- Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site
King, Martin Luther, Jr., National Historic Site and Preservation DistrictInterior of Ebenezer Baptist Church, view from behind the pulpit.
Location: Roughly bounded by Courtland, Randolph, Chamberlain Sts. and Irwin Ave. (original) and Roughly bounded by Freedom Pkwy., John Wesley Dobbs Ave., Decatur St., Southern RR tracks, and I-75/85 (increase), Atlanta, Georgia Coordinates: Coordinates: Area: 34.47 acres (13.95 ha)
13.04 acres (5.28 ha) federal)
Built: 1929 Architect: Multiple Architectural style: Late 19th And Early 20th Century American Movements, Modern Movement Visitation: 624,848 (2005) Governing body: Local and National Park Service NRHP Reference#: 74000677, 80000435, 00000741 Significant dates Added to NRHP: May 2, 1974 (original)
June 12, 2001 (increase)
Designated NHLD: May 5, 1977 Designated NHS: October 10, 1980
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site established on October 10, 1980, consists of several buildings surrounding Martin Luther King, Jr.'s boyhood home on Auburn Avenue in the Sweet Auburn historic district of Atlanta, Georgia. The original Ebenezer Baptist Church, the church where King and his father Martin Luther King, Sr. pastored, is also part of the national historic site. These places are critical components in the interpretation of the life of Martin Luther King Jr. and his legacy as a leader of the American civil rights movement.
In total, the buildings included in the site make up 35 acres (0.14 km²). The visitor center contains a museum that chronicles the American civil rights movement which follows the parallel paths of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. A firehouse (Fire Station No. 6), built in 1894, served the Sweet Auburn community until 1991, and now contains a gift shop and an exhibit on desegregation in the Atlanta Fire Department. The “I Have a Dream” International World Peace Rose Garden, and a memorial tribute to Mohandas K. Gandhi. Also of interest is the "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame" which gives recognition to those courageous pioneers who sacrificed and struggled to make equality a reality for all.
As Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District, an area bounded roughly by Irwin, Randolph, Edgewood, Jackson, and Auburn Avenues was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places on May 2, 1974. The district included Ebenezer Baptist Church, the MLK grave site, the MLK birthplace, shotgun row houses, Victorian houses, the Alexander Hamilton House, the Atlanta Baptist Preparatory Institute site, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Colored Mission, Fire Station No. 6, and the "Triangle Building" at the intersection of Old Wheat St. and Auburn Avenue.
By U.S. Congressional legislation, the site became a national historic site on October 10, 1980 and is administered by the National Park Service (NPS). A 22.4-acre (91,000 m2) area including 35 contributing properties was covered, including 22 previously included in the NRHP historic district.
The area covered in the NRHP designation was increased on June 12, 2001.
Annual events surrounding Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in January typically draw large crowds. Speakers have included Presidents of the United States, national and local politicians, and civil rights leaders. Remembrances are also held during Black History Month (February), and the anniversary of King's April 4, 1968, assassination.
King Birth Home
The King Birth Home is located at 501 Auburn Avenue. It was built in 1895, about one block east of Ebenezer Baptist Church in the National Historic Site. Martin’s maternal grandparents, Reverend Adam Daniel (A.D.) Williams and Jennie Williams, bought the house for $3,500 in 1909. Williams was pastor of the nearby Ebenezer Baptist Church. When King's father married Alberta Williams, the family moved into the house in 1926. It is the place where Martin Luther King Jr. was born in 1929. The King family lived in the house until 1941, and the house was then converted into a two-family dwelling. The Rev. A.D. Williams King, Dr. King's brother, lived on the second floor in the 1950s and early 1960s.
The first level includes the front porch, parlor, study, dining room, kitchen, laundry, bedroom and a bathroom. The second level includes four bedrooms and a bathroom. The visitor center offers free tours of the house led by National Park Service rangers, but with limited availability,
The statue of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was donated by The Indian Council for Cultural Relations, India, in collaboration with The National Federation of Indian American Associations and The Embassy of India, USA.
The inscribed bronze plaque reads:
- "Nonviolence, to be a potent force, must begin with the mind. Nonviolence of the mere body without the cooperation of the mind is nonviolence of the weak of the cowardly, and has, therefore, no potency. It is a degrading performance. If we bear malice and hatred in our bosoms and pretend not to retaliate, it must recoil upon us and lead to our destruction."--Gandhi
- "Tribute to the Mahatma "Gandhi was inevitable. If humanity is to progress, Gandhi is inescapable. He lived, thought and acted, inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward a world of peace and harmony. We may ignore him at our own risk"--Martin Luther King, Jr.
Coretta Scott King started the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in the basement of the couple's home in the year following King's 1968 assassination. In 1981, the center was moved into a multimillion dollar facility on Auburn Avenue, near King's birth home and next to Ebenezer Baptist Church, where he preached from 1960 until his death.
In 1977, a memorial tomb was dedicated, and the remains of Martin Luther King Jr. were moved from South View Cemetery to the plaza that is nestled between the center and the church. Martin Luther King Jr.'s gravesite and a reflecting pool are also located next to Freedom Hall. Mrs. King was interred with her husband on February 7, 2006.
As of 2006, the King Center is a privately owned inholding within the authorized boundaries of the national historic site. However, there is debate within the King family on whether it should remain so or be sold to the National Park Service.
International Civil Rights Walk of Fame
The "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame" was created in 2004. The walk along the Promenade, includes footsteps, marked in granite and bronze. According to the National Park Service, the Walk of Fame was created to "pay homage to the "brave warriors" of justice who sacrificed and struggled to make equality a reality for all." The new addition to the area is expected to enhance the historic value of the area, enrich cultural heritage, and augment tourist attractions.
The “Walk of Fame” is the brain child of Xernona Clayton, founder and executive producer of the renowned Trumpet Awards and a civil rights icon in her own right. Ms. Clayton said, “This is a lasting memorial to those whose contributions were testaments to the fact that human progress is neither automatic nor inevitable. This historic site will serve as a symbol of pride and a beacon of hope for all future generations. We are looking forward to building a monument to the civil struggle that depicts every step taken toward the goal of justice and the tireless exertions and passionate concern of these dedicated individuals.”
- Ralph David Abernathy, Sr., civil rights leader, close and enduring partnership with Dr. King.
- Juanita J. Abernathy, civil rights activist.
- Ivan Allen, Jr., former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia during the turbulent civil rights era of the 1960s.
- Julian Bond, civil rights leader.
- Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States.
- Medgar Evers, civil rights activist.
- Dorothy Height, educator, social activist.
- Jesse L. Jackson, Sr., minister, civil rights activist.
- Judge Frank M. Johnson, United States Federal judge .
- Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the United States.
- John Lewis, politician, civil right leader.
- Joseph E. Lowery, minister, civil right leader.
- Evelyn G. Lowery, civil right leader.
- Thurgood Marshall, former Supreme Court Justice (1969–1991).
- Rosa Parks, civil rights activist.
- Hosea Williams, civil rights leader.
- Andrew Young, civil rights activist, former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia.
- Henry Aaron, baseball player, social activist.
- Harry Belafonte, musician, actor, social activist.
- John Conyers, Jr., politician, social activist.
- Dick Gregory, comedian, social activist.
- Maynard H. Jackson, former mayor of Atlanta, Georgia.
- Ralph E. McGill, journalist, social activist.
- Fred L. Shuttlesworth, social activist.
- Ted Turner, media mogul and philanthropist.
- Judge Elbert P. Tuttle, former Chief Judge of U.S Court of Appeals (1960–1967).
- Nancy Wilson, singer, social activist.
- Reverend Addie L. Wyatt, Labor leader, civil rights pioneer, pastor.
- Reverend Joseph E. Boone, social activist.
- Reverend William Holmes Borders, Sr.
- Xernona Clayton, civil rights leader, broadcasting executive.
- Lena Horne, singer, actress, social activist.
- John E. Jacob, former president and CEO of the National Urban League.
- Reverend James Orange, pastor, civil rights activist.
- Bernard Parks, politician, social activist.
- Archbishop Desmond Tutu, South African cleric, social activist.
- William Clinton, 42nd President of the United States.
- Stevie Wonder, singer, civil rights activist.
- Lerone Bennett, Jr., scholar, author, historian, social activist.
- Tony Bennett, singer, social activist.
- Marian Wright Edelman, social activist for the rights of children.
- Shirley Franklin, 58th mayor of Atlanta, Georgia.
- Frankie Muse Freeman, civil rights attorney.
- Joe Louis, boxer, social activist.
- Sir Lynden Pindling, former Premier of the Colony of the Bahama Island (1967–1973).
- Sidney Poitier, actor, social activist.
- Dr. Otis W. Smith, physician.
- Maxine Waters, politician, social activist.
- L. Douglas Wilder, former governor of Virginia.
- Jean Childs Young, civil rights activist/educator.
- Dr. Maya Angelou, poet, memoirist, actress.
- Senator Edward W. Brooke, social activist, politician.
- Tyrone L. Brooks, Sr., social activist, politician.
- Sammy Davis, Jr., singer, dancer.
- Jesse Hill, Jr., business executive.
- Dr. Benjamin Hooks, established Benjamin L. Hooks Institute for Social Change.
- Clarence B. Jones, Martin Luther King's attorney.
- Tom Joyner, radio host.
- The Right Honorable Prime Minister Michael Manley, former Prime Minister of Jamaica.
- Herman Russell, Sr., founder and CEO of H.J. Russell & Company.
- Dr. Wyatt Tee Walker, Executive director of the SCLC 1960-1964.
Shotgun houses on Auburn Ave. directly across from MLK's boyhood home
- ^ a b c "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html.
- ^ a b "Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1430&ResourceType=District. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- ^ a b Mendinghall, Joseph Scott (1974) (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Martin Luther King, Jr., Historic District (Landmark). National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/74000677.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-28. and PDF (4.99 MB)
- ^ a b Robert W. Blythe, Maureen A. Carroll, and Steven H. Moffson (October 15, 1993) (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Registation: Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site. National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/80000435.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-28. and PDF (16.9 MB)
- ^ Virtual Tour of Birth Home
- ^ The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site and Places that Commemorate His Legacy
- ^ "NPS: Fees and Reservations". National Park Service. July 22, 2008. http://www.nps.gov/malu/planyourvisit/feesandreservations.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
- ^ The Gandhi Promenade at the Martin Luther King National Historic Site
- ^ Future of King Center up in the air (February 1, 2006)
- ^ Footsteps of Civil Rights Leaders
- Coleman, Wim. Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site, Enslow Pub. Inc, (2005) - ISBN 0766052257
- Official NPS website: Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site
- International Civil Rights Walk Of Fame Announces 2008 Inductees
- International Civil Rights Walk of Fame
- Ebenezer Baptist Church official site
- The King Center
- Atlanta, Georgia, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
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Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site — Infobox Protected area name = Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site iucn category = V caption = locator x=70 |locator y=84 location = Atlanta, Georgia, USA nearest city = lat degrees=33 |lat minutes=45 |lat seconds=19 |lat direction=N… … Wikipedia
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Martin Luther King, Jr. — Martin Luther King and MLK redirect here. For other uses, see Martin Luther King (disambiguation) and MLK (disambiguation). Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr … Wikipedia
Martin Luther King, Jr. — Martin Luther King (1964) Martin Luther King, Jr. (* 15. Januar 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US amerikanischer Baptistenpastor und Bürgerrechtler. Er zäh … Deutsch Wikipedia
Martin Luther King, jr. — Martin Luther King (1964) Martin Luther King, Jr. (* 15. Januar 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US amerikanischer Baptistenpastor und Bürgerrechtler. Er zäh … Deutsch Wikipedia
Martin Luther King Jr. — Martin Luther King (1964) Martin Luther King, Jr. (* 15. Januar 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US amerikanischer Baptistenpastor und Bürgerrechtler. Er zäh … Deutsch Wikipedia
Martin Luther King jr. — Martin Luther King (1964) Martin Luther King, Jr. (* 15. Januar 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US amerikanischer Baptistenpastor und Bürgerrechtler. Er zäh … Deutsch Wikipedia
Martin Luther King — (1964) Martin Luther King, Jr. (* 15. Januar 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia; † 4. April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee) war ein US amerikanischer Baptistenpastor und Bürgerrechtle … Deutsch Wikipedia
Martin Luther King, Jr. — Martin Luther King Pour les articles homonymes, voir Martin Luther (homonymie) et King. Martin Luther King, Jr … Wikipédia en Français
Martin Luther King Jr — Martin Luther King Pour les articles homonymes, voir Martin Luther (homonymie) et King. Martin Luther King, Jr … Wikipédia en Français