- Moroccan Wall
The Berm of Western Sahara (also known as the Moroccan Wall) is an approximately 2,700 km-long defensive structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco. It acts as a separation barrier between the Moroccan-controlled areas and the Polisario-controlled section of the territory that lies along its eastern and southern border.
Part of a series on the History of Western Sahara Background History of Morocco (Colonial wars)
Spanish Sahara · Spanish Morocco
Moroccan Army of Liberation
Harakat Tahrir · Sahrawi National Union Party
Disputed regions Saguia el-Hamra · Río de Oro
Southern Provinces · Free Zone ·
Politics Legal status of Western Sahara · Politics of Morocco / of the SADR
Polisario Front (former members)
Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs
Western Sahara War · Independence Intifada
Conflict issues Refugee camps · Wall · Human rights in Western Sahara Sahara peace process Resolution 1495 · Resolution 1754 · Visiting mission · Referendum mission · ICJ Advisory Opinion · Settlement Plan · Houston Agreement · Baker Plan · Manhasset negotiations · Moroccan Initiative
The structure goes by a variety of names, with Moroccan Wall, The Berm or Wall of Shame being some of those often used.
Wall north of Tifariti
The fortifications lie in uninhabited or very sparsely inhabited territory. They consist of sand and stone walls or berms about three meters in height, with bunkers, fences and landmines throughout. The barrier minebelt that runs along the structure is thought to be the longest continuous minefield in the world. Military bases, artillery posts and airfields dot the interior behind the wall at regular intervals, and radar masts and other electronic surveillance equipment scan the areas in front of it.
The following is one observer's description of the Berm:
Physically, the berm is a two meter high wall (with a backing trench), which rides along a topographical high point/ridge/hill throughout the territory. Spaced out over every five kilometers are a big, small and medium base, with approximately 35–40 troops at each observation post and groups of 10 soldiers spaced out over the distance as well. About four km behind each major post there is a rapid reaction post, which includes backing mobile forces (tanks, etc). A series of overlapping fixed and mobile radars are also positioned throughout the berm. The radars are estimated to have a range of between 60 and 80 km into the Polisario controlled territory, and are generally utilized to locate artillery fire onto detected Polisario forces. Information from the radar is processed by a forward-based commander, who contacts a rear-based artillery unit.
In all, six lines of berms have been constructed. The main ("external") line of fortifications extends for about 2,500 km. It runs east from Guerguerat on the coast in the extreme south of Western Sahara near the Mauritanian town of Nouadhibou, closely parallelling the Mauritanian border for about 200 km, before turning northwards beyond Techla. It then runs generally northeastward, leaving Guelta Zemmur, Smara, and Hamza in Moroccan-held territory, before turning east and again closely following the Algerian border as it approaches Morocco. A section extends about 200 km into southeastern Morocco
The fortifications were progressively built by Moroccan forces starting in 1981, and formally ending on 16 April 1987. Its main function was to exclude the guerrilla fighters of the Polisario Front, who have sought Western Saharan independence since before Spain ended its colonial occupation in 1975, from the Moroccan-controlled part of the territory.
Effectively, after the completion of the wall, Morocco has controlled the bulk of Western Sahara territory that lies to the north and west of it, calling these the kingdom's "Southern Provinces". The Polisario-founded Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic controls the mostly uninhabited "Free Zone", which comprises all areas to the east of the barrier. Units from the United Nations mission MINURSO separate the two sides, and enforce cease-fire regulations on their troops.
International reaction and Incidents
Western attention to the border wall, and to the Moroccan annexation of the Western Sahara in general, has been minimal, apart from in Spain. Once a year, a small demonstration is held against the barrier by a few human rights activists.
In the summer of 2005, the Moroccan Army accelerated the expulsion (started in late 2004) of illegal immigrants detained in northern Morocco to the eastern side of the wall, into the Free Zone. The Polisario Front and the MINURSO rescued several dozens lost in the desert, who had run out of water. Others died of thirst. By October, the Polisario had received 22 immigrants in Mehaires, 46 in Tifariti and 97 in Bir Lehlu. They were from African countries (Gambia, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana…), except a group of 48 who were from Bangladesh.
In August 2010, three African immigrants died while crossing the Free Zone to Morocco, trying to reach Europe. Another 17 (from Ivory Coast, Gambia, Senegal and Mali) were rescued by the Sahrawi authorities.
In Africa, the annexation of Western Sahara by Morocco has attracted somewhat more attention. Algeria supports the Polisario "in its long-running desert war to oppose Moroccan control of the disputed area". The Organization of African Unity/African Union and United Nations have proposed negotiated solutions, though the African Union's stance on Western Sahara led to Morocco's exit from the organisation.
Construction of the wall
The wall was built in six stages, and the area behind the wall was expanded from a small area near Morocco in the north to most of the western and central part of the country gradually. The walls built were:
- 1st wall (Aug 1980 – Jun 1982) surrounding the "useful triangle" of El Aaiún, Smara and the phosphate mines at Bu Craa (c. 500 km.).
- 2nd wall (Dec 1983 – Jan 1984) surrounding Amgala (c. 300 km.).
- 3rd wall (Apr 1984 – May 1984) surrounding Jdiriya and Haouza (c. 320 km.).
- 4th wall (Dec 1984 – Jan 1985) surrounding Mahbes and Farciya (c. 380 km.)
- 5th wall (May–Sep 1985) surrounding Guelta Zemmur, Bir Anzarane and Dakhla (c. 670 km.)
- 6th wall (Feb–Apr 1987) surrounding Auserd, Tichla and Bir Ganduz (c. 550 km.)
- Fence with accumulated sand
- Wall with fort
- Wall smothered by dune with fort nearby
- Wall smothered by dune with fort
- Road cut by fence
- Sand piled up high on the wall
- 5th wall with inhabited mesa
- Disused fort on 5th wall
- Abandoned fort and section of 5th wall
- Sand piled up high on the wall
- End of the road in the south with compound and fort
- Wall going over an abandoned fort
- In mountainous terrain
- Forts in the south
- Fort and wall
References and notes
- ^ Deployment of MINURSO
- ^ Western Sahara Atlas Map - June 2006
- ^ McCoull, Chad. "Country Profiles - Morocco and Western Sahara". Journal of Mine Action. ISSN 2154-1485. http://maic.jmu.edu/journal/11.2/profiles/mccoull/mccoull.htm.
- ^ ARSO Website
- ^ a b Milestones of the conflict, page 2. Website of the United Nations MINURSO mission.
- ^ United Nations Map No. 3691 Rev. 53 United Nations, October 2006 (Colour), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section. Depicts the deployment of the MINURSO mission, as well as the Wall location.
- ^ See also e.g. this satellite montage at Google Maps for a section of the wall in Moroccan territory. The northernmost fort that is clearly distinguishable can be seen here. (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
- ^ For example, a sand berm with fortifications much like on the main external line can be seen here, reaching the coast near Imlili, over 200 km north of the main external berm along the southern border. (Google Maps, as of 30 November 2006)
- ^ (author and date unknown)
- ^ (in Dutch) Marokkaanse veiligheidsmuur al twee decennia onomstreden, CIDI Israel website, Nieuwsbrief (2004)
- ^ "Patada al desierto". Diario de Córdoba. 2005-10-17. http://www.diariocordoba.com/noticias/noticia.asp?pkid=211151. Retrieved 2010-05-28. (Spanish)
- ^ "El Polisario busca desaparecidos". El País. 2005-10-18. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Polisario/busca/desaparecidos/elpepunac/20051018elpepinac_13/Tes.. Retrieved 2010-05-28. (Spanish)
- ^ "De Bangladesh al desierto del Sáhara". El País. 2005-10-19. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Bangladesh/desierto/Sahara/elpporesp/20051019elpepinac_21/Tes. Retrieved 2010-10-28. (Spanish)
- ^ "Three African immigrants die while crossing Western Sahara to Morocco". SPS. 19-08-2010. http://www.spsrasd.info/en/detail.php?id=13073. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- ^ "Security Problems with Neighboring States", Country Studies/Area Handbook Series, Library of Congress Federal Research Division (retrieved May 1, 2006).
- ^ Williams, Ian and Zunes, Stephen, "Self Determination Struggle in the Western Sahara Continues to Challenge the UN", Foreign Policy in Focus Policy Report, September 2003 (retrieved May 1, 2006).
- Map of Western Sahara, with the location of the wall marked Produced by the United Nations, showing the deployment of the MINURSO mission as of October 2006,. Map No. 3691 Rev. 53 United Nations, October 2006 (Colour), Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Cartographic Section
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Morocco 
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Western Sahara 
- Landmine Monitor, LM Report 2006, Algeria 
- online slideshow created by the United Nations MINURSO mission. Includes an aerial photograph of the barrier on slide 11.
- Fly over The Berm of Western Sahara in Google Earth Community
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