power to up to 15 signals vehicles. It has a 2-men crew.
** PU-12M6 (9S482M6) ("punkt upravleniya") - battery command vehicle (BKP - "batarejnyj kommandnyj punkt") for air defence units equipped with "Strela-1M" (
SA-9), "Strela-10M2 ( SA-13), "Osa-AK" ( SA-8), 2S6 "Tunguska" and ZSU-23-4 "Shilka".
*** PU-12M7 (9S482M7) - improved version.
** 1V152 - command and forward observer vehicle for field artillery units. The standard equipment consists of range finders, dag/night vision devices, navigation equipment etc. The 1V152 and 1V153 (on Ural-4320 truck) belong to the KSAUO "Kapustnik-B" set. [ [http://www.arms-expo.ru/site.xp/049056053051124055056049.html "Капустник-Б", автоматизированная система управления огнем ствольной артиллерии, минометов и реактивных систем залпового огня — ОРУЖИЕ РОССИИ, Федеральный электронный справочник вооружения и военной техники ] ] [ [http://www.signal.kovrov.ru/ru/kapustnik.shtml лБРХУФОЙЛ-в :: чойй "уЙЗОБМ" ] ]
** R-149BMR - signals vehicle, equipped with radio sets R-168-100KA “Akveduk-100KA”, R-168-100U, R-163-25U, R-163-10V and R-163-1V “Arbalet”, intercom AVSK, a video system P-338, a generator AD-3,5U-28,5 and telescopic masts ASh-4, AZI and ShDA-50.
** R-165B - short-wave signals vehicle equipped with radio sets “Arbalet-500K”, R-163-10V and -50, R-163-AR, R-016V and a generator AB-4U-P28.5-1V. The radio sets have a range of 20-350 km while on the move and 40-1000 km when stationary.
** R-439-MD2 - SatCom station.
** R-439-BK "Legenda 2BK" - SatCom station, operates within 3400-3900 MHz (receiption) and 5725-6225 MHz (transmission) ranges.
** P-240BTZ - switchboard vehicle with "Zenit" set. Planned as successor for the BTR-60 based P-240BT.
* BTR-80 "Caribe" - version for Colombian marines with .50cal machine gun instead of 14.5mm
KPVT. 100 ordered. [ [http://www.fuerzasmilitares.net/armamento/ejc_blindado_btr80/ruso.html Colombia: Seguridad y Defensa ] ]
* BTR-80M - Upgraded version with passive day/night sight KM-1M on top of the roof, stowage box for water bottles on the left hull side, improved NBC protection system and Kronsberg radio set. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/01/01.html eredmeny ] ]
* MPAEJ ("műszaki páncélozott akadály elháritó jármű") - Unarmed combat engineer version without turret. In service. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/07/07.html névtelen ] ]
* MPFJ ("műszaki páncélozott felderitő jármű") - Unarmed obstacle clearing vehicle without turret. In service. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/08/08.html névtelen ] ]
* MVJ ("mentő-vontató jármű") - Repair and recovery vehicle with crane and winch. Prototype. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/06/06.html névtelen ] ]
* VSF ("vegyi-sugár felderítő jármű") - NBC reconnaissance vehicle. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/04/04.html névtelen ] ]
* SKJ ("sebesült kihordó jármű") - Much modified version with bigger troop compartment. [ [http://www.currus.hu/termeles/hadipari/fejlesztes/03/03.html névtelen ] ]
* TAB Zimbru (B33) ("transportorul amfibiu blindat") - modified version of the BTR-80 with Model 1240 V8-DTS engine of 268 hp (197 kW), R-1231B radio set and 500 additional rounds 7.62mm. Made by CN RomArm SA.
** Zimbru 2000 - improved version with bigger hull, new Deutz BF6M 1013FC 285 hp (212 kW) engine, new transmission Allison-MD 3060 PR etc. Can be fitted with a new turret like the OWS 25R. Prototype.
** Saur-1 - with completely redesigned hull with central mounted Cummins engine of 275 hp and entry hatches in the rear. The original turret has been replaced by a ROSS station. Developed in 2006, prototype. [ [http://www.romarm.ro/events.htm Events ] ]
* BTR-80UP - improved version, produced in Ukraine in cooperation with Poland for Iraq (98 planned). Fitted with a new 300hp engine, additional armour and airconditioner. [ [http://www.altair.h2.pl/cz-art-233 Altair - R-wto 12/2006 - BTR-80UP do Iraku. Sokoły chyba nie ] ]
** BTR-80UP-KB - battalion level command vehicle.
** BTR-80UP-KR - company level command vehicle.
** BTR-80UP-S - staff vehicle.
** BTR-80UP-M - ambulance.
** BTR-80UP-BREM - recovery vehicle.
** BTR-80UP-R - reconnaissance version.
** BTR-80UP-T - cargo version.
* KShM "Kushetka-B" - command vehicle, based on the K1Sh1 chassis and developed by Radiopribor from Ukraine. The specialised equipment consists of the HF radioset “Berkut-M”, VHF sets R-171M, R-173M “Abzats-M”, R-163-50U, R-163-10V and R-163-1V “Arbalet” (with a range from 5 to 350 km). Other equipment include a navigation apparatus (probably TNA-4-6), a generator AB-1-P28,5-B-V1 and telescopic antenna masts DLYa4.115.002 and DLYa2.091.008. [ [http://www.vkmtuci.edu.mhost.ru/texcba/ksmkush.htm Военная кафедра МТУСИ :: Командно-штабная машина "Кушетка-Б" на транспортной базе БТР-80 ] ]
There are over 5,000 BTR-80s in service in various armies around the world:
* - 50 in service of the
* - 70 in service of the Azerbaijani Army. [ [http://en.apa.az/news.php?id=52414 List of military techniques Azerbaijan acquired over the past 7 years] ]
* - 700+
* - 194 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/army-equipment.htm Belarus Army Equipment ] ]
* - 6
* - 21 BTR-80UNSh
* - 2 for evaluation (
* - 68
* - 850
* - 513 BTR-80 and 178 BTR-80A
* - Indonesian Navy Marine Corps (Korps Marinir TNI-AL) use BTR-80 for their Cavalry Detachment (Detasemen Kavaleri) at 1st Marine Corps Brigade. From 2006, 20 BTR-80A serving for Indonesian UNIFIL Mission in Lebanon.
* - 50 BTR-94, 98 BTR-80UP ordered (first deliveries in 2006).
* - 85 BTR-80, 14 BTR-80A
* - 8
* - 12
* - 11
* - 10 BTR-80A
* - 70 TAB Zimbru
* - 3500-4000
* - 33 BTR-80/80A [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/HH05Df02.html Asia Times, Deadly arsenals dot Sri Lanka]
* - 26 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/tajik-army-equipment.htm Tajik-Army Equipment ] ]
* - 240
*TKM - 829
BTR-60, BTR-70and BTR-80. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/turkmen-army-equipment.htm Turkmen-Army Equipment ] ]
* - 90 Guardians
* - 456 [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine ] ]
* - 290
Zaloga, Steven J.(1990). "Soviet Wheeled Armored Vehicles". Hong Kong: Concord Publications. ISBN 962-361-013-0.
* Hull/Markov/Zaloga (1999). "Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices: 1945 to Present". Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5
* UN register of conventional arms
* [http://www.armyrecognition.com/Russe/vehicules_a_roues/BTR-80/BTR_80_russie_description.htm Technical data sheet and pictures BTR-80 ArmyRecognition.com]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/btr-80.htm FAS page]
* [http://russarms.com/land/msv/btr-80/tech-btr-80-d.asp About BTR-80 series (in Russian)]
* [http://serkoff.narod.ru/photoalbum122.html Pictures of early BTR-80]
* [http://www.amz.ru/voteh/index.html Website of AMZ: military BTR-80 versions]
* [http://www.amz.ru/specteh/index.html Website of AMZ: special versions of BTR-80]
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