2010 Pichilemu earthquake

2010 Pichilemu earthquake
2010 Pichilemu earthquake
Terremoto de Pichilemu de 2010
House damaged by the Pichilemu earthquake, in the epicentre town, as seen on 16 April 2011.
House damaged by the Pichilemu earthquake, in the epicentre town, as seen on 16 April 2011.
Pichilemu earthquake shakemap produced by the United States Geological Survey
Date 11:39:41, 11 March 2010 (UTC-03:00) (2010-03-11T11:39:41UTC-03:00)
Magnitude 6.9 Mw[1][2]
Depth 33.1 kilometres (21 mi)[2]
Epicenter Pichilemu, Chile
34°18′04″S 72°07′48″W / 34.301°S 72.13°W / -34.301; -72.13Coordinates: 34°18′04″S 72°07′48″W / 34.301°S 72.13°W / -34.301; -72.13[2]
Countries or regions Chile
Max. intensity MM X
Tsunami Small tsunami
Casualties 1 dead

The 2010 Pichilemu earthquake (Spanish: Terremoto de Pichilemu de 2010), also known as the Libertador O'Higgins earthquake, was a 6.9 MW earthquake that struck Chile's O'Higgins Region on 11 March 2010 at 11:39 local time (14:39 UTC). The earthquake was centred 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of the city of Pichilemu, according to the University of Chile Geological Service.

The earthquake was caused by increased regional stress arising from an earthquake on 27 February, centered offshore Maule Region, which was felt throughout central Chile.[1] The 11 March earthquake was at first thought to be an aftershock from the 27 February event, but University of Chile Seismologist Jaime Campos identified it as an "independent earthquake". The Hawaii-based Pacific Tsunami Warning Center pointed out the possibility of local tsunamis within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the epicenter,[3] although only small waves were seen in the Pichilemu area. One person was reported dead. At least 11 aftershocks immediately followed, causing panic throughout coastal towns between the Coquimbo and Los Lagos regions.[4][5]

Pichilemu is a Chilean city, capital of Cardenal Caro Province, O'Higgins Region.[6] As of 2002, it had 12,392 inhabitants.[7] The city hosts five National Monuments of Chile, including the Agustín Ross Park, and the Agustín Ross Cultural Centre,[8] both of which were seriously damaged by the earthquake. Tourism is the main industry of the city.[9] Several surf championships take place every year in Punta de Lobos, which according to Fodor's is "widely considered the best surfing in South America year-round."[10]



Seismic hazard near the epicenter of the earthquake.

The 6.9 earthquake of 11 March 2010 was part of a series of earthquakes and aftershocks in central and southern Chile, following the 8.8 magnitude earthquake in Maule Region two weeks earlier. While news media reported the earthquake as an aftershock of the February earthquake in Chile,[11][12] a preliminary geological summary issued by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) considered it to be an independent earthquake,[1] a conclusion which seismologist Jaime Campos of the University of Chile also reached.[13][14]

According to the United States Geological Service, the earthquake occurred in the region of the plate boundary between the Nazca and South America plates, in the aftershock region of the 27 February earthquake, that occurred offshore Maule Region.[15] The Pichilemu earthquake was caused by the change in regional stress from the 27 February earthquake. Preliminary analyses by the USGS of their locations and seismic-wave radiation patterns suggest that the Pichilemu earthquake resulted from normal faulting within the subducting Nazca plate or the overriding South America plate, unlike the 27 February earthquake, which occurred as thrust faulting on the interface between the two plates. The focal depths of the Pichilemu earthquake are not known with sufficient precision to determine whether the Nazca or South American plate caused the earthquake.[1]

From the pattern of aftershocks, it has been suggested that this earthquake originated from rupture along a previously unknown fault (Pichilemu Fault) between Pichilemu and the Maule Region commune of Vichuquén, at 15 km depth, 40 km in length and 20 km wide.[16] At first it was not known whether this fault was formed during the earthquake or if it was just reactivated,[17] however geologist José Cembrano from the University of Chile affirmed that "[the fault] corresponds to a long life fault, in a million years time, whose activity had not been detected before."[18]

The earthquake occurred 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of Pichilemu, at a depth of 33.1 kilometres (20.6 mi) according to the University of Chile Seismological Service,[2][19][20][21] while the United States Geological Service reported it occurred 105 kilometres (65 mi) west of Rancagua, capital of O'Higgins Region, at a depth of 11 kilometres (6.8 mi); Pichilemu News reported the earthquake occurred 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Pichilemu, between the villages of Panilonco and La Aguada, and reached a moment magnitude of 7.2.[22] As of 15 March 2010, more than 50 aftershocks had occurred in the area, the strongest of them measuring 6.7 in the moment magnitude scale, minutes after the initial quake.[23]


Army personnel at La Cruz Hill, Pichilemu, shortly after the earthquake occurred.

The earthquake took place minutes before the new President of Chile, Sebastián Piñera, was sworn in, at about 12:15 local time (15:15 UTC), at the Chilean congress in Valparaíso, where the shaking was clearly felt.[24] The presidents of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Paraguay were also present, but television footage showed that the inauguration was not interrupted;[25] however, it was reported the ceremony was "speeded," as Piñera cancelled the protocolary lunch with his visits and traveled to Rancagua, one of the most affected cities by the quake.[22]

A Pacific-wide tsunami warning was not issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, although the organization pointed out the possibility of local tsunamis within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the epicenter, roughly between La Serena and Concepción.[3] The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada, SHOA) issued a tsunami warning between Coquimbo and Los Lagos regions, as a way of "keeping people protected" against the possible occurrence of new tsunamis.[22][26][27] President Sebastián Piñera urged coastal residents to move to higher ground in case of a tsunami.[27] People in Pichilemu fled to the La Cruz Hill for their security, where they received advice from members of the Army.[28] The SHOA-emitted tsunami warning was lifted at around 15:50 local time (18:50 UTC).[29]

President Piñera decreed "catastrophe state" in O'Higgins Region as a result of the quake, and appointed Army General Antonio Yackcich as Jefe de Plaza (English: Place Head) for the region, while he was visiting Rancagua that day.[30][31]

Damage and casualties

The Agustín Ross Park balaustrades suffered great damage after the earthquake.

At Pichilemu, its epicenter, the earthquake destroyed the balaustrades surrounding Agustín Ross Park, damaged severely the recently re-inaugurated Agustín Ross Cultural Centre, and severely damaged the Espinillo and Rodeillo villages.[32][33] The earthquake was also reported to have been felt in Mendoza,[34] Bariloche, Córdoba, San Rafael, Buenos Aires, Montevideo and Asunción.[35][36] According to witnesses in the Pichilemu villages of Panilonco and La Aguada, the earthquake was accompannied by a "great noise."[22]

According to a report by the National Office of Emergency of the Interior Ministry (Oficina Nacional de Emergencias del Ministerio del Interior, ONEMI) on 11 March 2010, small waves were seen in the area surrounding Pichilemu. The Santa Julia overpass located between Rancagua and Graneros collapsed, and there were partial power outages in Mostazal, San Fernando and Peumo.[37]

A United States Geological Survey summary of the earthquake reported damage at Rancagua,[1] 177 kilometers southwest of Pichilemu.[38] The mayor of Rancagua, Eduardo Soto, reported severe damage to homes in the town.[39] A small tsunami was also reported, with sea wave heights of 16 centimetres (0.525 ft) at Valparaíso, and 29 centimetres (0.951 ft) at San Antonio.[1] Interior Minister Rodrigo Hinzpeter reported strong waves in Pichilemu[40] and Bucalemu, and damage to a highway in O'Higgins Region.[41] One person died of a heart attack during the earthquake in Talca, it was reported by La Tercera.[42]

Relief efforts stalled for about six hours because of the constant aftershocks.[41] Seismologist Mario Pardo from the University of Chile Seismological Service said on 15 March 2010 that it was thought Pichilemu was experiencing a seismic swarm, due to concerns about the continued aftershocks in the area.[43] After several power outages and tsunami alerts, many people in Pichilemu stayed at La Cruz Hill and at Cordón, Cáhuil.[33][44]


Within the following six hours there were ten aftershocks, two of magnitude 6 or greater, and seven between 5 and 6.[4]

11 March 2010 Pichilemu earthquake and main aftershocks (over 6,0 MW)
Date Local time Location Coordinates Depth MW Notes
11 March 2010 11:39:48 Pichilemu, O'Higgins 34°15′4″S 71°53′20″W / 34.25111°S 71.88889°W / -34.25111; -71.88889 11,0 km 6,9 [1]
11 March 2010 11:55:30 La Estrella, O'Higgins 34°15′47″S 71°46′54″W / 34.26306°S 71.78167°W / -34.26306; -71.78167 18,0 km 6,7 [36]
11 March 2010 12:06:03 Pichilemu, O'Higgins 34°13′3″S 71°53′20″W / 34.2175°S 71.88889°W / -34.2175; -71.88889 29,3 km 6,0 [36]

2 May 2010 aftershock

The 2 May 2010 Pichilemu aftershock was a magnitude 5.8 MW earthquake that struck O'Higgins, Chile, at 10:52 a.m. on 2 May 2010 at the epicenter, at a depth of 32.9 kilometres (20 mi) and epicenter 12 kilometres (7 mi) northwest of Pichilemu, according to the University of Chile Geological Service.[45]

ONEMI (National Emergencies Office) reported that the aftershock was felt most strongly in Talca, 258 kilometres (160 mi) south of Santiago. ONEMI's Pablo Marín said there were no casualties and only some telephone lines had collapsed.[46] Six aftershocks subsequently hit the area that day.[47] The earthquake was measured as magnitude 5.9 by the United States Geological Survey.[48]

29 September 2010 Lolol aftershock

A further aftershock of the Pichilemu earthquake occurred on September 29, 2010 at 12:29:48 local time (16:29:49 UTC).[49] It had a magnitude of 5.6 (originally reported as 5.9), and its epicenter was centered 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) southwest of Lolol, O'Higgins Region,[49] 43 kilometres (27 mi) southwest of Santa Cruz,[50] and 170 kilometers southwest of Santiago,[51] at a depth of 50 kilometres (31 mi).[49][50]

Telephone calls were truncated in O'Higgins Region.[49] No infrastructural damage or casualties was reported.[49] The aftershock was felt throughout the Valparaíso, Metropolitan, O'Higgins, and Maule regions.[49] It was felt stronger in Rancagua, San Vicente de Tagua Tagua, Paredones, Navidad, Talca, Curicó, Iloca, Molina, and San Javier, where it reached Mercalli V intensity.[49]

See also


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  2. ^ a b c d "Informe de Sismo. [Earthquake Report.]" (in Spanish). Servicio Sismológico de la Universidad de Chile. 11 March 2010. http://sismologia.cl/events/sensibles/2010/03/20100311143929.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Tsunami information bulletin". Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. 11 March 2010. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/ptwc/messages/pacific/2010/pacific.2010.03.11.145212.txt. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Fuertes réplicas y alerta de tsunami en la zona centro-sur [Strong aftershocks and tsunami warning in central-southern zone]" (in Spanish). La Nación. 11 March 2010. http://www.lanacion.cl/fuertes-replicas-y-alerta-de-tsunami-en-la-zona-centro-sur/noticias/2010-03-11/114113.html. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  5. ^ "Alerta de tsunami pone a prueba evacuación en La Serena y Coquimbo [Tsunami warning puts evacuation to test in La Serena and Coquimbo]" (in Spanish). El Ovallino. 12 March 2010. http://www.elovallino.cl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2678:alerta-de-tsunami-pone-a-prueba-evacuacion-en-la-serena-y-coquimbo&catid=1:region-&Itemid=18. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 
  6. ^ "Chile". Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/chile/cl_appen.html. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  7. ^ National Statistics Institute of Chile. "O'Higgins Region Statistics 2002 census" (in Spanish). http://alerce.ine.cl/canales/chile_estadistico/censos_poblacion_vivienda/censo2002/mapa_interactivo/sexta.swf. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  8. ^ Chrisitian Matzner (December 22, 2004). "Sector de Pichilemu [Pichilemu area]". National Monuments Council. http://www.monumentos.cl/OpenSupport_Monumento/asp/PopUpFicha/ficha_publica.asp?monumento=595. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  9. ^ Carmen del Río Pereira Blanca Tagle Arduengo (2009) (in Spanish). Región de O'Higgins: Breve relación del patrimonio natural y cultural [O'Higgins Region: Brief relationship of the natural and cultural heritage]. Pro-O'Higgins. 
  10. ^ Fodor's (2008). Taplan, Alan. ed. Fodor's Chile: Including Argentine Patagonia. New York: Random House. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-4000-1967-0. http://books.google.com/?id=x7igKTnjveAC. 
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  12. ^ "Americas – Chile president vows to rebuild". Al Jazeera. 12 March 2010. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2010/03/2010311152233248405.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
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  14. ^ Ramírez, Natacha (23 June 2010). "Sismólogo: Es posible que ocurra otro terremoto en la zona afectada por megasismo de 8,8 grados" (in Spanish). El Mercurio (Santiago, Chile: COPESA). http://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2010/06/23/420693/sismologo-es-posible-que-ocurra-otro-terremoto-en-la-zona-afectada-por-megasismo-de-88-grados.html. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Saavedra, Jose Luis (February 27, 2010). "Massive earthquake hits Chile, 214 dead". Concepción, Chile: Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61Q0S920100227. Retrieved October 17, 2010. 
  16. ^ Fernández, O. (May 22, 2010). "Pichilemu tiene falla geológica que genera oleada de réplicas en esa zona [Pichilemu has geological fault that generates wave of aftershocks in that area]" (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: La Tercera. http://latercera.com/contenido/680_261687_9.shtml. Retrieved October 30, 2010. 
  17. ^ Correa, Paula. "Sismólogos advierten sobre la activación de fallas después del terremoto [Seismologists warn about activation of faults after the earthquake]" (in Spanish). Radio Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Chile). http://radio.uchile.cl/noticias/72407/. Retrieved October 30, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Las cinco fallas geológicas más importantes que Chile debe tener en cuenta [The five most important geological faults Chile has to take into account]" (in Spanish). Punta Arenas, Chile: Radio Polar. April 20, 2011. http://radiopolar.com/noticia_45169.html. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Doce réplicas con epicentro en Pichilemu [Twelve aftershocks centered in Pichilemu]" (in Spanish). El Carabobeño of Valencia, Carabobo. 11 March 2010. http://www.el-carabobeno.com/p_pag_not.aspx?art=a120310i02&id=t120310-i02. Retrieved 2 September 2010.  Google Cache.
  20. ^ "El Mayor Fue de 7,2° Richter [The strongest was of 7.2° Richter]" (in Spanish). Chile.com. 11 March 2010. http://www.chile.com/tpl/articulo/detalle/ver.tpl?cod_articulo=118476. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  21. ^ "Réplica: Onemi sitúa epicentro en Pichilemu [Aftershock: Onemi locates epicenter in Pichilemu]" (in Spanish). Televisión Nacional de Chile – 24 Horas. 11 March 2010. http://24horas.cl/videos.aspx?id=63158. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  22. ^ a b c d Saldías, Washington (11 March 2010). "¿Los primeros signos del cambio?: Movido cambio de mando se vivió en el país ante nuevas réplicas del terremoto" (in Spanish). Pichilemu News (Pichilemu, Chile). http://www.pichilemunews.cl/20100312_TraspasoDeMando.html. Retrieved 14 June 2011. 
  23. ^ "Unos 50 sismos con el mismo epicentro han sacudido Chile desde el jueves [About 50 tremors with the same epicenter have shaken Chile since Thursday]" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa. 15 March 2010. http://www.cooperativa.cl/unos-50-sismos-con-el-mismo-epicentro-han-sacudido-chile-desde-el-jueves/prontus_nots/2010-03-13/184956.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  24. ^ Javier López (11 March 2010). "Billionaire Pinera takes power as quakes jolt Chile". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSN1119348920100311. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "Three strong earthquakes strike Chile in quick succession". CNN.com. 11 March 2010. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/03/11/chile.earthquake/index.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
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  27. ^ a b "Strong Aftershocks Jolt Chile Inauguration". CBS News. March 11, 2010. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/03/11/world/main6288962.shtml. Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  28. ^ Saldías, Washington (March 11, 2010). "Tres sismos con características de terremoto han afectado en menos de 20 minutos a la zona central del país [Three tremors with characteristics of earthquake have affected in less than twenty minutes the central area of the country]" (in Spanish). Pichilemu, Chile: Pichilemu News. http://www.pichilemunews.cl/index_Marzo_2010.html. Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  29. ^ "El SHOA levantó la alerta de tsunami en la costa continental [SHOA lifts tsunami warning in continental coast]" (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Terra Chile. March 11, 2010. http://www.terra.cl/actualidad/index.cfm?id_cat=302&id_reg=1378045. Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Presidente descarta toque de queda en VI Región y nombra a nuevo director de Onemi [President discards curfew in VI Region and names new director of Onemi]". La Tercera. 11 March 2010. http://www.tercera.com/contenido/680_233129_9.shtml. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "Presidente Piñera decreta Estado de Catástrofe en la Región de O´higgins [President Piñera decrees Catastrophe State in O'Higgins Region]" (in Spanish). El Rancahuaso. 12 March 2010. http://www.elrancahuaso.cl/admin/render/noticia/22347. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  32. ^ "Espinillo: uno de los pueblos olvidados tras el terremoto [Espinillo: one of the forgotten towns after the earthquake]" (in Spanish). Teletrece, Canal 13. 16 March 2010. http://tele13.13.cl/noticias/regiones/14088.htm. Retrieved 7 September 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Jorge Hans (16 March 2010). "Pichilemu: entre los cerros y el mar [Pichilemu: between the hills and the sea]" (in Spanish). Canal 13. http://tele13.13.cl/noticias/reporteros/14100.htm. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  34. ^ "Cinco fuertes réplicas del terremoto de Chile se sintieron en Mendoza [Five strong aftershocks of the Chile earthquake were felt in Mendoza]" (in Spanish). Diario Uno. 11 March 2010. http://www.diariouno.com.ar/contenidos/2010/03/11/noticia_0024.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  35. ^ "M6.9–Libertador O'higgins, Chile". United States Geological Survey. March 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/dyfi/events/us/2010tsa6/us/index.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  36. ^ a b c "Significant Earthquakes of the World". United States Geological Survey. 2010. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/significant/sig_2010.php. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  37. ^ "Onemi: caída de pasarela, 'pequeño oleaje' y cortes de luz tras sismo [Onemi: gateway fall, 'small waves' and power outages after tremor]" (in Spanish). La Tercera. 11 March 2010. http://www.tercera.com/contenido/680_233054_9.shtml. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  38. ^ Rey, Cynthia (February 12, 2008). "Rancahuasos de Vacaciones Hoy: Pichilemu [Rancahuasos in Vacations Today: Pichilemu]" (in Spanish). Rancagua, Chile: El Rancahuaso. http://www.elrancahuaso.cl/admin/render/noticia/13092. Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  39. ^ "Chile leader: 'Significant damage' in Rancagua". CNN. 11 March 2010. http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2010/03/11/breaking-strong-quake-reported-in-chile/. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  40. ^ "Chile levanta la alerta de tsunami decretada tras el sismo de 6.9 grados [Chile lifts tsunami warning decreed after 6.9 grades seism]" (in Spanish). CNN México. March 11, 2010. http://mexico.cnn.com/mundo/2010/03/11/chile-levanta-la-alerta-de-tsunami-decretada-tras-el-sismo-de-69-grados. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  41. ^ a b Michael Warren (11 March 2010). "Chile Earthquake 11 March: 7.2-Magnitude Quake Hits Chile During Inauguration". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/03/11/72-magnitude-quake-hits-c_n_494779.html. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  42. ^ "Hombre fallece en Talca de un paro cardíaco en medio de fuertes réplicas [Man dies in Talca of a heart attack amidst strong aftershocks]" (in Spanish). La Tercera. 11 March 2010. http://www.latercera.com/contenido/680_233172_9.shtml. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  43. ^ "Experto descartó que Pichilemu sea un enjambre sísmico por alta cantidad de réplicas [Expert ruled out that Pichilemu is a seismic swarm due to high quantity of aftershocks]" (in Spanish). Radio Cooperativa. 15 March 2010. http://www.cooperativa.cl/experto-descarto-que-pichilemu-sea-un-enjambre-sismico-por-alta-cantidad-de-replicas/prontus_nots/2010-03-15/075938.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  44. ^ "Pichilemu durmió en cerros por temor a tsunami [Pichilemu slept in hills due to fear to a tsunami]" (in Spanish). La Nación. March 12, 2010. http://www.lanacion.cl/pichilemu-durmio-en-cerros-por-temor-a-tsunami/noticias/2010-03-12/073734.html. Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Informe de Sismo. [Earthquake Report.]" (in Spanish). Servicio Sismológico de la Universidad de Chile. 2 May 2010. http://sismologia.cl/events/sensibles/2010/05/20100502145240.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  46. ^ "Sismo de 5.9 grados en Chile [5.9 grades seism in Chile]" (in Spanish). El Nuevo Día. 2 May 2010. http://www.elnuevodia.com/sismode5.9gradosenchile-696989.html. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  47. ^ "Seis sismos se han percibido este domingo en el sector de Pichilemu [Five seisms have been perceived this Sunday in the Pichilemu area]" (in Spanish). La Tercera. 2 May 2010. http://www.tercera.com/contenido/680_256231_9.shtml. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  48. ^ "Shakemap us2010vubl". United States Geological Survey. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/shakemap/global/shake/2010vubl/. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f g "Sismo de mediana intensidad entre regiones de Valparaíso y Maule [Medium intensity seism between Valparaíso and Maule regions]" (in Spanish). National Emergencies Office of Chile. September 29, 2010. http://www.onemi.cl/html/noticias/noticia_1260.html. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  50. ^ a b "Informe de Sismo. [Earthquake Report.]" (in Spanish). University of Chile Seismological Service (Servicio de Sismología de la Universidad de Chile). September 2, 2010. http://sismologia.cl/events/sensibles/2010/09/20100929162953.html. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Chile: el sismo fue de 5,9 grados [Chile: seism was of 5.9 grades]" (in Spanish). BBC News. September 29, 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/mundo/ultimas_noticias/2010/09/100929_ultnot_chile_servicio_sismologico.shtml. Retrieved October 2, 2010.  (Spanish)

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Magnitude 6.9 - Libertador O'Higgins, Chile: Summary" (in the "Geological background" section).

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