- Maritime Labour Convention
MLC, C186 Maritime Labour Convention Ratifications of the Convention (countries in blue have ratified, but have not finished all formalities) Drafted 7 February 2006 Signed 23 February 2006 Location Geneva Effective not in force Condition 30 ratifications; representing 33% of gross tonnage of ships Ratifiers 20 Depositary Director-General of the International Labour Office Languages French and English Maritime Labour Convention at Wikisource Admiralty law History Ordinamenta et consuetudo maris
Features Freight rate · General average
Marine insurance · Marine salvage
Maritime lien · Ship mortgage
Ship registration · Ship transport
Contracts of affreightment Bill of lading · Charter-party Types of charter-party Bareboat charter · Demise charter
Time charter · Voyage charter
Parties Carrier · Charterer · Consignee
Consignor · Shipbroker · Ship-manager
Ship-owner · Shipper · Stevedore
Judiciary Admiralty court
Vice admiralty court
International conventions Hague-Visby Rules
Maritime Labour Convention
International organisations International Maritime Organization
London Maritime Arbitrators Association
The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) is an International Labour Organization Convention established in 2006, which has not yet entered into force as it has been ratified by only 20 of the required 30 states. Already after five ratifications the ratifying countries (Bahamas, Norway, Liberia, Marshall Islands and Panama) represented over 43% of the gross world tonnage (which is over 33%; the second requirement for entry into force).
The treaty was established in 2006 as the Fourth pillar of international maritime law and embodies "all up-to-date standards of existing international maritime labour Conventions and Recommendations, as well as the fundamental principles to be found in other international labour Conventions". The other "pillars are the SOLAS, STCW and MARPOL.
Content and Organization
The convention consists of the sixteen articles containing general provisions as well as the Code. The Code consists of for Titles in which specific provisions are grouped by standard (or in Title 5: mode of enforcement):
- Title 1: Minimum requirements for seafarers to work on a ship
- Title 2: Conditions of employment
- Title 3: Accommodation, recreational facilities, food and catering
- Title 4: Health protection, medical care, welfare and social security protection
- Title 5: Compliance and enforcement
For Each Title, there are general Standards, which are further specified in mandatory Regulations (list A) as well as Guidelines (List B). Guidelines generally form a form of implementation of a Regulation according to the requirements, but States are free to have different implementation measures. Regulations should in principle be implemented fully, but a country can implement a "substantially equivalent" regulation, which it should declare upon ratification.
Title 1: Minimum requirements for seafarers to work on a ship
The minimum requirements set out in this section of the code are devided in 4 parts and are summarized below:
- Minimum age requirements: the mimimum age is 16 years (18 for night work and work in hazardous areas).
- Medical fitness: workers should be medically fit for the duties they are performing. Countries should issue medical certificates as defined in the STCW (or use a similar standard).
- Training: Seafarers should be trained for their duties as well as have had a personal safety training.
- Recruitment/placement services located in member states or for ships flying the flag of member states should have (amongst others) proper placement procedures, registration, complaint procedures and compensation if the recruitment fails.
Title 2: Employment conditions
The Title on employment conditions lists conditions of the contract and payments, as well as the working conditions on ships.
- Contracts: the contract should be clear, legally enforceble and incorporate collective bargaining agreements (if existent).
- Payments: Wages should be paid at least every month, and should be transferrable regularly to family if so desired.
- Rest hours: rest hours should be implemented in national legislation. The maximum hours of work in that legislation should not exceed 14 hours in any 24-hour period and 72 hours in any seven-day period, or: ten hours in any 24-hour period and 77 hours in any seven-day period. Furthermore every day, at least six hours of rest should be given consecutively.
- Leave: Seafarers have a right to anual leave as well as shore leave.
- Repatriation: Returning to their country of residence should be free
- Loss: If a ship is lost or foundered, the seafarers have a right to an unemployment payments.
- Manning: Every ship should have a sufficient manning level
After tripartite negotiations had started in 2001, the convention was adopted during the 94th International Labour Convention in 2006. The convention received 314 votes in favour and none against by representatives of the government, employers and workers, who each held a single vote per country.
Effect on other conventions
The convention changes 37 ILO conventions, which means that these conventions upon entry into force of this convention will close for ratification (if not already) and that entry into force for a specific country means automatic denouncement its ratification to other conventions (if not already).
- Minimum Age (Sea) Convention, 1920
- Unemployment Indemnity (Shipwreck) Convention, 1920
- Placing of Seamen Convention, 1920
- Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921
- Seamen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1926
- Repatriation of Seamen Convention, 1926
- Officers' Competency Certificates Convention, 1936
- Holidays with Pay (Sea) Convention, 1936
- Shipowners' Liability (Sick and Injured Seamen) Convention, 1936
- Sickness Insurance (Sea) Convention, 1936
- Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1936
- Minimum Age (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1936
- Food and Catering (Ships' Crews) Convention, 1946
- Certification of Ships' Cooks Convention, 1946
- Social Security (Seafarers) Convention, 1946
- Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention, 1946
- Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention, 1946
- Certification of Able Seamen Convention, 1946
- Accommodation of Crews Convention, 1946
- Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention, 1946
- Paid Vacations (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1949
- Accommodation of Crews Convention (Revised), 1949
- Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1949
- Wages, Hours of Work and Manning (Sea) Convention (Revised), 1958
- Accommodation of Crews (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1970
- Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention, 1970
- Continuity of Employment (Seafarers) Convention, 1976
- Seafarers' Annual Leave with Pay Convention, 1976
- Merchant Shipping (Minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (and 1996 protocol)
- Seafarers' Welfare Convention, 1987
- Health Protection and Medical Care (Seafarers) Convention, 1987
- Social Security (Seafarers) Convention (Revised), 1987
- Repatriation of Seafarers Convention (Revised), 1987
- Labour Inspection (Seafarers) Convention, 1996
- Recruitment and Placement of Seafarers Convention, 1996
- Seafarers' Hours of Work and the Manning of Ships Convention, 1996
The treaty has been ratified by 20 countries, many of which are large flag states in terms of the tonnage they transport. The European Union has advised its 27 members to ratify the treaty by 31 December 2010. The EU Decision provides: "Member States are hereby authorised to ratify, for the parts falling under Community competence, the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, of the International Labour Organisation, adopted on 7 February 2006. Member States should make efforts to take the necessary steps to deposit their instruments of ratification of the Convention with the Director-General of the International Labour Office as soon as possible, preferably before 31 December 2010. As of 30 October 2011 however, only Bulgaria, Denmark, Latvia, Luxembourg and Spain had done so.
Country Date Notes % of world gross tonnage Antigua and Barbuda 11 August 2011 1.0 Bahamas 11 February 2008 5.0 Benin 13 June 2011 <0.3 Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 January 2010 <0.3 Bulgaria 12 April 2010 <0.3 Canada 15 June 2010 <0.3 Croatia 12 February 2010 <0.3 Denmark 23 June 2011 1.06 (Danish International Ship Register) Gabon 12 May 2011 no declaration <0.3 Kiribati 24 October 2011 <0.3 Latvia 12 August 2011 no declaration <0.3 Liberia 7 June 2006 11.1 Luxembourg 19 September 2011 <0.3 Marshall Islands 25 September 2007 6.1 Norway 10 February 2009 1.5 (Norwegian International Ship Register) Panama 6 February 2009 22.6 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9 November 2010 0.6 Singapore 15 June 2011 4.8 Spain 4 February 2010 <0.3 Switzerland 21 February 2011 <0.3 Total: 20 Total: 54%
- ^ "Panama and Norway ratify Maritime Labour Convention". worldmaritimenews.com. 12 February 2009. http://worldmaritimenews.com/archives/12536. Retrieved 30 October 2010. "Together the five flags represent 43 % of the world's shipping tonnage."
- ^ a b "Treaty text of the Maritime Labour Convention". ILO. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C186. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- ^ "Maritime Labour Convention, 2006". Government of the United Kingdom. 16 August 2011. http://www.dft.gov.uk/mca/mcga07-home/workingatsea/mcga-healthandsafety/maritime_labour_convention_2006.htm. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- ^ "2007/431/EC: Council Decision of 7 June 2007 authorising Member States to ratify, in the interests of the European Community, the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006, of the International Labour Organisation". Council of the European Union. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32007D0431:EN:NOT. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
- ^ "Review of Maritime Transport 2010". UNCTAD secretariat. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/rmt2010_en.pdf. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
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