Military of Mongolia

Military of Mongolia
Mongolian Armed Force
Монгол Улсын Зэвсэгт Хүчин
Mongol Ulsiin Zevsegt Hüchin'
Flag of Mongolia.svg
Flag of Mongolia
Service branches General Purpose Force
Border Defense Force
Internal Security Force
Air Force
Commander in Chief Elbegdorj Tsakhia
Minister for Defense Luvsanvandan Bold
Chief of General Staff Byambajav
Military age 18
Conscription yes
Available for
military service
736,182 males, age 15–49 (2005 est.),
734,679 females, age 15–49 (2005 est.)
Fit for
military service
570,435 males, age 15–49 (2005 est.),
607,918 females, age 15–49 (2005 est.)
Reaching military
age annually
34,674 males (2005 est.),
34,251 females (2005 est.)
Active personnel by branches : general purpose force-70000,

border defense force-6500, internal security and police force-15000

Budget $23.1 million (FY02)
Percent of GDP 2.2%
Foreign suppliers  Russia
Related articles
History Ancient Mongolian military history
Early mediaeval Mongolian military history
Mongol Empire Army
Military history of the post Mongol Empire
BogdKhanat-Mongolian Army
Mongolian People's Army

The military of Mongolia has four branches: general purpose forces, border defense forces, internal security forces, and air force. This is a peace-time structure. In case of war or war-like situations, the structure could be changed and reorganized.



Main article Ancient Mongolian military history 209 BC - 5th century AD

Main article Early mediaeval Mongolian military history 5th century AD- 12th century

Main article Military history of the Mongol Empire 13-14th century

Main article Military history of the post Mongol Empire 15-17th century

Main article BogdKhanat-Mongolian Army 1911-1919

Main article Mongolian People's Army 1921-1993


Due to its geopolitical positions and economical powers, Mongolia has a unique military policy. Being between two of the world's largest nations, Mongolian armed forces have a limited capability to protect its independence against foreign invasions; the country's national security therefore depends strongly on diplomacy. The country's military ideal is to create and maintain a small but efficient and professional armed forces.

Mongolian armed forces in peacekeeping missions

A Mongolian soldier explains to a group of US Marines how to fire a Soviet-made-RPG during a threat weapons class.

Mongolian armed forces are performing peacekeeping missions in Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Congo, Eritrea, Western Sahara and Afghanistan, and with the United Nations Mission in Liberia. Mongolian forces in Afghanistan mostly assist NATO/International Security Assistance Force personnel in training on the former Warsaw Pact weapons that comprise the bulk of the military equipment available to the Afghan National Army. In 2005/2006, Mongolian troops also served as part of the Belgian KFOR contingent in Kosovo. From 2009 Mongolian Armed Forces deploying its largest peace keeping mission to Chad and the government is planning to deploy its first fully self-sufficient UN mission there in mid 2011.


Mongolian soldiers need to be physically able to withstand harsh environment, so they train in the Gobi Desert to toughen their bodies. Due to Soviet influence, Russian Sambo is the preferred form of training hand-to-hand combat, still the traditional wrestling form of Bökh, or Mongolian wrestling gives the military training a taste of how the soldiers trained in times of the Mongol Empire.

The Ground Forces possess over 650 tanks, 100 mobile artillery pieces, 800 Infantry Fighting Vehicles and armored personnel carriers, 450 mobile anti-aircraft weapons, more than 1,000 artillery and mortar and other military equipment. Most of them are old Soviet Union models designed between the late 1950s to early 1970s. There are a smaller number of newer models designed in post-Soviet Russia.

Light equipment

Anti-Tank weapon

Air Defence equipment

Mongolian soldier, with a SA-18 MANPADS at an enemy aircraft on the Pacific Alaskan Range Complex on July 16th during Red Flag-Alaska 07-3.

Towed artillery

Anti-tank gun


  • Soviet Union 82-mm mortar BM-37 – Unkhown

Multi Rocket Launchers


  • Soviet Union T-54 – 200
  • Soviet Union T-55 – 150
  • Soviet Union T-62 – 250
  • Soviet Union T-72 – 30

Infantry Fighting Vehicles/Armored Personnel Carriers

  • Soviet Union BMP-1 – 310 in 2003, 400 in 1996, originally 420 were delivered.
  • Soviet Union BTR-60 – 350
  • Soviet Union BTR-80 – 20
  • Soviet Union BRDM-1 – Unknown number
  • Soviet Union BRDM-2 – Unknown number

Air Force

In May 1925 a Junkers F.13 entered service as the first aircraft in Mongolian civil and military aviation. By 1935 Soviet aircraft were based in the country. In May 1937 the air force was renamed the Mongolian People's Republic Air Corps. During 1939-1945 the Soviets delivered Polikarpov I-15s, Polikarpov I-16s, Yak-9s and Ilyushin Il-2s. By 1966 the first SA-2 SAM units entered service, and the air force was renamed the Air Force of the Mongolian People's Republic. The MiG-15UTI and MiG-17 the first combat jet aircraft in the Mongolian inventory, entered service in 1970 and by the mid-1970s was joined by MiG-21s, Mi-8s and Ka-26s. After the end of the Cold War the air force was grounded due to a lack of fuel and spares. However, it has been reported that the government is trying to revive the air force since 2001. In 2011, the Mongolian defense ministry bought 5 MiG-29s from Russia[1].

Mongolian Air Force current aircraft

The small Mongolian Air Force is the national air force, administered by the Army.

Information from

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes
Antonov An-26 Curl  Soviet Union light transport aircraft An-26 4 /retired/ none in use
Antonov An-24 Coke  Soviet Union transport aircraft An-24 3 /retired/ none in use
Antonov An-2 Colt  Soviet Union biplane transport An-2 10
Harbin Y-12  People's Republic of China turboprop utility aircraft Y-12 5-3 /retired/ none in use
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed  Soviet Union fighter MiG-21PFM 8 /retired/ none in use
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed  Soviet Union fighter MiG-21US 2 /retired/ none in use
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum  Russia fighter MiG-29UPG 10 ordered
Mil Mi-24 Hind  Soviet Union attack helicopter Mi-24V 12 Anti-tank
Mil Mi-8 Hip  Soviet Union attack helicopter Mi-8T 20 Anti-tank
Mil Mi-8 Hip  Soviet Union transport helicopter Mi-8T 11 Transport only
Mil Mi-17 Hip  Russia transport helicopter Mi-17 2 Transport only


  • World aircraft information files Bright Star Publishing London File 332 Sheet 3

External links

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