- Metal–air electrochemical cell
- Iron–air electrochemical cell
- Zinc–air electrochemical cell
- Sodium–air electrochemical cell
- Magnesium–air electrochemical cell
- Titanium–air electrochemical cell
- Aluminium–air electrochemical cell
- Lithium–air electrochemical cell
- Berylium–air electrochemical cell
Properties of metal–air batteries
Of the various metal–air battery chemical couples (Table 1), the Li–air battery is the most attractive since the cell discharge reaction between Li and oxygen to yield Li2O, according to 4Li + O2 → 2Li2O, has an open-circuit voltage of 2.91 V and a theoretical specific energy of 5210 Wh/kg. In practice, oxygen is not stored in the battery, and the theoretical specific energy excluding oxygen is 11140 Wh/kg (40.1 MJ/kg). Compare this to the figure of 44 MJ/kg for gasoline (see petrol energy content).
Metal–air battery Calculated open-circuit voltage, V Theoretical specific energy, Wh/kg
Theoretical specific energy, Wh/kg
Li–O2 2.91 5210 11140 Na–O2 1.94 1677 2260 Ca–O2 3.12 2990 4180 Mg–O2 2.93 2789 6462 Zn–O2 1.65 1090 1350
- The possibility of having a large energy density is only design limited.
- Some metal air electrochemical cells as lithium have a very high energy density.
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