- Management development
Management Development is best described as the process from which managers learn and improve their skills not only to benefit themselves but also their employing organizations.
In organisational development (OD), the effectiveness of management is recognised as one of the determinants of organisational success. Therefore, investment in management development can have a direct economic benefit to the organization.
Managers are exposed to learning opportunities whilst doing their jobs, if this informal learning is used as a formal process then it is regarded as management development.
In 2004 the spend per annum per manager on management and leadership development was £1,035, an average of 6.3 days per manager.
What management development includes
- structured informal learning: work-based methods aimed at structuring the informal learning which will always take place
- formal training courses of various kinds: from very specific courses on technical aspects of jobs to courses on wider management skills
- executive education: which might range from courses for (perhaps prospective) junior managers or team leaders
The Management Charter Initiative (MCI) originally set out management competencies for management S/NVQ’s, these competencies are now part of the National Qualification Framework (NQF), it is from these competencies that managers can be assessed and development needs determined.
To enhance the skills, knowledge and abilities to improve organizational mechanisms.
Approaches to management development
- Dysfunction analysis
- Job rotation
- Professional development
- Business Workflow Analysis
- Upward feedback
- Executive education
- Supervisory training
Introduction The management process comprises various stages which can be termed as functions of management can be elaborated as planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. All the functions of management are primary in nature albeit there are various numerous functions performed by the managers like forecasting, budgeting, reporting, representation and innovation (Everard, 2008) Management can be defined as “Management consists in guiding human and physical resources into dynamic, hard hitting organisation unit that attains its objectives to the satisfaction of those served and with a high degree of morale and work” Chester I. Bernard
Understand principles and practices: (Managerial Behaviour) The burning angst and furore against the bureaucratic authority mainly stems from the fact, that there has been some sort of exploitation. The plummeting spiral downfall of motivation results due to ‘lack of facility’, ‘pressure of work’ and ‘reduction in available funds.’ From this, it is clearly evident that, the supervisors are the victims of exploitation in the ground of financial parity which doesn’t meet the amount of work load they are putting. Behaviour Management is responsible for positive outcome of the business and to maintain interaction with all the aspects of the business. The foremost priority of managerial behaviour are to create an ambience of mutual understanding among the employee, to protect the laws and rules of the company, to set boundaries for the members to achieve their goal successfully and finally the managerial behaviour is essential to maintain accordance in working area. Leaning Outcomes 1 1.1 Management styles can be defined as “the approach and advances initiated by enterprise management to the supervision and control of the operational productivity, task performance and work behaviour of subordinates” Styles of management vary according to the degree of management which can be comprehended in terms of direct oversight of subordinates and helpful behaviour by managers and supervisors (Sakthvel, 2005) The comparison between two styles of management can be described as:- a) External Environmental factors of management styles This factor comprises technology, the persisting nature of the expectations of external stakeholder, the nature of market, technology, customer services or client requirements and the level of need for output quality and reliability (Sakthvel, 2005) b) Internal factors of management styles This factor comprises the size and scale of organisation, the span of control and hierarchy, capability, capacity and competence of employer and employee categories occupational state and level in the hierarchy and degree to which organisation structure is massive (Sakthvel, 2005) 1.2 Armstrong (1990) leadership in terms of getting things done through people. The leadership aspect in the organisation and management exists due to the availability of more than one person in the task, task for higher goal achievement strategy, and when managerial functions are to be carried smoothly (Tony, 2004) The success of Organisation and every firm depends upon the quality of leadership. The characteristics of leadership can be classified as:- 1. Leadership implies the emergence of followers: - The amount of followers signifies the impact of the leader and the quality of leadership. It is the foremost requirement in management to maintain the proper leadership quality in order to achieve the desired results (Tony, 2004) 2. Leadership applies an unequal distribution of authority among leaders and group members: - Proper leadership enables the smooth functioning of the enterprise. The correct amount of work is distributed by the leader according to the authorities in organisation (Tony, 2004) 3. Leadership involves a community of Interest between the employer and employee: - The main objective and perspective of the leader is to maintain a formal accord between the employer and employee in order for a smooth functioning of the Organisation (Tony, 2004)
1.3 A proper understanding of the information is important feature of communication in business. In other words communication is not merely the transmission of information from one person to another but also correct interpretation and understanding of the Information (Tripathi, 2008) Taking business into consideration two process of Communication can be identified:- 1. Formal Communication: - Basically the organisation comprises majorly of the Formal communication which runs through a channel of work related matters. All decisions, instructions, orders are communicated to the subordinates through this channel. There are four areas in business where formal communication exists which are upward channel of management, downward channel of management and channel between department and organisations (Tripathi, 2008) 2. Informal Organisation: - Informal Communication is not generally used in the business. Only two areas comprises Informal communication in business which are –work related areas and people related areas. One of the functions of Informal communication in organisation is known as the “grapevine” (Tripathi, 2008)
Herzberg and aspects of Supervisor’s performance (Task 1) Herzberg’s dual theory of motivation can be found in best forms here. Growth, promotion, and work itself are the main motivating factor that drives a worker. In this case, the growth is shunned. The work pressure is high and recognition is low. Hygiene factors which are cyclical in nature, leads to a syndrome- ‘’ what have you done for me’’ recently. Here, the grievances are on the same line though. They are unrest about the lack of facility. Pay benefit is a hygiene factor, which keeps a worker happy, here it is disrupted. The problem of mistrust between the staff and senior management is a major concern though. In Herzberg’s hygiene theory, relation with the co-worker is an important aspect in keeping high motivation. Here, there is mistrust amongst the co-workers. The cause however is known. Hygiene factors operate independently. Here, the co-workers are dissatisfied with the work environment. Learning Outcomes 2 This dissatisfaction is manifold as discussed earlier. However, a key point is, the staffs regarded the supervisors as a level of management poor at managing their sections. They have failed to maintain a certain level of performance standard and ignore work practices. Again, this can be referred back to Herzberg’s theory of motivation. Company policy and administration is very important in keeping workers happy. Here, the blame has been put on the supervisors regarding their work ethics, performance standard. Such incendiary statements caused dissent and revulsion. The supervisors countered each and every allegation with crassly attitude. They feel, the position in the company (recognition) was unsure in the beginning. Even the administration was held loose, with no clear line of authority, command and responsibility. This has hampered in taking strong decisions. The people are made unhappy by unhealthy environment. The supervisors argued, they were left unrecognised (not bothering about recognitions), funding shortages (growth), unrealistic targets (poor administration and company policy), no job descriptions and lack of facility (achievement and promotion). A key hygiene factor as mentioned by Herzberg was Job security. The supervisors claimed that there is no job security in the work place. Financial cutbacks and changes in service lead to the rumours of substantial cutbacks in staffs. The problem of supervision is also noticeable. The younger trainers are trained hard, to replace the supervisors. They are given technological benefits. This clearly edifies why there is a cut-price and low salary for the supervisors. Moreover, as Herzberg said personal growth is necessary for high motivation, is lacking here. Coupled with the fact, there is a poor working condition prevailing in the company. The problem faced by the supervisors and their grievances against the authority clearly goes line in line with Herzberg’s theory of motivation.
Potential Prospective Manager review (Task 2) The Manager here must need to address few problems. He should not this fact, that there is a certain level of exploitation going on. Whether, the staffs are right or the supervisors are in their protests- there are few ways to check and handle it. In this situation, the important aspect is finance. The manager should look in to the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage? This clearly states us, that regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level problem; it is a problem of administration and the company policy. While trying to address it, he must look, at the cause of reduction of wage. The manager will find, that pay benefit has been hampered due to the reason, that younger trainers are getting to do the jobs of the supervisors and as a result there is a massive pay-cut, even few are shown exit doors. There is unrest about the job. This must be addressed. Secondly, while addressing this issue, subsequently the manager should look into another important aspect, that why the younger trainers are trained so hard so that they can do a supervisor job? That means, there are some administrative flaws. This is a micro-problem. Simply because, the supervisors demanded, there is a lack of facility, they were neglected and there is no growth. However, on the contrary, younger trainers are getting good trainings with good software. This must be a concern. That means, the staffs doesn’t want extra people in the company or they want to reduce the wage of the supervisors. The problem here, is, in doing so, they have neglected the supervisors. Had they been trained properly, given proper injunction, they would have also performed. These are the factors which might influence the manager’s decision. Apart from man-management, poor conditions of the working place should also be taken into account. The fragile infrastructure and the beurocratic organisation are equally responsible for the present problem that needs addressing.
Learning Outcome 3 Analysis of managerial skills within a business and services Managerial post comes with the great level of responsibilities first of all it is essential to know all the aspects of business in which it persists. There are many functions and operations to be performed with the high responsibilities of the managers as panning, controlling, organising, staffing and directing. After the performance of the compulsory functions of the management it is foremost task of the manager to maintain proper communication with all the channels of business states in order for a smooth functioning of the business According to the scenario of the business and keeping Herzberg theory of motivation in mind it is important to keep in the business policies and advantages of the employers. In this situation, the important aspect is finance. The manager should look in to the matter that Why there is a reduction in wage? This clearly states us, that regarding distribution of wage is not a ground level problem; it is a problem of administration and the company policy. Therefore manager should work for the welfare of the masses and the organisation rather thinking and working for the individual. Managerial and personal skills play a vital role in the career development, it astute the manager and makes him aware about the business policies and the environment of the organisation. Various qualities develop within the manager due course of the management like leadership, communication, motivational and aim oriented all the above qualities are very helpful in enlarging individuals career opportunities and built a strong curriculum vitae for career development Career and personal development needs can be supported by the characteristics of a good manager. All the nature and essential feature of a good manager are the requirement in the future to develop and enhance the productivity for a firm in all forms.
References Everard. (2008). Business principles and management. England: Cengage. Sakthvel, M. (2005). Management principle and practices. new delhi: International pvt. ltd. Tony, M. (2004). Principles of management, 3rd edition. England: Ashgate publisher. Tripathi, P. R. (2008). principles of management. New Delhi: Mc grew hill publishers.
Many management qualifications now have an action learning element. Action Learning recognises that individuals learn best from experience, so that process is structured. Action Learning sets allow individuals to try out different approaches to solving issues and problems.
Main article: business coaching see also :Main article: executive coaching
- An effective learning tool
- Impact on bottom line/productivity
- Intangible benefits
- Aids improvement of individual performance
- Tackles underperformance
- Aids identification of personal learning needs
One of the biggest growth areas in UK education since the early 1980s has been the growth of university level management education. As well as weekly part time attendance at College/University many students are also undertaking distance learning. Whereas there were only two business schools in the early 1970s, there are now over a hundred providers offering undergraduate, postgraduate and professional courses.
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