White Africans of European ancestry

White Africans of European ancestry
White Africans
africano branco
wit afrikane
africain blanc
africano blanco
africano bianco
Mia Couto Christiaan Barnard.jpg CharlizeTheronFeb08.jpg Mark Shuttleworth by Martin Schmitt.jpg TImmelman.jpg Nick Price.jpg

1st row: Mia CoutoChristiaan BarnardCharlize Theron
2nd row Mark ShuttleworthTrevor ImmelmanNick Price

Total population
5,000,000 - 6,500,000 (Figures do not include Europeans living in European provinces or dependencies or those immigrated living abroad)
(Canary Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, Madeira, Réunion, Mayotte, Saint Helena)
Regions with significant populations
 South Africa 4,400,000 - 5,000,000
 Namibia 124,000[1] - 250,000
 Madagascar 120,000
 Mozambique >50,000
 Angola 140,000
 Kenya 62,000
 Swaziland 5,000
 Zambia 8,000
 Mauritius 12,000
 Zimbabwe 20,000
 Senegal 7,000
 Botswana 9,000[5]
 Equatorial Guinea 9,000
All other areas 20,000[6]

Afrikaans, Dutch, English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, and others


Predominantly Christian; very small minorities practicing Judaism or no religion

Related ethnic groups

Dutch, Flemish, British, Irish, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Germans, Jews, White Americans, New Zealand Europeans, White Latin Americans, European Australians

White Africans (or less commonly European Africans or Euro Africans [7] in a similar style to terms such as African American, Italian American or French Canadian) are people of European descent living in Africa, who identify themselves as White. These individuals are mostly of Dutch, British, French, Portuguese, German, Flemish, and to a lesser extent, Italian, Spanish, Austrian, Scandinavian, Greek, Lithuanian, Belgian, Swiss, and Irish ancestry.

Prior to the post-World War II decolonization era, Whites numbered up to 10 million persons and were represented in every part of Africa, especially South Africa (English and Boer), Algeria (French), Rhodesia (English and Boer), Angola (Portuguese), and Mozambique (Portuguese). However, many left during and after the independence of the colonies. Some, such as the Italians in Libya, were expelled by post-colonial governments. Nevertheless, White Africans remain a substantial minority in some African states, with white percentages sometimes reaching above 3% (such as in some Southern African countries).[8]

The African country with the largest White African population (and arguably the highest percentage) is South Africa, at approximately 4.6 million (9.2% of the population).[9] Although White Africans no longer have the exclusive rule of African nations, they often still hold a substantial ownership of the economy and land in specific regions or countries. At most about 0.65% of Africa's population, or 6.5 million out of 1 billion, is white of European descent.


Afrikaners and Dutch in Africa

South Africa

Romanticised painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, founder of Cape Town, and the first white settler in Sub-Sahara Africa.

Dutch settlement, under the Dutch East India Company, began in the Cape of Good Hope (present-day Cape Town) in southern Africa in 1652, making it the oldest European-based culture in Sub-Saharan Africa. By the late nineteenth century, the descendants of the Dutch (known as Afrikaners) had crossed the Limpopo river into Mashonaland, now part of Zimbabwe. Their numbers increased during Apartheid due to mass migration and an above replacement fertility rate, and soon numbered beyond 2 million. This made them the biggest ever white ethnic group on the African continent.

Distribution of White South Africans by province

Afrikaners are present in all parts of the nation, apart from the south-east, where they number very few. English speaking whites are generally concentrated in KwaZulu-Natal, Johannesburg and Cape Town. Other white groups (such as Portuguese and Germans) live mostly in Johannesburg or Cape Town. The greatest percentages and populations of White South Africans are in Gauteng (which includes Johannesburg and Pretoria) and the Western Cape (which includes Cape Town). The province with the smallest percentage of Whites is Limpopo, with only 2.2%.


Africa-regions light colored.PNG

White African
major population locations


Over many years[when?], many Boers feared for their safety as the British approached closer to their lands to gain access to natural resources. For this reason, many started to migrate further North, and with the British already controlling Rhodesia (modern day Zimbabwe), their attention turned to Namibia, Botswana, and Angola. This journey, called the Dorsland Trek, went all the way through Botswana and into south-west Angola, which was under Portuguese control at the time. Additionally, during the pre-World War I era, Namibia was a German territory, leading to significant German immigration to present day Namibia.

During the apartheid era, many other Afrikaners moved into the country because of the vast space and untapped resources. Current estimates for the Afrikaner population in Namibia vary from 80,000 to 150,000. Currently over 50% of the agricultural land is held by white Namibians (the majority thought[by whom?] to be Afrikaners).[citation needed]


Afrikaners currently make up 5% of Zimbabwe's white population, however this figure was thought to be much higher before 1980. Over 1/3 of Zimbabwe's white population left between 1980 and 1984, with half of them emigrating to South Africa. Almost all Afrikaners who have fled Zimbabwe have emigrated to South Africa, and one of the few Afrikaner strongholds left in Zimbabwe is the central town of Chivhu (known as Enkeldoorn before 1982). The village was the first white settlement in Rhodesia, and was at one point predominantly white. Persistant persecution of whites in Zimbabwe by Mugabe and party supporters has led to emigration and population decline.


During both Boer wars, Afrikaners traveled deep into Africa, to modern-day Kenya, where they settled along with the British and created hundreds of new farms in the western portion of the country. The majority of both the Afrikaner and the British settlers in Kenya lived in Kenya's fertile Rift Valley. The 30,000 white Kenyans (almost exclusively of British ancestry. Some Afrikaners also remain, and some still own farmland around the Afrikaner-founded city of Eldoret.


There are reported to be 2,700 Afrikaners in Angola,[10] most probably desendents of early migrants who arrived via Namibia. When Black nationalism grew in Angola, and most of the Portuguese left the colony, most Afrikaners left, mostly to South Africa, neighboring Namibia, Portugal or Brazil.


In the early 20th century, following the Anglo-Boer War, large numbers of Afrikaners traveled north to British East Africa and settled in what is now Kenya and Tanzania, as well as in Angola. Following the Mau Mau insurgency and general collapse of colonial authorities in the decades after World War II, Afrikaner colonies outside South Africa, Namibia, and Rhodesia diminished in size and the majority of settlers and their descendants returned to South Africa.

British in Africa

English in Africa

South Africa and the Cape Colony

Cecil John Rhodes, the 6th Prime Minister of the Cape Colony and founder of the De Beers diamond company.

Although there were small British settlements along the West African coast from the 18th century onwards, mostly devoted to the slave trade, British settlement in Africa began in earnest only at the end of the 18th century, in the Cape of Good Hope. It gained momentum following British annexation of the Cape from the Dutch East India Company, and the subsequent encouragement of settlers in the Eastern Cape in an effort to consolidate the colony's eastern border.

In the late 19th century, the discovery of gold and diamonds further encouraged colonisation of South Africa by the British. The search for gold drove expansion north into the Rhodesias (now Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi). Simultaneously, British settlers began expansion into the fertile uplands (often called the "White Highlands") of British East Africa (now Kenya and Tanzania). Most of these settlements were not planned by the British government, with many colonial officials concluding they upset the balance of power in the region and left overall imperial interests vulnerable.

Cecil Rhodes utilized his wealth and connections towards organizing this ad hoc movement and settlement into a grand imperial policy. This policy had as its general aim the securing of a Cairo to Cape Town railway system, and settling the upper highlands of East Africa and the whole of Southern Africa south of the Zambezi with British colonies in a manner akin to that of North America and Australasia.

However, prioritization of British power around the globe in the years before World War I, initially reduced the resources appropriated toward settlement. World War I and the Great Depression and the general decline of British and European birthrates further hobbled the expected settler numbers. Nonetheless, thousands of colonists arrived each year during the decades preceding World War II, mostly in South Africa, where the birthrates of British Africans increased suddenly. Despite a general change in British policy against supporting the establishment of European settlements in Africa, and a slow abandonment in the overall British ruling and common classes for a separate and exclusivist European identity, large colonial appendages of European separatist supporters of the British Empire were well entrenched in South Africa, Rhodesia, and Kenya.

In keeping with the general trend toward non-European rule evident throughout most of the globe during the Cold War and the abandonment of colonial positions in the face of American and Soviet pressure, the vestigial remnants of Cecil Rhodes' vision was abruptly ended, leaving British settlers in an exposed, isolated, and weak position. Black Nationalist guerrilla forces aided by Soviet expertise and weapons soon drove the colonists into a fortress mentality which led to the break-off of ties with perceived collaborationist governments in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth.

The result was a series of conflicts which eventually led to a reduced presence of White Africans due to emigration and natural death. Many were murdered, tens of thousands driven off their lands and property, with many of those remaining being intimidated and threatened by the government and political and paramilitary organizations. However, what soon followed was a mass immigration to the safety and white rule of South Africa, which is the African country known to have the largest white population, currently with 1,755,100 British-South Africans. When apartheid first started most British-South Africans were mostly keen on keeping and even strengthening its ties with the United Kingdom. However, they were largely outnumbered by the Afrikaners, who preferred a republic, and in a referendum voted against being a British commonwealth realm.

Since 1994

Hundreds of thousands of British-South Africans left the nation to start new lives abroad, they settled United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, Canada, Netherlands, and Ireland. In spite of the high emigration rates, a large number of white foreign immigrants from countries such as United Kingdom and Zimbabwe have settled in the country. For example, by 2005, an estimated 212,000 British citizens were residing in South Africa. By 2011, this number may have grown to 500,000.[11] Since 2003, the numbers of British immigrants coming to South Africa has risen by 50%. An estimated 20,000 British immigrants moved to South Africa in 2007. South Africa is ranked as the top destination of British retirees and pensioners in Africa.

There have also been a significant number of arrivals of white Zimbabweans of British ancestry, fleeing their home country in light of the economic and political problems currently[when?] facing the country. As well as recent arrivals, a significant number of white British Zimbabwean settlers emigrated to South Africa after the independence of Zimbabwe in 1980. Currently, the greatest white English populations in South Africa are in the KwaZulu-Natal province and in cities such as Johannesburg and Cape Town.

By Province

Zambia/Northern Rhodesia

At the brink of the country's independence in 1964, there were roughly 70,000 Europeans (mostly British) in Zambia (Northern Rhodesia before independence), making up roughly 2.3% of the 3 million inhabitants at the time.[12] Zambia had a different situation compared to other African countries. It included segregation, similar to South Africa, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and South-West Africa (Namibia); but as the Europeans constituted a smaller fraction of the population they did not dominate politics. There were a few cities in Northern Rhodesia that had British place names, but all except one (Livingstone) were changed when the country became independent or soon after. These included:


A good example of segregation in Zambia before independence was in the city of Livingstone, on the border with Zimbabwe. The town featured a white town, with black townships, which were also found in South Africa and Namibia. In Zambia however Livingstone was one of the few places in the country that used this system, and was close to the Rhodesian border. British colonists were reflected in town and city names. Livingstone (which is currently the only town left with a British name) was nearly changed to Maramba, but the decision was later dismissed.

When Zambia became independent in 1964, the majority of white settlers left for Rhodesia, just by crossing the border. An almost identical town of Victoria Falls lies on the other side, and benefited from the white people's crafts and abilities. This enabled them to improve the situation on the white-controlled Rhodesian side, and therefore Livingstone soon became desolate and unused. However, since the economic problems in Zimbabwe since the start of the 21st century, the situation has very much turned around as the Zambian side has become more attractive to tourists and therefore Livingstone is once again improving (at the expense of Victoria Falls).


There were 60,000 white settlers living in Kenya in 1965.[13] Today, there are an estimated 30,000 whites in Kenya.[14] However, there has been an increasing number of British expatriates that, according to the BBC, number at about 32,000.[15] Evolutionary scientist Richard Dawkins was born in Kenya.


The white population in Zimbabwe dropped from a peak of around 296,000 in 1975 (when the country was known as Rhodesia and Whites made up 5% of the population) to possibly 120,000 in 1999 and was estimated at no more than 50,000 in 2002, possibly much fewer.[16]


There is a reported English population of 300 in Madagascar.[2]


The British population of Angola is estimated at around 700.[17] When Angola won independence from Portugal in 1975, most British people in Angola resettled in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Portugal or Brazil. Meanwhile, most from Mozambique left for either Zimbabwe, South Africa or the UK. It should, however, be noted that even before 1975, the number of British people in Angola and Mozambique was small, especially compared to the inhabiting Portuguese population.


In Mozambique, the British population numbers 1,500.[18] When Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975, most British people left for either Rhodesia or South Africa, while others resettled in Portugal and Brazil. Because Mozambique is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, it is easier for the British settlers to live there. However, just like Angola, the British population in Mozambique is/was tiny compared to both their share of the nation's population and in comparison to the Portuguese.


Sizable numbers of Anglo-African people are also nationals of Ghana, Namibia, Tanzania, Swaziland (3% of the population),[19] Nigeria,[20] and Botswana.[21]In addition, at least 10,000 white Ugandans of British extract were living under the regime of Idi Amin as recorded by TIME Magazine in 1972. Due to the subsequent deterioration of conditions under Amin (Including the constant threat of forced expulsion), most of the local Anglo-African population emigrated to the United Kingdom and South Africa.[22]

Scottish in Africa

Nyasaland (Malawi)

The Scots played an enormous part in British overseas colonization, alongside the English, Welsh, and Irish. Scotland supplied colonial troops, administrators, governors, prospectors, architects, and engineers to help construct the colonies all over the world.

From the 1870s Scottish churches began missionary work in Nyasaland/Malawi, in the wake of their illustrious predecessor, David Livingstone. Their pressure on the British Government resulted in Nyasaland being declared a British Protectorate. A small Scottish community was established here, and other Scots immigration occurred in Southern Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, Northern Rhodesia/Zambia, and South Africa. The table below represents how small their numbers were compared to other sections of Rhodesia.

Numbers of white and black inhabitants in the federation
Year Southern Rhodesia Northern Rhodesia Nyasaland
White Black White Black White Black
1927 38,200 922,000 4,000 1,000,000 1,700 1,350,000
1946 80,500 1,600,000 21,919 1,634,980 2,300 2,340,000

The largest and commercial capital of the country, Blantyre, is named after a town in Scotland and birthplace of David Livingstone. It is a testament to the love the African people had and still have for Livingstone that this name has not been changed after independence, like so many others. The reason for the small number of Europeans was mainly the lack of mineral resources (North Rhodesia had copper and South Rhodesia has gold).

After Nyasaland became independent (and upon adopting a new name: Malawi), many Scots returned to Scotland or moved to South Africa or Zimbabwe (Rhodesia at the time still). Despite this, Scots had an enormous South African community (compared to that of Nyasaland), however they fail to take credit because they were a small part of the white community in South Africa. Also, under the African sun, and in relatively small numbers, domestic differences tended to be overlooked and the resulting colonial culture was an inclusive British one.

To this day most Scots in Africa reside in South Africa and until the 21st century also in Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia). Most Scottish settlers from Rhodesia left for South Africa after Rhodesia's independence and after economic and political problems in 2001. Evidence of the continued Scottish influence is seen in the continuing traditions of Highland games and pipe bands, especially in Natal. Ties between Scotland and Malawi remain strong to this day.

French in Africa

Notre Dame d'Afrique, a church built by the French Pieds-Noirs in Algeria.

Large numbers of French people settled in French North Africa from the 1840s onward. By the end of French rule in the early 1960s there were over one million European Algerians, mostly of French origin (known as pieds noirs, or "black feet") living in Algeria, consisting about 16% of the population in 1962.[23] There were 255,000 Europeans in Tunisia in 1956.[24] Morocco was home to half a million Europeans.[25]

No other region of the French African colonial empire attracted similar settlement, although there is still a comparatively large European population living in the former West African colony of Ivory Coast, which had the largest French population of France's former colonies of sub-Saharan Africa, numbering 60,000 in 1980,[26] although its numbers are believed to have declined since then. There are also important white minorities in Gabon, Senegal, and Togo.

French law made it easy for thousands of colons, ethnic or national French from former colonies of Africa, India, and Indochina to live in mainland France. 1.6 million European colons migrated from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco.[27]


A sizeable number of French people reside in Madagascar. An estimated 18,000 French citizens lived and worked in Madagascar in the early 1990s.[28] Currently, approximately 120,000 people, or 0.6% of the total population, are French. This community is descended from former French settlers who settled in Madagascar during the 19th Century. A further 80,000 people are classified as Réunionese Creole, therefore bringing the total number of people with French ancestry to approximately 1%.[29] The numbers make Madagascar the home of the largest ethnic French population in terms of absolute numbers in sub-Saharan Africa, other than the French département Réunion.


In Réunion, a French island in the Indian Ocean, white islanders, mostly of ethnic French origin, are estimated to make up approx. 25% of the population.[30]

Huguenots (French South Africans)

A large number of French Huguenots settled in the Cape Colony, following their expulsion from France in the 17th century. However, the use of the French language was discouraged and the Huguenot settlers were entirely absorbed into Afrikaans culture. However, this early contact can be seen clearly in the names of historic towns, such as Courtrai and Franschhoek in the Western Cape (meaning "French Corner") and in the surnames of many Afrikaners, such as Theron, Du Plessis, Joubert, Delagrange, etc. By far, the French South African community is the largest among all French African communities. There are often towns and suburbs in the Western Cape which carry some French names.


The Huguenot Monument in Franschhoek, a structure dedicated to the French Huguenots who settled in South Africa.

Franschhoek (meaning French Corner, or French hook in Dutch) is a large town in the Western Cape, so named for the French Huguenots, who traveled and settled there. There is a striking French influence in the town, which can be found firstly in street names which include La Rochelle street, Bordeaux street, Huguenot street, Roux Malherbe street, and Cabriere street.

Nearby farms, hamlets, and villages often hold French names such as La Roux; a township north of Franschhoek, Chamonix Estate, and so forth. Many Huguenot-dedictated buildings have been erected in Franschhoek, the major one being the Huguenot Monument. The town is famed for being one of the only sites in the whole nation to bear some evidence of Huguenot culture, as Huguenots generally converted to an Afrikaner-based culture.


There are a reported number of 4,000 French people in Angola.[17]

Portuguese in Africa

The first Portuguese settlements in Africa were built in the 15th century. The descendants of the soldiers who accompanied Christopher da Gama expedition to support the Ethiopian throne in the sixteenth century continued to exert a significant influence in that country's history over the next two centuries; for example, the Empress Mentewab was extremely proud of her Portuguese ancestry. In the late 17th century, much of Portuguese Mozambique was divided into prazos, or agricultural estates, which were settled by Portuguese families. In Portuguese Angola, namely in the areas of Luanda and Benguela, there was a significant Portuguese population. In the islands of Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe, besides Portuguese settlers, most of the population was of mixed Portuguese and African origin. The descendants of the Portuguese settlers who were born and "raised" locally since Portuguese colonial time were called crioulos.

In the early 20th century, the Portuguese government encouraged white migration to the Portuguese territories of Angola and Mozambique, and by the 1960s, at the beginning of the Portuguese Colonial War, there were around 650,000 Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces, and a substantial Portuguese population living in other African countries. In 1974, there were up to 1,000,000 Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces.[31] In 1975, Angola had a community of approximately 400,000 Portuguese, while Mozambique had approximately more than 350,000 settlers from Portugal.[32]

Most Portuguese settlers returned to Portugal (the retornados) as the country's African possessions gained independence in the mid 1970s,[33] while others moved south to South Africa, which now has the largest Portuguese-African population (who between 50-80% came from Madeira), and to Brazil. When Mozambican Civil War (1977–1992) began suddenly, large numbers of both Portuguese-born settlers and Mozambican-born settlers of Portuguese blood went out again.

However, after the war in Mozambique, more Portuguese settlers returned and the newer ones settled Mozambique while White Brazilians, especially those of Portuguese descent, moved to Mozambique to work as aid workers and investors and have adopted Mozambique as their home. It is estimated the population of Portuguese people in Mozambique has increased to over 20,000 since the peace settlement of Mozambique in 1992. Notable demographics of Portuguese Mozambicans could be found in cities like Maputo, Beira, and Nampula with Maputo accumulating the highest percentage. In recent years, some Portuguese have migrated to Angola for economic reasons, mainly the country's recent economic boom.[34] In 2008, Angola was the preferred destination for Portuguese migrants in Africa.[34]

Portuguese South Africans

South Africa largely featured two Portuguese waves of immigration, one was a constant but small flow of Portuguese from Madeira and Portugal itself, while the second was ethnic Portuguese fleeing from Angola and Mozambique after their respective independences. The reason behind the immigration of Madeirans to South Africa was both a political and economic one. After 1950, Hendrik Verwoerd (the "architect" of Apartheid) encouraged immigration from Protestant Anglo-Saxons to strengthen the white population. When this failed, he turned his attention to Southern Europeans, one of which were Madeirans, who were facing high unemployment rates. Many Madeirans and Portuguese who immigrated were at first isolated from the general white population due to their differences, such as being Catholic and the fact that few could speak English or Afrikaans.[32] Eventually they ended up setting up businesses in Johannesburg or coastal fisheries, and soon intermarriage between whites began.[35]

One known Portuguese South African creation was the restaurant chain Nando's, created in 1987, which incorporated influences from former Portuguese colonists from Mozambique, many of whom had settled on the south-eastern side of Johannesburg, after Mozambique's independence in 1975. Currently there's a 300,000-strong Portuguese community in South Africa.[36] The Portuguese South Africans are also different to other white South Africans in that they are mostly Catholic and football (soccer) is popular among them.

Italians in Africa


Libya had some 150,000 Italians settled in the nation during World War II, constituting about 18% of the total population.[37] The Italians in Libya resided (and many still do) in most major cities like Tripoli (37% of the city was Italian), Benghazi (31%), and Hun (3%). Their numbers decreased after 1936. Most of Libya's Italians were expelled from the North African country in 1970, a year after Muammar Gaddafi seized power (a "day of vengeance" on 7 October 1970),[38] but a few hundred Italian settlers returned to Libya in the 2000s.

Year Italians Percentage Total Libya Source for data on population
1936 112,600 13.26% 848,600 Enciclopedia Geografica Mondiale K-Z, De Agostini, 1996
1939 108,419 12.37% 876,563 Guida Breve d'Italia Vol.III, C.T.I., 1939 (Censimento Ufficiale)
1962 35,000 2.1% 1,681,739 Enciclopedia Motta, Vol.VIII, Motta Editore, 1969
1982 1,500 0.05% 2,856,000 Atlante Geografico Universale, Fabbri Editori, 1988
2004 22,530 0.4% 5,631,585 L'Aménagement Linguistique dans le Monde

South African Italians

Although Italians were one of the few European nations that didn't encounter mass migration to South Africa, there was still many who ended up settling in South Africa. South African Italians made big headlines during World War II, when Italians captured in Italian East Africa needed to be sent to a safe stronghold to be kept as prisoners of war (POWs). South Africa was the perfect destination, and the first POWs arrived in Durban, in 1941.[39]

Despite being POWs, the Italians were treated well, with a good food diet and friendly hospitality. These factors, along with the peaceful, cheap, and sunny landscape, made it very attractive for Italians to settle down, and therefore, the Italian South African community was born. Although over 100,000 Italian POW were sent to South Africa, only a handful decided to stay, and during their capture, they were given the free will to create Chapels, Churches, Dams, and many more structures. Most Italian influence and architecture can be seen in the Natal and Transvaal area. White South Africans of Italian descent number between 6,300[40] and 28,059.


See also: Italian Eritreans, Italians of Ethiopia, Italian Somalians, Italian Egyptians, Italian Tunisians
A Catholic Cathedral in Asmara, built by Italian Eritreans in 1922.

The Italians had a significantly large, but very quickly diminished population in Africa. In 1926, there were 90,000 Italians in Tunisia, compared to 70,000 Frenchmen (unusual since Tunisia was a French Colony).[41] Former Italian communities also once thrived in the Horn of Africa, with about 50,000 Italian settlers living in Eritrea in 1935,[42] and 22,000 Italians residing in Italian Somaliland during the first half of 1940, 10,000 of whom were concentrated in the capital of Mogadishu. The Italian Eritrean population grew from 4,000 during World War I to nearly 100,000 at the beginning of World War II.[43]

There was emigration to Ethiopia as well. During the five-year occupation of Ethiopia, roughly 300,000 Italians were absorbed into East Africa (there were over 49,000 Italians living in Asmara in 1939, and over 38,000 in Addis Ababa). This led to half of Asmara's population and 10% of Eritrea's being Italian in 1939. Many Italian settlers immigrated out of Italian Somaliland during and after World War II, and also during independence in 1960 and many more left when the Somali Civil War broke out in 1991. The size of the Italian Egyptian community had reached around 55,000 just before World War II, forming the second largest expatriate community in Egypt.

A few Italian settlers stayed in Portuguese African colonies as World War II refugees when the Portuguese government tried to request Europeans of other nationalities to increase the very tiny Portuguese population and during the war, although that plan of the Portuguese government was unsuccessful.[31] They were assimilated to the Portuguese population.

Greeks in Africa


Greeks have been living in Egypt since and even before Alexander the Great conquered Egypt at an early stage of his great journey of conquests. Herodotus, who visited Egypt in the 5th century BCE, wrote that the Greeks were the first foreigners that ever lived in Egypt.[44] Diodorus Siculus attested that Rhodian Actis, one of the Heliadae built the city of Heliopolis before the cataclysm; likewise the Athenians built Sais. While all Greek cities were destroyed during the cataclysm, the Egyptian cities including Heliopolis and Sais survived.[45]

In modern times the official 1907 census showed 62,973 Greeks living in Egypt. The expulsion of 2.5 million Greeks from Turkey saw a large number of those Greeks move to Egypt and by 1940 Greeks were numbered at around 500,000. Today the Greek community numbers officially about 3,000 people although the real number is much higher since many Greeks have changed their nationality to Egyptian. In Alexandria, apart from the patriarchate, there is a patriarchal theology school that opened recently after being closed 480 years. Saint Nicolas church and several other buildings in Alexandria have been recently renovated by the Greek Government and the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation.

During the last decade, there has been a new interest from the Egyptian government for a diplomatic rapprochement with Greece and this has positively affected the Greek diaspora. The diaspora has received official visits of many Greek politicians. Economic relationships have been blossoming between Greece and Egypt. Egypt has been recently the centre of major Greek investments in industries such as banking, tourism, paper, and oil. In 2009, a five years cooperation memorandum was signed among the NCSR Demokritos Institute in Agia Paraskevi, Athens and the University of Alexandreia, regarding Archeometry research and contextual sectors.[46]

South Africa

The Greeks have had a presence in South Africa since the late 19th century. After the expulsion of the Greeks from Egypt as part of Nasser's nationalization policy the Greek population of South Africa dramatically increased to around 250,000.[47] Today the number of Greeks in South Africa is estimated between 60,000 - 120,000.[48]


The Greek community in Zimbabwe numbered between 13,000 and 15,000 people in 1972 (when the country was called Rhodesia) and was the second largest white population after those of British origin.[49] Today the Greek community in Zimbabwe comprises about 2,500 of Greek origin.[49] Zimbabwe currently hosts eleven Greek Orthodox churches and fifteen Greek associations and humanitarian organizations.[50]


See also: Greeks in Ethiopia, Greeks in Zambia, Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Greeks have a presence in a number of different African countries such as Cameroon (1,200 people),[51] Zambia (800 people),[52] Ethiopia (500 people),[53] Uganda (450 people),[54] Democratic Republic of Congo (300 people),[55] Kenya (100 families),[56] Nigeria (300 people),[57] Tanzania (300 people),[51] Gambia (300 people),[58] Sudan (200 people),[59] Botswana (200-300 people),[60] Malawi (200 people),[61] and Morocco (150 people).[51]

Germans in Africa


Examples of daily use of German in Namibia.

Germany was late to colonize Africa (or to have an empire) mainly due to Germany not being a single country until the late 19th century. However, many Germans settled in South West Africa (modern day Namibia) as well as South Africa. Those Germans who migrated to South West Africa retained German culture, religion, and even language, while those in South Africa often had to learn English or Afrikaans as a first language and adopt another culture.

Unlike other Europeans in Africa, when many African states gained independence, the Germans (along with the English and Dutch/Afrikaners) stayed in Southern Africa because they retained political dominance (now being a mandate under South African control). The country was administered as a province of South Africa during the apartheid era (though South African rule was not widely recognized internationally.) German influence in Namibia is very strong and noticeable. Because Namibia hasn't changed any town names since independence, many of the largest cities in the country retain their German names. These include Lüderitz, Grünau, Maltahöhe, Wasser, Schuckmannsburg, and even the capital city has a (slightly unused) German name (Windhuk). In the southern Regions of Karas and especially Hardap, the vast majority of town names are German, or a mixture of German, Afrikaans and English. In the Hardap region, some 80% of settlements have a name of German origin.

Namibia is also the only nation outside Europe to have a Lutheran majority. This is due to many German missionaries during the 19th century who converted the Ovambo and Damara people to Christianity. Until 1990 German was an official language of Namibia, and is now a recognized regional language (the only one of its kind for the German language outside of Europe).

Today there are roughly 20,000-50,000 Germans in Namibia (32% of the white population, and 2% of the nation's population), and they greatly outnumber English and many Black ethnic groups. Their numbers are unsure because many Namibians of German ancestry don't speak German anymore, and sometimes would rather be classified as Afrikaans.


A classroom in a German East African school.

When Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi was under German control it was named German East Africa and received some migration from German communities, with over 3,579 Germans in German East Africa by 1914. In Dar Es Salaam, the capital city, its German population grew to 1,050, 0.006% of the city's population and just under a third of the entire German East African population. However, these Germans were only ever here to try and implement German technology and science, and never to fully settle or Germanise the country.[62]

However, much of the community has disappeared and there are practically no more Germans left in Tanzania. Their influence was once stronger though. The city of Tabora was formerly named Weidmannsheil and Kasanga was known as Bismarckburg. Mount Kilimanjaro was known as Kilimandscharo, a German way of spelling it. Unlike other colonial powers in Africa, the Germans established an education system for the Africans, which after World War I was demolished. Some colonial German style buildings still exist in some of Tanzania's largest cities and former German strongholds, but they are in bad condition and need extensive renovation.[62]

Despite virtually all German names being reverted since World War I, some places still hold German names. These include the majority of Glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro, such as Rebmann Glacier and Furtwängler Glacier. Current estimates for the German population in Tanzania, stand more than double than that under German colonial rule (estimates put the figure at 8,500[62]).


A map of Togoland in 1885, with Lomé in the south-west. Note that all land above the coast is called 'Unexplored country', despite the whole territory being under German control.

Togoland was a German colony from 1884 to 1914. In 1895 the capital, Lomé, had a population of 31 (~1% of the city) Germans and 2,084 natives. By 1913 the native population had swelled to 7,042 persons and 194 Germans (2% of the city), including 33 women, while the entire colony had a German population of 316, including 61 women and 14 children. Their numbers were depleted after World War I. The very little German architecture can be seen in the capital and from the Hinterlandbahn, a huge German railway which went deep into the thin country.[63]

The colony’s infrastructure was developed to one of the highest levels in Africa. Colonial officials built roads and bridges to the interior mountain ranges and three rail lines from the capital Lomé. Virtually all German influence present, and almost all German colonial activity took place in Lomé, and only ever reached deep inland when the Hinterlandbahn would voyage in the jungle for resources. Estimates for the current German population are as high as 700.[63]


Kamerun was a German colony in present day Cameroon between 1884 and 1916. During German control, few Germans migrated, but many trading posts and infrastructure was built to aid the growing German Empire with goods, such as bananas and important minerals. These trading posts were most abundant around the former capital city, and largest city in Cameroon: Douala.

Douala itself was known as Kamerunstadt (German for 'Cameroon City') between 1884 and 1907. Most trading took place with Hamburg and Bremen, and was later made easier by the construction of an extensive postal and telegraph system. Like all German colonies (except South West Africa), after World War I, most Germans left for Europe, America, or South Africa.

Former Portuguese colonies

A number of German settlers stayed in Portuguese African colonies as World War II refugees when the Portuguese government tried to request Europeans of other nationalities to increase the very tiny Portuguese population and during the war, although that plan of the Portuguese government was unsuccessful.[31] They were assimilated to the Portuguese population. There is a recorded German population of Mozambique numbering 2,200.[18]

Spanish in Africa

The Spanish have resided in many African countries (mostly former colonies), including Equatorial Guinea, Western Sahara, South Africa, Morocco, Ceuta, and Melilla. 94,000 Spaniards chose to go to Algeria in the last years of the 19th century; 250,000 Spaniards lived in Morocco at the beginning of the 20th century. Most Spaniards left Morocco after its independence in 1956 and their numbers were reduced to 13,000.[64][65]

An estimated 90,000 Spaniards live in Spain's North African enclaves Ceuta and Melilla.[66] Western Sahara is home to 10 000 Spanish expatriates, all of them against the rule of Francisco Franco. Most Spanish expatriates officially went away after negotiation with the Madrid Accords.

Equatorial Guinea

A stamp depicting a usual Spanish Owned plantation in 1924

The Spanish have resided in Equatorial Guinea (when under Spanish rule known as Spanish Guinea) for many years and first started as temporary plantation owners originally from Valencia, before returning to Spain. Few Spaniards remained in Spanish Guinea permanently and left only after a few years. At independence in 1968 Spanish Guinea had one of the highest per capita incomes in Africa (332 USD).[67] The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent's highest literacy rates and developed a good network of health care facilities.[67]

Many left Spanish Guinea when the colony gained independence in 1968, and current figures of the Spaniard population range from 5,000 (1% of the population) to 16,000 (roughly over 3%).[68] After independence, many Spanish-named cities and places in Equatorial Guinea were changed to more 'African' names, the most obvious one being the capital city, Malabo (formerly Santa Isabel), and the island it is located on, Bioko (formerly Fernando Pó).

Despite a large loss of Spaniards during the brutal rule of Masie Nguema Biyogo, who wrecked the nation into debt and abolished education, the number of Spaniards have somewhat increased after he was overthrown. They almost exclusively speak Spanish as their first language; French or Portuguese, which are official languages, are often spoken as a second language, sometimes alongside the indigenous Bantu languages. Their religion is 100% Catholic, and this can be reflected by the population, which also remains Catholic. Since the discovery of oil, and an economic 'boom', a large number of Europeans, not just Spaniards, have migrated here for business and in Malabo, they are located in the western half of the city and in new housing estates.

Belgians in Africa

Ethnically speaking, the term Belgian is dubious, since it can refer to the Flemish (Dutch-speaking), the Walloons (French-speaking), or to a lesser extent, to German-speaking Belgians.

Belgian Congo

On 5 July 1960, five days after the Congo gained independence from Belgium, the Force Publique garrison near Léopoldville mutinied against its white officers and attacked numerous European targets. This led to fear amongst the approximately 100,000 whites still resident in the Congo and mass exodus from the country.[69] In 1965, there were 60,000 Belgians spread throughout the Congo.[70]

Flemish in Africa

Thousands of Flemings, along with the Dutch, migrated to the Republic of South Africa for many years between the 17th century and the 20th century. Immigration to RSA has slowed down drastically, but the remnants of a huge Flemish population still exist in Southern Africa. Many Flemish colonials, including farmers and mineowners, moved to the Belgian Congo to seek their fortunes during the colonial era, entrenching a system of racial segregation not unlike those practiced in most other European-ruled African territories. The old segregated Belgian neighborhoods, in fact, are still visible in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo's capital city. Despite the mass emigration of white people to Belgium, the Netherlands, and South Africa during the Congo Crisis, there are still a little under 50,000 Flemings estimated to be living in the Congo.[71] It has also been observed that there were roughly 3,000 Flemish settlers in Rwanda[71], although many were targeted for extermination as part of the Rwandan Genocide. This seemed to be largely because Belgian administrators were often regarded by resentful Hutus as having offered better education and employment opportunities to Tutsi tribesmen under colonial rule. Radio messages broadcast by Hutu extremists during the genocide advocated the killing of white Rwandans on basis of their Belgian ancestry, despite the fact that Belgium itself attempted to remain neutral during the conflict.[72]

Norwegians in Africa

Southern Africa

Although Norwegians in Africa are one of the smallest immigrant communities, they are not unheard of. However it is almost certain that the vast majority of them live in Southern Africa (most likely South Africa). One incident involving Norwegians in Africa was the Debora Expedition, where Norwegian families left Bergen in 1879 to establish a Norwegian colony on an Indian Ocean atoll called Aldabra[73] (now located in the Seychelles). However the mission was aborted and the families instead settled in Madagascar or Port Natal (modern day Durban) in South Africa. They were the first Norwegians to settle in Port Natal.[73]

A number of Norwegian settlers stayed in Portuguese African colonies when the Portuguese government tried to request Europeans of other nationalities to increase the very tiny Portuguese population, although that plan of the Portuguese government was unsuccessful.[31] They were already acculturated to the Portuguese population.

Other White African groups

The huge vast diversity of European ethnic groups in Africa were once more scattered, however currently every European ethnic group is greatest in South Africa. Virtually all European ethnic groups can be found in South Africa.

Zimbabwean women, 1982.

In 1948, approximately 600,000 Jews lived in North Africa; today only around 6,000 Jews remain. There is a substantial, mostly Ashkenazic Jewish community in South Africa. These Jews arrived mostly from Lithuania prior to World War II.[74] Although the Jewish community peaked in the 1970s, about 80,000 remain in South Africa.[75]

Armenians once numbered thousands in Ethiopia and Sudan, before civil wars, revolutions, and nationalization drove most of them out. They still have community centers and churches in these countries. Before 1952 there were around 75,000 Armenians in Egypt.[76]

The inhabitants of the Canary Islands hold a gene pool that is halfway between the Spaniards and the ancient native population, the Guanches (a proto-berber population), although with a major Spanish contribution.[77]

On Tristan da Cunha, the population of 271 people shared just seven surnames: Glass, Green, Hagan, Lavarello (a typical Ligurian surname), Repetto (another typical Ligurian surname), Rogers, and Swain.

There are an estimated 100,000 Europeans living in Tunisia, most are French with some Italians.[78] Morocco has about 100,000 Europeans, most of them French.[79]

Current populations

White African population by country (2005 est. From CIA)

Nobel and Booker prize-winning South African author J. M. Coetzee.
  • South Africa: 5,265,300 (as of July 2008)
  • Angola: 140,000 (as of September 2011)
  • Namibia: 124,000 ~ 160,000
  • Mozambique: 50,000 (as of July 2010)
  • Zimbabwe: 20,000
  • Kenya: 62,000
  • Zambia: 8,000
  • Botswana: 10,000
  • Senegal: 5,000
  • Other African nations: 10,000~15,000

The White African population of Zimbabwe was much higher in the 1960s and 1970s (when the country was known as Rhodesia); the largest was 300,000. After the introduction of majority rule in 1980, and the downturn due to the mass murder and expulsion of white farmers and businessmen, along with the economic mismanagement by the Mugabe regime in the late 1990s, many white people left the country.

By September 2007, it is thought that as few as 22,000 whites remain in Zimbabwe as the economic and political crisis deepens. It is thought that if economic and political conditions improve, some of the former white population will return.[80]

The white African population in Mozambique was at its peak with about 370,000 Portuguese Mozambicans residing in Mozambique during the 1970s but political crisis and violence drastically decreased its population in a matter of weeks. Most Portuguese Mozambicans were expelled or fled to Portugal or to neighboring South Africa and Zimbabwe with some also going to Brazil. However, there has been an increase in the white African population of Mozambique in the last 10 years due to the immense Brazilian presence and intercultural Lusophone presence in Mozambique.


White Africans speak Indo-European languages as their first languages (Afrikaans, English, Portuguese, French, German, Spanish and Italian).


Geographical distribution of Afrikaans in South Africa: proportion of the population that speaks Afrikaans at home.

The most spoken language at home by white Africans is Afrikaans. It is spoken by 60% of South Africa's, 60% of Namibia's, and about 5% of Zimbabwe's white populations. In South Africa they make up a major white speaking group in all provinces except KwaZulu-Natal, where Afrikaans speakers (of all races) make up 1.5% of the population. In Rhodesia (and later Zimbabwe), Afrikaans wasn't as spoken and therefore the country remained English dominated for its history. There were, however a few Afrikaans inhabitants, mostly from South Africa. Afrikaans was also very limited culturally to Rhodesia and so only a few Afrikaans place names existed, most notabley Enkeldoorn (renamed Chivhu in 1982). Most Afrikaners in Zimbabwe have now immigrated to South Africa or First World countries.


See also: English language, South African English

English is the second most spoken language among white Africans, spoken by 39% of South Africa's, 7% of Namibia's, and 90% of Zimbabwe's white population. In South Africa they remain the dominant white ethnic group in KwaZulu-Natal, while in Gauteng and the Western Cape they also contribute to a large percentage of the English-speaking population.

It is here that they challenge the Afrikaans in being the white dominant ethnic group. English is a second language of many non-British white Africans with higher education in predominantly non-English-speaking African nations. Outside of South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, British Africans make up a large minority in Zambia, Kenya, Botswana, and Swaziland, therefore increasing the presence of English in these countries.


German is spoken by 32% of Namibia's white population (making up 2% of the Namibian population). There is also a now nearly extinct German dialect in Namibia known as Namibian Black German (or in German as Küchendeutsch or Kitchen German), and used to be spoken by black domestic servants to German colonists. However, the government has tried to lower the use of German and Afrikaans due to its colonial roots, and instead try and enforce English, the sole official language, and Bantu languages. There is also known to be a German dialect, spoken in the south-east of South Africa, known as Nataler German (German from Natal).

Other languages

Most of all whites in Angola and Mozambique use Portuguese as their first language. The other 1% of whites in South Africa (who don't speak Afrikaans or English) mostly speak Portuguese (from immigrant communities who come from Angola and Mozambique), or German and Dutch (from European immigration). Equally, in Namibia, the remaining 1% of the white population speaks mostly Portuguese because of the immigration from Angola following independence of all Portuguese colonies in 1975.

Only a small white population in Libya, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia has the fluency of Italian, because it is no longer the official language there. Very few White Africans speak Bantu languages (languages spoken by Black people) at home, but still a small percentage of white Africans speak Bantu languages as second languages.


The Namibia rugby team is largely white

Cricket is a particularly popular sport with White Africans of British descent. Rugby, in Southern Africa is particularly popular with people of Afrikaner ethnicity.

Field hockey is another popular sport amongst Whites.

Many Whites from Commonwealth countries in Africa are accomplished swimmers, including Kirsty Coventry of Zimbabwe and Jason Dunford of Kenya, as well as numerous South Africans.

See also



  1. ^ "Namibia: History, Geography, Government, and Culture". Infoplease. Pearson Education, Inc. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108165.html. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Madagascar". http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MA. 
  3. ^ "Mozambique: History, Geography, Government, and Culture". Infoplease. Pearson Education, Inc. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107804.html. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  4. ^ "Angola: portugueses podem obter visto de trabalho em 30 dias". Infoplease. Pearson Education, Inc. http://aeiou.expresso.pt/angola-portugueses-podem-obter-visto-de-trabalho-em-30-dias=f674096. Retrieved 15-09-2011. 
  5. ^ "White Batswana population". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bc.html. Retrieved October 8, 2007. 
  6. ^ Calculated from adding white residents of all other nations in Africa. Lower number assumes minimums in all other nations, larger assumes maximums in all other nations.
  7. ^ [1]) Euro African Trust
  8. ^ Namibia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  9. ^ South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  10. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=AO
  11. ^ "Britons living in SA to enjoy royal wedding". Eyewitness News. 28 April 2011. http://www.eyewitnessnews.co.za/articleprog.aspx?id=64734. 
  12. ^ 1964: President Kaunda takes power in Zambia, BBC News
  13. ^ "We Want Our Country" (3 of 10), TIME
  14. ^ Heir takes on 'Flash' in Kenya murder trial, The Independent
  15. ^ Brits Abroad: Country-by-country, BBC News
  16. ^ Quarterly Digest Of Statistics, Zimbabwe Printing and Stationery Office, 1999
  17. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=AO
  18. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MZ
  19. ^ Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  20. ^ Zim, South African white farmers head for Nigeria
  21. ^ Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ French-Algerian War, TIME Collection
  24. ^ Tunisia, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. Thomson Gale. 2007. Encyclopedia.com.
  25. ^ History of Morocco, historyworld.net
  26. ^ Ivory Coast - The Economy
  27. ^ For Pieds-Noirs, the Anger Endures
  28. ^ Madagascar - Minorities
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". http://advan.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/30/4/248. 
  31. ^ a b c d Portugal - Emigration, Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.
  32. ^ a b Flight from Angola, The Economist , August 16, 1975
  33. ^ Dismantling the Portuguese Empire
  34. ^ a b [4], Radio Televisão Portuguesa, September 13, 2008
  35. ^ http://www.rupert.net/~lkool/Madeira.html
  36. ^ http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/bilateral/portugal.html
  37. ^ Libya - Italian colonization
  38. ^ Libya cuts ties to mark Italy era.
  39. ^ http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol014lb.html
  40. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php
  41. ^ Moustapha Kraiem. Le fascisme et les italiens de Tunisie, 1918-1939 pag. 57
  42. ^ Eritrea—Hope For Africa’s Future
  43. ^ Essay on Italian emigration to Eritrea (in Italian)
  44. ^ Α΄ Η διαχρονική πορεία του ελληνισμού στην Αφρική
  45. ^ The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, Book V,57.
  46. ^ Cooperation memorandum signed among NCSR D and Alexandria University, Egypt 29/1/2009, retrieved on 31/1/2009
  47. ^ [5] 05/06/2009, retrieved on 10/12/2003
  48. ^ [6] 05/06/2009, retrieved on 05/06/2009
  49. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zimbabwe: The Greek Community
  50. ^ Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa Holy Archbishopric of Zimbabwe
  51. ^ a b c Greeks around the Globe (they are quoting the statistics of the General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad as on October 12, 2004)
  52. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zambia
  53. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Ethiopia: The Greek Community
  54. ^ Census 2002
  55. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Democratic Republic of Congo: The Greek Community
  56. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  57. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Nigeria: The Greek Community
  58. ^ Ethnic people groups of the Gambia
  59. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sudan: The Greek Community
  60. ^ http://en.sae.gr/?id=15268&tag=Hellenism%20in%20Botswana&type=print
  61. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malawi: The Greek Community
  62. ^ a b c - Germans in Tanzania
  63. ^ a b - Germans in Togo
  64. ^ Spain: Forging an Immigration Policy, Migration Information Source
  65. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MO
  66. ^ Ceuta and Melilla - World Directory of Minorities
  67. ^ a b España - Guinea, 1969: la estrategia de la tensión, Xavier Lacosta, Historia 16, January 2001.
  68. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=109534&rog3=EK
  69. ^ ::UN:: History Learning Site
  70. ^ "We Want Our Country" (2 of 10), TIME
  71. ^ a b http://www.joshuaproject.net/peoples.php?rop3=103034
  72. ^ Leicmon, Weiselberg; Davis, J., Carlinsky, eds (2002). The Psychology of Genocide and Violent Oppression: A study of mass cruelty from Nazi Germany to Rwanda (1st ed.). Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc.. ISBN 9780786447763. 
  73. ^ a b http://salbu.co.za/debora/
  74. ^ Lithuanian Jews Make Big Impact in South Africa
  75. ^ The Virtual Jewish History Tour - South Africa
  76. ^ Refugees International: Publications: Stateless Report
  77. ^ [7] other theories, however, suggest that the native Guanche population may have been of ancient Nordic or Celtic origin, but this in itself is up to dispute.
  78. ^ Tunisia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  79. ^ Morocco Universities Colleges and Schools
  80. ^ Zimbabwean White Farmers Hope to Return Home

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