- Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
Maria of Austria Holy Roman Empress; Queen consort of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia Tenure 1562–1576 Spouse Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor Issue Anna, Queen of Spain
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ernest, Archduke of Austria
Elisabeth, Queen of France
Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria
Albert VII, Archduke of Austria
House House of Habsburg Father Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Isabella of Portugal Born 21 June 1528
Died 26 February 1603
Convent of Las Descalzas Reales, Madrid, Spain
Archduchess Maria of Austria (21 June 1528 – 26 February 1603) was the spouse of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia and Hungary. She was the daughter of Emperor Charles V and twice served as regent of Spain.
Maria was born in Madrid to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (elect at the time) and King of Spain, and Isabella of Portugal. She grew up mostly between Toledo and Valladolid with her other siblings. They built a strong family bond despite their father's regular absences. Maria and her full brother, Phillip, shared similar strong personal views and policies which they kept during the rest of their lives.
On the 13th September 1548, aged twenty, she married her first cousin Archduke Maximilian. The couple first stayed at the Spanish court and had sixteen children during the course of a twenty-eight-year marriage.
While her father was occupied with German affairs, Maria and Maximilian acted as regents of Spain from 1548 to 1550. In 1552, the couple moved to live at the court of Maximilian's father in Vienna. During the absence of her brother, King Philip II, Maria was again installed as regent of Spain from 1558 to 1561 and returned to Madrid during that time.
After her return to Germany, her husband gradually succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of Germany, Bohemia and Hungary, which he ruled from 1564 to his death in 1576. Maria was a devout Catholic and frequently disagreed with her religious ambiguous husband. Maria of Spain had great influence over her sons, the future emperors Rudolf and Matthias.
Return to Spain
Maria returned to Spain in 1582, commenting that she was very happy to live in "a country without heretics". She settled in the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales in Madrid, where she lived until her death in 1603.
Maria exerted some influence together with queen Margaret. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret was considered by contemporaries to be extremely pious – in some cases, excessively pious, and too influenced by the Church – 'astute and very skillful' in her political dealings, although 'melancholic' and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court. Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an 'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, and paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605.
Maria, the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – along with queen Margaret, formed a powerful Catholic and pro-Austrian voice during the reign of Philip III of Spain life. They were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip steadily acquired other religious advisors. Father Juan de Santa Maria, was the confessor to Philip's daughter, Doña Maria, was felt by contemporaries to have an excessive influence over Philip at the end of his life, and both he and Luis de Aliaga, Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618. Similarly Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was also criticised for her later influence over the King's actions.
Maria and Maximilian had sixteen children:
- Anne of Austria (1 November 1549 – 26 October 1580), married Philip II of Spain
- Ferdinand of Austria (28 March 1551 – 25 June 1552)
- Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612)
- Archduke Ernest of Austria (15 July 1553 – 12 February 1595), served as Governor of the Low Countries
- Elisabeth of Austria (5 June 1554 – 22 January 1592), married Charles IX of France
- Marie of Austria (27 July 1555 – 25 June 1556).
- Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619)
- An unnamed son (stillborn on 20 October 1557)
- Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618), served as grandmaster of the Teutonic Order and Administrator of Prussia
- Albert VII, Archduke of Austria (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621), served as Governor of the Low Countries
- Wenzel of Austria (9 March 1561 – 22 September 1578)
- Friedrich of Austria (21 June 1562 – 16 January 1563)
- Marie of Austria (19 February 1564 – 26 March 1564), named after deceased older sister
- Karl of Austria (26 September 1565 – 23 May 1566)
- Margaret of Austria (25 January 1567 – 5 July 1633), a nun
- Eleonore of Austria (4 November 1568 – 12 March 1580)
Ancestors of Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress 16. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor 8. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 17. Eleanor of Portugal 4. Philip I of Castile 18. Charles, Duke of Burgundy 9. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy 19. Isabella of Bourbon 2. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 20. John II of Aragon 10. Ferdinand II of Aragon 21. Juana Enriquez 5. Joanna I of Castile 22. John II of Castile 11. Isabella I of Castile 23. Isabella of Portugal 1. Maria of Austria and Spain 24. Edward of Portugal 12. Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu 25. Leonor of Aragon 6. Manuel I of Portugal 26. Infante João of Portugal 13. Beatriz of Portugal 27. Isabella of Braganza 3. Isabella of Portugal 28. John II of Aragon (= 20) 14. Ferdinand II of Aragon (= 10) 29. Juana Enriquez (= 21) 7. Maria of Aragon and Castile 30. John II of Castile (= 22) 15. Isabella I of Castile (= 11) 31. Isabella of Portugal (= 23)
Maria of Austria, Holy Roman EmpressHouse of HabsburgBorn: 21 June 1528 Died: 26 February 1603
- ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/370517/Maximilian-II
- ^ a b Sánchez, p.91.
- ^ a b Sánchez, p.98.
- ^ Sánchez, p.99.
- ^ a b c Sánchez, p.100.
- ^ a b Sánchez, p.97.
Royal titles Preceded by
Isabella of Portugal
Holy Roman Empress consort
Anna of Tyrol
Roman-German Queen consort
Archduchess consort of Austria
Queen consort of Bohemia
in dispute with
Queen consort of Hungary
The generations indicate descent form Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infanta had been largely use in the different realms. 1st GenerationMaria, Holy Roman Empress · Joan, Princess of Portugal 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationInfanta Maria Isabel · Infanta Maria Josefa · Infanta María Isabel Ana · Infanta Maria Josepha · Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress · Infanta Maria Teresa · Infanta Maria Ana 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationIsabella, Princess of Asturias · Infanta Maria Cristina · Maria de la Concepcio · Maria de Pilar · Maria de la Paz, Princess Louis Ferdinand of Bavaria · Eulalia, Duchess of Galliera · Maria Isabella, Countess of Paris* · Infanta Amalia of Orléans* · Infanta Cristina d'Orléans* · Infanta Maria de la Regla of Orléans* · Mercedes, Queen of Spain* 12th GenerationMercedes, Princess of Asturias · Maria Teresa, Princess Ferdinand of Bavaria 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation *title granted by Royal Decree Austrian archduchesses by birth 1st generationnone 2nd generationArchduchess Helena · Kunigunde, Duchess of Bavaria 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generationElisabeth, Queen of Poland · Maria, Holy Roman Empress* · Anna, Duchess of Bavaria · Archduchess Isabella* · Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg · Archduchess Magdalena · Catherine, Queen of Poland · Eleanor, Duchess of Mantua · Archduchess Margaret · Joan, Princess of Portugal* · Barbara, Duchess of Ferrara · Archduchess Ursula · Archduchess Helena · Joanna, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 6th generationAnna, Queen of Spain · Elisabeth, Queen of France · Archduchess Maria · Archduchess Maria · Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Hetherlands* · Archduchess Margaret · Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy* · Archduchess Eleanor · Archduchess Maria* · Archduchess Martha · Archduchess Anna Eleanor · Archduchess Maria · Anna, Holy Roman Empress · Anna, Queen of Poland · Maria Christina, Princess of Transilvania · Archduchess Catherine Renata · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana · Archduchess Eleanor · Margaret, Queen of Spain · Constance, Queen of Poland · Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 7th generationArchduchess Christine · Anna, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Maria Anna, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Anna Mauritia · Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Margarita Francisca* · Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland · Archduchess Maria Eleanor · Isabella Clara, Duchess of Mantua · Maria Leopoldine, Holy Roman Empress 8th generationArchduchess Maria Margarita* · Archduchess Margarita Maria Catalina* · Archduchess Maria Eugenia* · Archduchess Isabella Maria Teresa* · Maria Anna, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia* · Maria Theresa, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Margarita Teresa, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Theresia Maria Josepha · Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine · Claudia Felicitas, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate · Archduchess Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción* · Archduchess Maria Magdalena 9th generationMaria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia · Archduchess Anna Maria · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Christina · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth · Maria Anna, Queen of Portugal · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Maria Magdalena · Archduchess Maria Margaretha 10th generationMaria Josepha, Queen of Poland · Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Theresa · Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine · Archduchess Maria Amalia 11th generationArchduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Archduchess Johanna** · Archduchess Maria Josepha** · Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples** · Marie Antonia, Queen of France** 12th generationArchduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Marie Christine · Maria Theresia, Queen of Saxony** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia*** · Archduchess Maria Josepha*** · Maria Leopoldine, Electress of Bavaria*** · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria** · Archduchess Maria Amalia** · Archduchess Maria Antonia*** · Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria*** 13th generationArchduchess Ludovika Elisabeth · Marie Louise, Empress of the French · Archduchess Carolina Ferdinande** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Caroline Ludovika · Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil · Clementina, Princess of Salerno · Archduchess Maria Luisa** · Archduchess Alexandrine · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia** · Marie Caroline, Crown Princess of Saxony · Archduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Amalia Theresa · Maria Theresa, Queen of the Two Sicilies · Maria Theresa, Countess of Chambord*** · Archduchess Hermine · Archduchess Franziska · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia · Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón*** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska · Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians 14th generationArchduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria** · Archduchess Maria Maximiliana** · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani** · Archduchess Maria Theresia** · Archduchess Maria Cristina** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg · Archduchess Mathilda · Maria Christina, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Eleonora · Archduchess Elisabeth · Maria Dorothea, Duchess of Orléans · Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis · Archduchess Elisabeth Henriette · Archduchess Klotilde · Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria*** 15th generationArchduchess Sophie · Gisela, Princess Leopold of Bavaria · Archduchess Marie Valerie · Margarete Sophie, Duchess of Württemberg · Archduchess Maria Annunziata · Elisabeth, Princess Aloys of Liechtenstein · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony** · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein** · Archduchess Margareta** · Archduchess Germana** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Maria Theresa** · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha** · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Maria Immaculata, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Henriette** · Maria Christina, Princess Emmanuel of Salm-Salm · Maria Anna, Princess Elias of Bourbon Parma · Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Archduchess Natalie · Archduchess Stephanie · Archduchess Gabrielle · Isabella, Princess Georg of Bavaria · Alice, Baroness Waldbott of Bassenheim · Archduchess Eleonora, Mrs. Alfons von Kloss · Renata, Princess Hieronymus Radziwill · Mechthildis, Princess Olgierd Czartoryski · Archduchess Gisele · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Magdalena 16th generationElisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz · Helena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg** · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Dolores** · Maria Inmaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri** · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio** · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez** · Archduchess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger** · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil** · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg** · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Margarethe, Mrs. Alexander Cech · Ilona, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Archduchess Anna Theresia · Archduchess Maria Kynga, Mrs. Joachim Krist 17th generationArchduchess Adelheid · Charlotte, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Elisabeth, Princess Heinrich of Liechtenstein · Elisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun** · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno** · Marie Antoinette, Baroness of Proff in Irnich** · Archduchess Marie Christine** · Archduchess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso** · Archduchess Verena** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber** · Agnes, Baroness Peter of Fürstenberg** · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski** · Alexandra, Baroness Viktor of Baillou** · Maria Magdalena, Baroness of Holzhausen** · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer** · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein** · Archduchess Maria Margaretha** · Archduchess Ludovica** · Archduchess Allix** · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg** · Valerie, Margravine of Baden** · Alberta, Baroness Alexander of Kottwitz-Erdödy** · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria** · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech** · Archduchess Monika, Mrs. Charles de Rambures · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Raymond van der Meide · Archduchess Maria, Mrs. Wilhelm de Witt · Margherita, Countess Benedikt of Piatti 18th generationAndrea, Hereditary Countess of Neipperg · Monika, Duchess of Maqueda · Michaela, Countess Hubertus of Kageneck · Archduchess Gabriela, Mrs. Christian Meister · Walburga, Countess Archibald Douglas · Maria Beatrix, Countess Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg*** · Isabella, Countess Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi*** · Maria del Pilar, Edle Vollrad-Joachim von Poschinger · Kinga, Baroness Wolfgang of Erffa · Archduchess Marie Adelheid, Mrs. Jaime Corcuerra · Archduchess Viridis, Mrs. Karl Dunning-Gribble · Archduchess Alexandra, Mrs. Héctor Riesle · Maria Constanza, Princess of Auersperg-Trautson · Maria Anna, Princess Peter Galitzine · Catharina, Countess Maximiliano Secco d'Aragona · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. James Litchfield · Sophie, Princess of Windisch-Grätz · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Clemens Guggenberg · Archduchess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks** · Archduchess Alicia** · Archduchess Maria Christina** · Archduchess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner** · Archduchess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner** · Archduchess Hedwig** · Archduchess Veronika** · Archduchess Johanna · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Celina · Archduchess Maria Floriana · Archduchess Sofía · Archduchess Anna Carolina · Archduchess Theresa · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Ladislaya 19th generationArchduchess Eleonore · Archduchess Gloria · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Hilda · Archduchess Maria Laura*** · Archduchess Luisa Maria*** · Archduchess Laetitia Maria*** · Archduchess Sophia · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Margherite · Archduchess Priscilla · Archduchess Marie des Neiges · Marie Christine, Countess Rodolphe of Limburg-Stirum · Archduchess Gabriella · Archduchess Antonia · Archduchess Isabelle · Archduchess Carlotta · Archduchess Paulina · Archduchess Lara · Archduchess Katharina · Archduchess Tatyana** · Archduchess Anabella** · Archduchess Tara** · Archduchess Amaya 20th generationArchduchess Zita · Archduchess Anežka *also an infanta of Spain
**also a princess of Tuscany
***also a princess of Modena
1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationInfanta Isabella of Portugal · Anne of Bohemia and Hungary 4th generation 5th generation 6th generation 7th generationArchduchess Margaret Theresa of Austria^ · Archduchess Claudia Felicitas of Austria^ · Countess Palatine Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg 8th generationPrincess Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg · Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 9th generationnone 10th generation 11th generationDuchess Elisabeth of Württemberg** · Princess Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily** · Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily** · Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg** · Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna of Russia** · Princess Hermine of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym** · Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg** · Princess Elisabeth of Savoy** · Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy*** 12th generation 13th generationPrincess Charlotte of Belgium · Princess Margaretha of Saxony · Princess Maria Annunciata of the Two Sicilies · Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal · Princess Anna of Saxony** · Princess Alice of Parma** · Princess Maria Immaculata of the Two Sicilies** · Princess Isabella of Croÿ · Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria^ · Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria 14th generation 15th generationPrincess Zita of Parma · Princess Franziska of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Princess Dorothea of Bavaria** · Countess Marie Valerie of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenems** · Princess Ileana of Romania** · Princess Rosemary of Salm-Salm** · Countess Maria Theresa of Waldburg-Zeil** · Princess Maria of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg · Princess Christina of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg 16th generationPrincess Regina of Saxe-Meiningen · Princess Margherita of Savoy · Princess Anne Eugénie of Arenberg · Princess Yolande of Ligne · Countess Xenia Czernicheva-Besobrasova · Princess Anna Gabriele of Wrede · Countess Helena of Toerring-Jettenbach · Countess Ludmilla of Gallen · Princess Laetitia of Arenberg** · Countess Margaret Kálnoky von Köröspatak** · Maria Espinosa de los Monteros^^** · Countess Valerie of Podstatzky-Lichtenstein** · Freiin Eva Antonia von Hofmann** · Princess Anna Amelie of Schönburg-Waldenburg** · Countess Hedwig of Lichem-Löwenburg** · Freiin Edith von Sternbach** · Princess Margaret of Hohenberg · Countess Marie Christine of Hatzfeldt-Dönhoff · Eugenia de Calonge^^ · Freiin Maria Theresia von Gudenus 17th generationFreiin Francesca Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kászon et Impérfalva · Duchess Eilika of Oldenburg · Princess Astrid of Belgium*** · Princess Katharina of Isenburg-Birstein*** · Bettine Götz^^ · Paola de Temesváry^^ · Baroness Marie Hélène de Villenfagne de Vogelsanck · Princess Marie Astrid of Luxembourg · Princess Alexandra of Wrede · Princess María of the Two Sicilies · Sara Maya Al-Askari^^ · Mayasuni Heath^^ · Countess Katharina of Hardenberg · Ashmita Goswami^^ · Elyssa Edmonstone^^** · Countess Marie Gabrielle of Waldstein** 18th generationEstelle de Saint-Romain^^ *also an infanta of Spain by marriage
**also a princess of Tuscany by marriage
***also a princess of Modena by marriage
^also an archduchess of Austria in her own right
^^did not have a royal or noble title by birth
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