Jerusalem during the Ottoman period


Jerusalem during the Ottoman period

The rule of the Ottoman Empire over the region of Jerusalem lasted 400 years - from 1517 until its conquest by Britain in 1917.

Since the end of the Crusader rule over the holy city, Jerusalem had almost stagnated, and become a civilian city. Although the Mamelukes built houses, Midrashim, buildings on the Temple Mount and the Ahachtanym market, Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent built the walls of Jerusalem known today, and renovated the castle and the Tower of David. But with the long decline of the Ottoman Empire, the situation also deteriorated in Jerusalem, and large parts of the old city became deserted. The city could not function as a commercial or political center of an extensive area, when it had an exclusively religious importance. The Pasha power introduced a regime of local exploitation and security, and provided adequate urban services to residents of the city. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Jewish community began to grow stronger. Following the Egyptian occupation in 1831 the European colonial powers began to take an interest in the city, established consulates, and battled over the potential broad degree of influence in the area. In the second half of the 19th century, the erection of buildings began to occur outside the city walls (by then it was not possible to live outside the walls due to insecurity, population growth and increased density). This period also gave rise to various institutions and infrastructure, such as hospitals, roads and finally a train in 1892.

During this period the city's population ranged from about 5,000 at the beginning to about 60,000 people at the conclusion. By this time, the composition of the population has changed: at the start of the period the Muslims were the largest group, while at the end, the Jews took up the population of most of the city.

Contents

The status of Jerusalem

Ottomans assumed the religious Jerusalem - a Muslim religious places continued to serve as centers of pilgrimage for Muslims on their way to Haj or back away. In this framework, many buildings were renovated in the city were given scholarships to ulama (religious scholars). You can also protect pedestrians in the city. But Jerusalem had been left behind in many respects, due to a general neglect by the Turkish government.

Jerusalem was the city's district-only environment. The remoteness of the city (by sea from Cairo to Damascus and from Gaza to the Persian Gulf), reduced the interest in the various occupiers.

During this period, the land of Israel was divided between two Plchim (parishes) - the Parish of Sidon (פלך צידון) which ruled in the north and the coastal plain, and the Parish of Damascus (פלך דמשק) which ruled in the Transjordan bank and in the mountains between Nablus and Hebron. In theory, Jerusalem was a city district of Damascus but actually the Parish of Sidon, which was stronger, both in the government and in Damascus, controlled and influenced also the central region of the country as well as the south.

The Governor of Jerusalem was called a "Mutslm." He would release the tax and customs for the central government. The role also included the task of maintaining peace and security in the city. Over the years, the Mutslm built the Saraya building in "Via Dolorosa" in the Muslim Quarter (now the Great El Omri School), which possessed the Temple Mount and the Old City as a whole. Most of the income of non-Muslim testimony were required to pay surplus taxes in addition to general taxes. In the 19th century, the Saraya was superseded by the Palace Lady Tonsok as the center of the Muslim Quarter, where also lay the Jerusalem municipality .

As the Mutslm were replaced at least every year, they took the reigns in order to maximize the tax burden on the population, and have invest great effort into handling the various needs. The governor has used whole armies units "to bring peace", even if they did not need to, all for the glorification of God. The Jerusalem governor "Sultan" paid rent and received the money back through taxes. Each pilgrim paid the governor for entry to the holy places. Jews and Christians paid their taxes through their religious institutions, usually at the actual income level. Many unofficial taxes were later added, putting a financial burden on the population.

Due to the prevailing poverty despite the sanctity of the city, it was soon liberated from some of the taxes imposed on all subjects of the empire, such as the single tax and property tax. The Lower export tax was replaced by a tax paid through entry gates. These assumptions and subsequent detracting of tazes only occurred within the walls of Jerusalem. This is a factor delaying the development in the area.

With its small size, taxes and lack of the economic opportunities, Jerusalem did not enjoy a positive migration from the villages around. However, some Muslim monks fled from Jerusalem out, because unlike the city, in neighbouring villages the government was not so powerful.

Jurisdiction

Most of jurisdiction in Sanjak of Jerusalem was done by the Ottoman Qadi (Mullah), who was appointed annually by the sultan. The Qadi were appointed from each city for a fee depending on the value of the area. The Kadi were getting a share of income from businesses, inheritances, approval certificates etc.. All the officials tried to outwit the law and added taxes on taxes.

Kadi, in addition to being a judge, they are considered to be a clerk, second to none. In the absence of spreading, a Kadi fills his place.

Court as the "smart home" at the Western Wall plaza and discusses issues both Muslim and Muslim. In the Late Ottoman period, a civil court was established in Saraya, also were also discussed consular courts of foreign nationals. The judge used by the Qur'an and precedents only.

Kadi replaced each year, and the role of the Tribunal Secretary had inherited. Could be appealed to the mufti, who is considered a second authority after the kadi, and can also undermine the Council of Ulema in Constantinople, but due to the high costs it was a rare event. Jewish rabbinical court was headed by Bashi smart, well respected by the Ottoman government. Christians were courts of arbitration consisting of elders of the community. The death penalty did not exist, but was told the Jerusalem prison stay was worse than death. In order to save court costs, even Muslims sometimes prefer to be judged consular courts.

Waqf

Much of the area devoted Waqf in Jerusalem built also included monasteries, mosques and public institutions. Waqf Temple Mount was the largest endowment institutions were most of the possession of the Jewish Quarter. Another big Waqf was "to Atachia" (former Helena Hospital). Also great for a Christian order was executed. A person's private space who died and left no male heir, the Waqf authority over the community. Although the role of Waqf would ensure the maintenance of houses, this maintenance mode failed in Jerusalem was bad, because shortage cheap houses and land available to rent Waqf allowed the building also in poor condition. It seems that the Muslim quarter residents did not used the legal right to force the Jewish Quarter corrections Waqf was a deliberate omission designed to make it harder for the Jews their lives in the city. with This Waqf invested a lot in public buildings and prayer in the city.

Army

Estimates are that between 500 to 1,600 soldiers were stationed permanently in the city at different times. Replaced after the Egyptian occupation force Hionic 'Rim army was subordinate directly to Istanbul. The soldiers gathered at Fort David, barracks outside the Jaffa Gate Saraya. They were disciplined but not combat fit. Degree was the equivalent of army commander Pasha importance degree. The soldiers formed the bulk population of the Ottoman Muslim community in the city.

The ratio of minority government

Christians and Jews paid a special poll tax - discounts and signal status. They were not allowed to carry arms, were forced to wear different colored clothes were forbidden to build and renovate places of worship. Testimony of minorities was not admissible in court. If needed court services, had to pay court costs double. Egyptian occupation, during 1831-1840, brought little relief to Jews and Christians, was more orderly government, rights and allowed more free worship building. Arrangement did not allow escape from the burden of taxes and who was hampered citizens broke Syria revolts in Israel (Jerusalem in 1834). With the European powers in which the Ottomans to rule the country.

The British insisted that the riots and looting will not Jews and Christians, who were considered American Friends of the Egyptian government.

Reforms after the Egyptian occupation

After 1840 were led a number of changes. Hionic Corps' was replaced by regular army Rim subordinate to the central government. Tax collection system has direct collection by the central government. This period is known as the "Nezimat" (reforms), the Ottoman regime, designed to streamline the regime and want the powers that helped repel the Egyptians. Enacted regulations regarding non-Muslim subjects equality and granting special status consuls. Districts of Jerusalem, Nablus and Gaza were combined under one administrative unit Parish Sidon. Mullah was elected three years instead of year it increased power of the governor, which would be difficult for the governor to use his position for the worse. Humiliating poll tax was replaced by tax stub (no military service). Jerusalem was appointed council (Majlis) consists of 14 members and included, in addition to the kadi, Sheriff and representatives of the Jewish Representative also Muslim, Latin, Armenian and Greek. Majlis was the Administrative Council of each province fully met twice a week. Despite good intentions, after years of oppression, Majlis had no real influence, the slave ruled by intimidation on all decisions. Because he was a Muslim majority on the council, representatives of minorities served as a fig leaf of public acts of oppression and flatulence.

Council tax set to improve across the city along with concern for maintenance, drainage free physician residents, construction of public buildings and planning including the areas of the city. This city, which is not typical of the government, is a clear influence of Western thinking. Established civil courts limited the power of the Majlis and the government, though they stopped in a similar vein to that of traditional courts.

Towards the end of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem became the capital of the district's administrative center large Mutcraf, which included almost all Central and South Land of Israel.

In case of death of the owner of land, inheritance was divided into small pieces among the heirs. Outside investors who wanted to buy land in the city generally met with resistance of at least one of the heirs. Hence the great impact of the reform of the Ottoman expressed mainly outside the walls.

Array city: built-up area

In the first half of the 19th century city area inside the walls was 850 acres. The city was divided into four quarters: Muslim, Christian, Armenian and Jewish. Mughrabi neighborhood, sometimes defined as a square. Quarters were not homogeneous and differed in size, and population-level. Big quarters was an internal division by cults and topography.

Walled city and has grown through the gates. The city had four major goals to the four winds, built with the twist of a right angle to prevent hacking of the carriages and horses. Was more active gate Jaffa Gate, next to him as the Customs House. In addition there were five more goals walls were closed for pedestrians. The main gates were opened in the morning and close at nightfall for fear of the Bedouins. They were also closed during Friday prayers.

Structure streets

Many areas inside the walls in the north - east and north - west were not built and sparsely populated. Street system is kept longer Roman and included two main streets perpendicular to each other. Cardo Vahedkomanuas (cross river), crossing the city gate to another.

Other streets were narrow and winding, dirty and full of debris. Some cul de sac and some under the dark vaults. Center of the narrow surface streets was a lower level to drain sewage. There are a lot of evidence on the dirt alleys and even animal carcasses. "Cleaning" carcasses is done through the city at night hyenas released.

Public buildings

Existing public buildings mostly rebuilt in the 19th century. First in importance is the Temple Mount with the Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa. Second most important is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the third is the Armenian monastery and the church.

Public extensions hardly existed, most important of these is the Temple Mount. There was no lighting in the city by the end of Ottoman rule. Movement at night was made by Candle lanterns.

During the 19th century began renovations in the city. The streets and markets were expanded. Public latrines were built, starting with partial pavement and streets were closed and large animals crossing street lighting project. Slaughterhouses and tanning were out of town. Watch the fronts of houses were set up new structures were built. The largest renovation was the Jaffa Gate. The change was due to migration of a population of Ashkenazi Jews, which increased the population of the city and eventually led to the port walls.

The main government buildings in the old city in the Ottoman period were:

  • Saraya - the municipal government, located from the 19th century, building an impressive Mamluk Saraya in "debt" of today.
  • Tower of David - Jerusalem's military fort.
  • Ahakislo - military barracks built near Fort Tower of David, later also served as a jail.
  • Majlis - The Supreme Muslim Council in Jerusalem, the Muslim Waqf offices, located on the street Alaa A. - Dean, near the gate of the Temple Mount overseer.
  • Machkema - Sharia High Court, near the gate chain.
  • Habas - A - blood - a prison for murderers, which was located near the building Majlis gate attendant.

Houses

The houses themselves were built density. Roofs were domes on - the number of rooms. The reason for building the domes is a shortage of building timbers flat roof drainage water in winter. You could walk between the roofs, equipped with safety Abmaaki compound that separated the compound. This creates additional living level street level.

Floors of houses were usually built above street level. Wall facing the street had no windows on the ground floor. The houses were built of stone at a height of more than one story. Muslims let houses be destroyed if they could not hire Jews or Christians.

The houses were built around an inner courtyard cistern centered neighborhood. Edge of the courtyard were the steps of the upper floors. With the increasing congestion in the city began to build additional rooms in the courtyards. Service area also took part of the yard waste. Most were living in the yard - cooking, washing, social needs etc..

City expansion

Until the mid 19th century Jerusalem lay enclosed area between the old city walls only. Stay outside the walls, especially at night, was considered extremely dangerous due to gangs of bandits who overthrew Ahittan the region. Late Ottoman period the city was crowded within the walls intolerable proportions, which affected the living conditions, sanitation and economy of the city.

Various factors, including foreign powers took into their own establishments and churches planned in Jerusalem, began mid-19th century to find interest in purchasing land in the territories surrounding the city - mainly west and north. Among those was Jewish philanthropist - Moses Montefiore Englishman to visit the town's housing shortage plagued the Jews of Jerusalem and the Old City walls, the absence of adequate health and social services, lack of economic means to allow the Jews free themselves from dependence on handouts to survive.

A "neighboring complacent", the first neighborhood built outside the city walls - old, preceded by a number of private enterprises were established in the fifties of the 19th century. Among others were established at the time the summer home of Consul James Finn Talbieh and operated vineyard Abraham, daughter of Johann Ludwig Schneller School Lifta Protestant bishop Samuel Gobat established on Mount Zion. In 1860, almost simultaneously with the Mount Tabor began setting up the Russian Compound the Schneller orphanage. After Mount Tabor built outside the walls a thing of the seven neighborhoods, Mea Shearim, the camp of Israel, Jewish and other camp.

City economy

The city's economy rested on the industrial, commercial (mainly provincial interior and tourists) and financial contributions.

Was the most important industry of soap and oils in several factories. Second in importance is weaving, inherited profession. Stranger entered and left the industry, was hired anywhere else without the previous job. Employees were the owners of Mzvaut other weaving tools and organized just about trade. Head of their union and received a degree Sheikh legal authority. In this sector were mainly Jews shoemaking. Their customers were mostly segments Bedouin who came to town on market days. Another workshop was tanning tannery and employed it in the Moslems. The water shortage was due to difficulty to remove the debris and blood, and factories have created severe health hazard.

Christians engaged in manufacturing and selling souvenirs for pilgrims. In addition there were many small craftsmen and trade sellers.

Special Branch was making pottery and ceramics factory that operated only in the summer because there was money in the winter drying facilities. The construction industry was asleep and began to develop only with the development of the city in the 19th century.

Mountain city location is inconvenient for economic activity because no central way did not pass it. Trade with Egypt was conducted of soap memorabilia for wool. Christians, who enjoyed high financial support from abroad, were the most prominent merchants. City traded food and basic goods to the villages around it. In general the percentage of employees of the city population was low. In everyday life streets were deserted except for women fill jugs of water, slices and animals. Holidays ethnic celebrated only in the quarter. from April to May and pilgrims would arrive increase the volume of economic activity. The real task was to churches, mosques and soup kitchens during this period. People avoided going out after dark for fear of stray animals pits. at the holy places turned night abandoning punished the spacecraft holy places. Many beggars gathered at the gates of cities.

Trading markets

Imports from abroad came from the ports of Marseille and Trieste port of Jaffa. The first wool, silk, metal tools and spirits. Other glass, wood and furniture. Shuki city and suffered poor hygiene caused the outbreak of diseases in the city.

Felt a lack in many products, like milk, throughout the year. Butter was only in winter. However meat was missing and therefore meat consumption was high. In the early 50s of the 19th century, some 50 cafes and bakeries. Most shopkeepers and workshop were Christians or Jews and Muslims worked mostly as daily wage laborers. The markets were conservative in terms of location and remain in place even from the Roman period, because of the relationship between the location to the location of the Holy Places. Shops and markets were organized by occupation and religion, the order is not always saved. In the past the market was divided into three lines: spices, vegetables, fabrics.

Downtown markets were three parallel north south were covered. Market goldsmiths, butchers market spice market were narrow. There were other markets such as the cattle market outside the walls on Friday.

Banking

Late 19th century the city had two banks: Bank Bank of life Valero Co., Bank of Speteller represent the Templar Bank. In addition these institutions also operated a small Hanutm Greengert street burger "trek" (Greek Patriarchate Road), which served as a bank. Bank split in 1872 the first commercial bank Templar Bank Pervtigar Uainsberge, led by Johannes Pervtigar, who represented the Ottoman Bank, the Turkish Central Bank, in Jerusalem. It was the first modern bank in Jerusalem [1].

The division was a significant factor in the economy of the city. Recipients were divided into two types: Recipients of "small partition", received money in kind, and recipients of "great division" are bills that were outstanding after six months or longer against them from the banks, less certain. Each has been "a course" - a different discount rate.

There were also bills are marketable amounts of divorced, divorced and a half or more. Print banknotes was Governor Ben - Zion Lian and supervisors from power on "Customs meat" - the HG blah. " Since he was a shortage of small copper coins, were careful to give the surplus paper bills and metal coins. The Hebrew inscription was bills and the funds were also printed in Arabic. Bills were different colors so that non - Jews will notice a nominal sum.

Meanwhile, other bills rose issuers, quarreled and tried to hurt each other, that the authorities banned the issuance of paper bills. It also banned the use of the German currency of the Templars.

Inter-city transportation

Towards the end of the 19th century there have been significant developments in transport to the city. In 1869, during Mayor Yusuf al - Khalidi, completed the first road paving of the carriage and attached cells between Jaffa and Jerusalem and began service Dyliz, rapists, carts of about 10 passengers. In 1892 the railway line was inaugurated between Jaffa and Jerusalem, built by a group of French investors led by entrepreneur Joseph Navon Jerusalem. It was a track of about 87 miles and she was placed along the Nahal Sorek (similar route in 2010). Length of the train journey took between four and six hours. This was the first train and progress in the Middle East railway Hejaz.

Eliezer Ben Yehuda saw the railway construction in particular enlightenment victory symbol of the Jewish Enlightenment dominated the traditional communities in Jerusalem and fought efforts then Hebrew revival Hebrew national renewal and against innovation in general. He renewed the word 'train' to describe the new wonder came to town.

Printing press

The first printing house of the Armenians in Jerusalem was established by the printing house in Jerusalem early thirties of the nineteenth century. In 1841, Israel set up at, which was previously established pattern of Safed, a Hebrew printing house, which was the first Hebrew printing press in the history of Jerusalem. In 1843 he received Israel at Moses Montefiore, with whom he was in contact during the period of Safed, a new printing machine.

That prints a single Jew in Jerusalem in the middle of the nineteenth century held a monopoly on Israel at the Hebrew Printing in the city. In the early 60th century the situation changed with the establishment of a rival printing house by Yoel Moshe Salomon, Michael Cohen Yechiel Brill. The three also have published in their print newspaper called "Lebanon."

At follow different ways to restrict the actions of new competitors; among other things, he said their actions have religious injury possession of Hebrew Printing in the city of Jerusalem. With or without contact competition that in turn, in 1863 began to publish in "with Israel Dov Frumkin-law a newspaper called "Rose." By informing his newspaper was closed (as well as newspaper "Lebanon") by order of Ottoman rule, but reappeared several years later lasted for more than forty Q

Sanitation and health

The City's sanitary conditions were difficult for several reasons:

  • Lack of conditions for channeling wastewater.
  • You Refuse disposal beyond the city.
  • Poor housing conditions.
  • Lack of water.

Major drainage lines clogged, large toilets were contaminated waste overflowed. Some of the trash thrown outside the walls became a huge slope of trees and greenery. Previously used waste transfer weight to the police every day with a fine default. After eliminating this practice would waste evacuated by dogs. When they bred would kill them.

Combining the worst sanitary conditions with inadequate nutrition crowded living brought frequent outbreaks and epidemics diseases, especially malaria, dysentery and cholera. When an outbreak epidemics were closing stores, monks were leaving the city and was lying on her closed. Felt lack of drugs in a medical facility. The doctors were usually go casual passersby.

Up to half of the 19th century there were no hospitals in the city. Moses Montefiore visited Jerusalem was shaken several times higher level of morbidity and harsh conditions of hygiene and sanitation, and initiate the establishment of a hospital in Jerusalem. On the other hand the officials organization was Vhamarachalim of Amsterdam, conducted the collection and distribution of funds distribution, and opposed any modernization, as seen in a secular threat to traditional ways of life and economic power to force his views. Only after the hospital opened the English mission of needy Jewish pulling resistance was broken. Contribution of Baron Edmond James de Rothschild and sponsored by the Austrian government in 1854 opened the hospital to open Mayer Rothschild Hospital.

Zion Gate Lepers assigned region, which included about 30 people who were getting married among themselves. Rabbi illness was the catalyst out of the walls when the initial goal was the establishment of a hospital there.

Performance of the various communities

Muslim community

Muslims were generally simple work as laborers day laborers, porters and materials, as well as small shopkeepers and perfumes grocery sellers. There were several types of Muslims in the city: Syrian Arab immigrants Ottoman, Mugerevim, Negroes Ethiopians Hindus. It also mentioned the "Ushim" who lived by begging. Many streams were not within the Muslim community except Mughrabi (North African) Muslims in India.

Christian missionary activity extended worried the Ottoman rule, but he can not act against it directly, so nurtured and encouraged his pilgrimage to the Temple Mount mosque and Ahziara (business) in the city after the hajj.

Government urged all residents of nearby villages to get to the city at the same time the Christian pilgrims who came during the Easter holiday to show a Muslim majority city. Young religious basis decreased with Ottoman rule, he attached less importance to religion Mamluk power, rising back a response to overcoming the Christian activities.

The main language in daily life was Arab. Most Muslims were illiterate and books were rare. Those who learned to read and write did so by using the Qur'an. Turkish language was used only to military officials.

Muslims did not live at the Temple Mount because of its sanctity, but tried to stick to it, which was possible only to the west and north. Muslim strip that was created surrounding the Temple Mount. This strip were functional structures in the mosques, seminaries and structures of government. Muslim Quarter is the largest and is divided into quarters of sub-Mughrabi neighborhood near the Western Wall, heart Quarter Evizita neighborhood northeast corner of the Old City across the valley.

Against the location of the Mughrabi neighborhood and the Jewish Quarter Western Wall strained relations developed between the Jews and the Mughrabi. Mughrabi Jews were forced to pay for the right to pray at the Western Wall.

Description of the neighborhood Evizita paints a picture of misery, destruction and blank spaces with olive groves and fields in the pit walls. The oil industry is concentrated there, soap and skin.

Quarter there were several million Turks populate the pilgrims during the holidays, usually in close proximity to markets. Passive were also public baths.

Over the years there has been an invasion of the Jews, who sought the proximity to the wall, into the Mughrabi neighborhood, and invasion of Christians who sought to close the Via Dolorosa to the heart Muslim Quarter.

Jewish community

The Jewish community was divided into two main streams. Spaniards, who formed the majority in the city for most of the period, and Ashkenazim, who arrived in the 19th century, made most of the storm. Registry Ottoman indicates much lower numbers of Jews estimated. It is possible that most immigrant Jews preferred to be foreign nationals registered in the registry than the Turkish consulates. So may the Jews were the largest population in the 19th century city. Jews were discriminated against, the situation has improved slightly after the removal of the Egyptian occupation upon British protection, and Moses Montefiore patrons contribution to improve the miserable living conditions in the city.

For most of the period were Sephardic Jews organized by officials from Constantinople, who was primarily an economic entity in Istanbul, economically supported the Jews of Jerusalem and represented them in front of the central government. The corresponding body for the Ashkenazim founded only in the 19th century and called the officials Vhamarachalim.

Determined core of the Jewish Quarter in the Spanish Synagogue in the immediate vicinity. Extensions were Muslim Quarter near the wall, but the center of gravity has not changed. Jewish Quarter known today took shape in place of the 15th century, because he was so open space and distant places sacred to Christianity and Islam. Quarter expansion was carried out by rich Jews bought Arab courtyards restored them. These courts Ashkenazi housed and spatial separation was created between the two streams. Low maintenance and filth are the result of poor residents, the neglect of the Muslim landlords Vhuvacfim respects hostile regime. Several things were done by Muslims to humiliate the Jews as leaving a slaughterhouse close to the synagogue.

Some Jews were engaged in crafts and commerce. Trade cloth for example, was almost entirely by Jews. Most funds barely existed "division." Jews had to struggle with the Christian missionary tendencies who tried to speak to the heart of Jews with gifts and providing essential services like medicine.

In the first half of the 19th century perched on the Jewish community in Safed number of blows (earthquakes, epidemics and pogroms part in segments) is very reduced. Part of the community and especially the Pharisees went to Jerusalem and the group stands out there. It also renewed the Ashkenazi community in the city after they were evicted, following the unpaid debts after the death of Rabbi Judah the Pious early 18th century. Jerusalem became the dominant city of the four holy cities of the Old Yishuv.

Eliezer Ben Yehuda and the Revival of the Hebrew language

In 1881 climbed Eliezer Ben Yehuda in Jerusalem. Ben Yehuda believed that to be successful Zionism as a national movement of Jews to adopt the Hebrew language of the speech [2]. Jerusalem was the meeting place of the Jews from different communities and language was Hebrew pronunciation shared widely, even by speaking with the non-Ashkenazi Jews Ashkenazi, was Spanish [3]. Ben Yehuda was trying to spread the idea of Hebrew speech led him to his family. He began to print the Hebrew newspaper "deer" in which he expressed his views. He worked on the Hebrew language dictionary (work not completed). In 1890 he founded the Hebrew Language Committee.

Old Yishuv leaders did not see kindly to the activities of Ben - Yehuda and aroused the ire of the many articles published against their leadership, which attacked the religious Shmrnotam introduced a financial account of life on the distribution of corruption. Record struggle against him was his arrest, following an article published in "deer" was interpreted by opponents as a call to revolt against the Ottoman authorities. Great success of the revival took place outside of Jerusalem, the first increase in colonies.

Christian community

European consulates played a central role in the development of Jerusalem in the 19th century because of capitulations - the right of jurisdiction under the auspices of the foreign state. This unleashed the jurisdiction of foreign nationals Ottoman promised freedom of religion and minorities. The more dependence on the Ottoman powers improved situation of the Christians, and the holy places were under the auspices of the superpowers. Conducted extensive activity of the church maintenance fund raising. Present struggles of the West resumed the hostile relations between the various Christian denominations.

Early 19th century the Christian population was one-third of local residents when it is split into three main witness. Greek Orthodox, Latin and Armenian. Three more were Copts, Ethiopians and Syrians. They were given extensive settlement benefits the city but they did not exploit them. Towards the end of the 19th century the Christian population has increased greatly moved at the barbershop the Muslim population, largely due to the construction of religious institutions.

Christian Quarter was divided into sub-regions where the dominant currents was most important. Other sects were not sub-areas. Christians used to congregate near the Church of the Holy Sepulcher Via Dolorosa, so there is the quarter. Most of the buildings were owned by the Greek Orthodox community. Struggle took place between the communities of the Holy Sepulcher, divided between them.

Relationship between priests and community was weak because the priests knew Greek and Latin and Arabic dominated. Nevertheless, they supported the community, established schools, pharmacies and hospitals. Over time the community has increased the wealth and developed three main areas. Latin community (Franciscans) has specialized in the treatment of pilgrims, the monastery was built in a school, a workshop, a printing and orphans.

Armenians hold monastery was St. James Cathedral, they were the third largest population. Armenian Quarter concept has two meanings. First, concentration in the presence of two Armenian Armenian churches. Second, the area was a self-service system and an inner gate locked at night he hung him from the rest of the city.

See also

  • Wilhelm II's trip to Israel
  • Jews in Jerusalem in the 15th century and 16th

External links


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