Jingoism


Jingoism

Jingoism is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy". [Catherine Soanes (ed.), "Compact Oxford English Dictionary for University and College Students" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 546.] In practice, it refers to the advocation of the use of threats of or actual force against other countries in order to safeguard what they perceive as their country's national interests, and colloquially to excessive bias in judging one's own country as superior to others.

During the 19th century in the United States, journalists called this attitude "spread-eagleism". This nationalistic belligerence was intensified by the sinking of the cruiser USS "Maine" in Havana harbour that led to the Spanish-American War of 1898. "Jingoism" did not enter the U.S. vernacular until near the turn of the 20th century.

Etymology

The chorus of a [http://www.cyberussr.com/hcunn/q-jingo.html song] by G. H. MacDermott (singer) and G. W. Hunt (songwriter) commonly sung in pubs and music halls around the time of the Russo-Turkish War gave birth to the term. The lyrics had the chorus:

quote|We don't want to fight but by Jingo if we do
We've got the ships, we've got the men, we've got the money too
We've fought the Bear before, and while we're Britons true
The Russians shall not have Constantinople.

The term "jingoism" was coined by the prominent radical George Holyoake in a letter to the "Daily News" on 13 March, 1878. [Martin Ceadel, "Semi-detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854-1945" (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 105.] See "By Jingo" article for further details.

"Jingoism" is broadly used by pacifists, generally referring to the United States of America and its perceived aggressions against other nations.Fact|date=August 2008

Usage

*Theodore Roosevelt was frequently accused of jingoism. In an October 8, 1895 "New York Times" interview, he responded, "There is much talk about 'jingoism'. If by 'jingoism' they mean a policy in pursuance of which Americans will with resolution and common sense insist upon our rights being respected by foreign powers, then we are 'jingoes'."

*In the 28 March 1938 issue of "Punch" appeared a E. H. Shepard cartoon entitled THE OLD-FASHIONED CUSTOMER. Set in a record shop, John Bull asks the record seller (Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain): "I wonder if you've got a song I remember about not wanting to fight, but if we do . . . something, something, something . . . we've got the money too?". On the wall is a portrait of former Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. [This cartoon is reprinted in John Charmley, "Chamberlain and the Lost Peace" (Ivan R. Dee, 1989), p. 61.]

*In a review for the latest film in the Rambo series, author David Morrell described the character of Rambo in and Rambo III as being a "jingoistic character".

*The band Thrice includes a lyric in the song "The Sky is Falling" which states, "I want to be strong enough to not let fear decide my fate, surrounded by Jingoists, I don't want any part of this".

ee also

*Chauvinism
*Nationalism
*Racism
*Neoconservatism
*Dependency theory
*"Jingo", a novel by Terry Pratchett
*Patriotism
*The Great Game
*Un-American
*Un-Australian
*War song

References

External links

* [http://www.cyberussr.com/hcunn/q-jingo.html MacDermott song lyrics]
* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/1914.htm The song, Stanley Kirkby - We Didn't Want To Fight]


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  • jingoism — jin go*ism, n. 1. The policy of the Jingoes, so called. See {Jingo}, 2. [Cant, Eng.] [1913 Webster] 2. Hence: A bellicose patriotism; aggressive chauvinism; belligerence in international relations. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • jingoism — index intolerance Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • jingoism — (n.) 1878, from JINGO (Cf. jingo) + ISM (Cf. ism). Related: Jingoist; jingoistic …   Etymology dictionary

  • jingoism — ► NOUN chiefly derogatory ▪ extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive foreign policy. DERIVATIVES jingoist noun jingoistic adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • Jingoism —    Clamorous and pugnacious patriotism commonly used to describe popular bellicosity leading up to or during foreign wars. “Jingo” is a corruption of the name of Jing¯u K ōg ō, a legendary Japanese goddess credited with subduing the kingdoms of… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • jingoism — jin|go|is|m [ˈdʒıŋgəuızəm US gou ] n [U] [Date: 1800 1900; Origin: jingo (17 21 centuries) (probably from Jesus), used in the phrase by jingo as an exclamation in a 19th century British song encouraging people to fight for their country] a strong …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • jingoism — [[t]ʤɪ̱ŋgoʊɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT (disapproval) Jingoism is a strong and unreasonable belief in the superiority of your own country …   English dictionary

  • jingoism — noun (U) a strong belief that your own country is better than others: a mood of warlike jingoism jingoistic adjective …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • jingoism — noun a newspaper known for its jingoism Syn: extreme patriotism, chauvinism, extreme nationalism, xenophobia, flag waving; hawkishness, militarism, belligerence, bellicosity See note at chauvinism …   Thesaurus of popular words

  • jingoism — noun Date: 1878 extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked especially by a belligerent foreign policy • jingoist noun or adjective • jingoistic adjective • jingoistically adverb …   New Collegiate Dictionary