Dungan revolt (1862–1877)


Dungan revolt (1862–1877)
Dungan revolt
Veselovski-1898-Yakub-Bek.jpg
Yakub Bek
Date 1862-1877
Location Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Xinjiang
Result Qing victory
Belligerents
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1862.png Qing Empire Kashgaria (Uyghur Rebels) Hui Muslim rebels
Commanders and leaders
Zuo Zongtang
Wang Dagui
Dong Fuxiang
Ma Zhan'ao
Ma Anliang
Ma Qianling
Ma Haiyan
Dolongga
Yakub Beg
Hsu Hsuehkung
Ma Hualong
T'o Ming
Strength
Hunan Army (湘军), 120,000 Zuo Zongtang army and Loyalist Khafiya Chinese Muslim troops Uighur troops and Afghan volunteers, Han Chinese and Hui forcibly drafted into Yaqub's army, and separate Han Chinese militia Rebel Jahriyya Chinese Muslim and some Rebel Han Chinese
Casualties and losses
Muslim death in Shanxi alone could be as high as 4,000,000 during the Tong Zhi Muslim Revolt (同治回乱)of 1862 Total death: 8,000,000 -12,000,000, including civilians and soldiers

The Dungan Revolt was a mainly ethnic war with a few religious factors in 19th-century China. It is also known as the Hui Minorities' War. The term is sometimes used to include the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan which occurred during the same period. But strictly it was an uprising by members of the Hui and other Muslim ethnic groups in China's Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, as well as in Xinjiang, between 1862 and 1877.

The uprising was chaotic and often involved warring factions of bands and military leaders with no common cause or single specific goal or purpose on the western bank of the Yellow River (Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia (excluding Xinjiang province)). A common misconception is that it was directed against the Qing Dynasty, but there is no evidence at all showing that they intended to attack the capital of Beijing. When that rebellion failed, mass emigration of the Dungan people into Imperial Russia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan ensued.

Contents

Names

The "Dungans" referred to in this article are now called Hui people, or Chinese Muslims. They are not to be confused with "Turkestanis", or "Turkic" people in this article, who are known as Uyghur people, Kazakh people, Kyrgyz people, Tatars, Uzbeks...etc.

Rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi

Background

The "Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8" stated that the Dungan Revolt revolt by the Hui was set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than the mistaken assumption that it was all due to Islam and religion that the rebellions broke out.[1]

In the Qianlong era, scholar Wei Shu (魏塾) commented on Jiangtong's (江统) essay Xironglun (徙戎论) that if the Muslims didn't migrate out they were going to be like the Five Hu 五胡, who overthrew the Western Jin, which resulted in ethnic conflict, not religious conflict between the Wu Hu and Han Chinese.

Chinese Muslims had been traveling to West Asia for many years prior to the Hui Minorities' War. In the 18th century, several prominent Muslim clerics from Gansu studied in Mecca and Yemen under the Naqshbandi Sufi teachers. Two different forms of Sufism were brought back to Northwest China by two charismatic Hui sheikhs: Khafiya (also spelt Khafiyya or Khufiyah; Chinese: 虎夫耶, Hǔfūyē), associated with the name of Ma Laichi (马来迟, 1681–1766), and a more radical Jahriyya (also spelt Jahriya, Jahariyya, Jahariyah, etc.; Chinese: 哲赫林耶, Zhéhèlínyē, or 哲合忍耶, Zhéhérěnyē), founded by Ma Mingxin (马明新 or 马明心, 1719(?)-1781). These coexisted with the more traditional, non-Sufi Sunni practices, centered around local mosques and known as gedimu (格底目 or 格迪目). The Khafiya school, as well as non-Sufi gedimu tradition, both tolerated by the Qing authorities, were referred to by them as the "Old Teaching" (老教), while Jahriya, viewed as suspect, became known as the "New Teaching" (新教).

Disagreements between the adherents of Khafiya and Jahriya, as well as perceived mismanagement, corruption, and anti-Sufi attitudes of the Qing officials resulted in uprisings by Hui and Salar followers of the New Teaching in 1781 and 1783, but they were promptly suppressed. Hostility between different groups of Sufis contributed to the violent atmosphere before the revolt.[2]

Course of the rebellion

As the Taiping troops approached south-eastern Shaanxi in the spring of 1862, the local Han Chinese, encouraged by the Qing government, formed tuanlian (trad. 團練, simplified 团练) militias to defend the region against the Taipings. Afraid of the armed Han, the Muslims formed their own militia units.

According to modern researchers,[3] the Muslim rebellion began in 1862 not as a planned uprising, but as a coalescence of many local brawls and riots triggered by trivial causes. Among these were false rumours spread that the Hui Muslims were aiding the Taiping Rebellion. However, the Hui Ma Hsiao-shih claimed that the Shaanxi Muslim rebellion was connected to the Taiping.[4]

Many Green Standard troops of the Imperial army were Hui. One of these brawls and riots was initiated when a fight was triggered over the price of bamboo poles a Han was selling to Hui. This led to a massacre of Hui in multiple villages when they refused to agree to the price of the poles, including innocent people. Hui responded by attacking Han and other Hui who did not join them in revolt. A Manchu noted that there were many non rebellious Muslims who were loyal citizens, and warned the Qing court that exterminating all Muslims would force them to support the rebels and make the situation even worse. He said, "Among the Muslims, there are certainly evil ones, but doubtless there are also numerous peaceful, law-abiding people. If we decide to destroy them all, we are driving the good ones to join the rebels, and create for ourselves, and awesome, endless job of killing the Muslims".[5][6]

Battle of the Wei River, painting of the Imperial Qing Court.

The prestige of the Qing dynasty being low and its armies being busy elsewhere, the rebellion that began in the spring of 1862 in the Wei River valley was able to spread rapidly throughout the southeastern Shaanxi. By late June 1862, the organized Muslim fighter bands were able to besiege Xi'an, which was not relieved by the Qing general Dolongga (Chinese: 多隆阿, Duo Long-a) until the fall of 1863.

A vast number of Muslim refugees from Shaanxi fled to Gansu. Some of them formed the "Eighteen Great Battalions" in eastern Gansu, intending to fight back to their homes in Shaanxi.

While the Hui rebels took over Gansu and Shaanxi, Yaqub Beg, who had fled from Kokand Khanate in 1865 or 1866 after losing Tashkent to the Russians, declared himself as the ruler of Kashgar and soon managed to control the entire Xinjiang.

In 1867, the Qing government sent one of their most capable generals Zuo Zongtang, who was instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion, to Shaanxi. Zuo's approach was to pacify the region by promoting agriculture, especially cotton and grain, as well as supporting orthodox Confucian education. Due to the poverty of the region, Zuo had to rely on financial support from outside the North-West.

After suppressing the rebellion in Shaanxi and building up enough grain reserves to feed his army, Zuo attacked the paramount Muslim leader Ma Hualong (马化龙). Zuo's troops reached Ma's stronghold, Jinjibao (Chinese: 金积堡, Jinji Bao, i.e. Jinji Fortress) in what was then north-eastern Gansu[7][8][9] in September 1870, bringing Krupp siege guns with him. After a sixteen-month siege, Ma Hualong was forced to surrender in January 1871. Zuo sentenced Ma and over eighty of his officials to death by slicing. Thousands of Muslims were exiled to other parts of China.

Zuo's next target was Hezhou (now known as Linxia), the main center for the Hui people west of Lanzhou and a key point on the trade route between Gansu and Tibet. Hezhou was defended by the Muslim forces of Ma Zhan'ao (马占鳌). Not a Jahriya (New Teaching) adherent, he was a pragmatic member of the Khafiya (Old Teaching) sect, ready to explore avenues for peaceful coexistence with the Qing state. When the revolt broke out, Ma Zhanao escorted Han Chinese to safety in Yixin, and did not attempt to conquer more territory during the rebellion.[10] After successfully repulsing Zuo's initial assault in 1872, inflicting heavy losses on Zuo's army, he offered to surrender his stronghold to the empire, and his assistance to the Qing for the duration of the war. He managed to preserve his Muslim community with his diplomatic skill: While Zuo Zongtang pacified other areas by exiling the local Muslims (with the policy of "washing off the Muslims" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huí) approach that had been long advocated by some officials), in Hezhou, the non-Muslim Han were the ones Zuo chose to relocate as a reward for Ma Zhanao and his Muslim troops helping Qing crush Muslim rebels. Hezhou (Linxia) remains heavily Muslim to this day, achieving the status of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture under the PRC. Other Dungan generals like Ma Qianling and Ma Haiyan also defected to Qing along with Ma Zhan'ao. Ma Zhanao's son Ma Anliang also defected, and their Dungan forces assisted Zuo Zongtang's Qing forces in crushing the rebel dungans.

Dong Fuxiang also defected to the Qing dynasty side, along with Ma Zhanao.[11] He was in no sense a fanatical Muslim or even interested in rebellion, he merely gained support during the chaos and fought, just as many others did. He joined the Qing army of Zuo Zongtang in exchanged for a Mandarinate. He acquired estates which were large.[12]

Reinforced by the Hezhou Muslims, Zuo planned advance westward, along the Hexi Corridor toward Xinjiang. However, he felt it necessary to first secure his left flank by taking Xining, which not only had a large Muslim community of its own, but also sheltered many of the refugees from Shaanxi. Xining fell after a three-month siege in late 1872. Its commander Ma Guiyuan was captured, and defenders were killed by the thousands. The Muslim population of Xining was spared, however; the Shaanxi refugees sheltered there were resettled to arable land in eastern and southern Gansu, isolated from other Muslim areas.

Despite repeated offers of amnesty, many Muslims continued to resist at Suzhou (Jiuquan), their last stronghold in Hexi Corridor in west Gansu. The city was under the command of Ma Wenlu originally from Xining. Many Hui that had retreated from Shaanxi were there as well. After securing his supply lines, Zuo laid siege to Suzhou in September 1873 with 15,000 troops. The fortress could not withstand Zuo's siege guns and the city fell on October 24. Zuo had 7,000 Muslims executed, and resettled the rest in southern Gansu, to ensure that the entire Gansu Corridor from Lanzhou to Dunhuang would remain Muslim-free, preventing a possibility of future collusion between the Muslims of Gansu and Shaanxi and those of Xinjiang.

Han and Hui loyal to Qing seized the land of Hui rebels in Shaanxi, so the Shannxi Hui were resettled in Zhanjiachuan in Gansu.[13]

Confusion

The rebels were disorganized and without a common purpose. Some Han Chinese rebelled against the Qing state during the rebellion, and rebel bands fought each other.

The main Muslim rebel leader, Ma Hualong, was even granted a military rank and title during the rebellion by the Qing dynasty. It was only later when Zuo Zongtang launched his campaign to pacify the region, did he decide which rebels who surrendered where going to be executed, or spared.[14]

Zuo generally massacred New Teaching Jahriyya rebels, even if they surrendered, but spared New Teaching Khafiya and Sunni Gedimu Rebels if they surrendered. Ma Hualong belonged to the New Teaching, and Zuo executed him, while Muslims belonging to Old teaching like Ma Qianling, Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang were granted amnesty and even promoted in the Qing military.

An army of Han Chinese rebels led by Dong Fuxiang surrendered and joined Zuo Zongtang.[14]

General Zuo accepted the surrender of Muslims belonging to Old Teaching, provided they surrender large amounts of military equipment and supplies, and were relocated. He refused to accept surrenders of New Teaching Muslims who still believed in its teachings, since the Qing classified them as a dangerous heterodox cult, like the White Lotus Buddhists. Zuo said, "The only distinction is between the innocent and rebellious, there is none between Han and Muslim".[15]

The Qing authorities decreed that the muslim rebels who were violently attacking were merely heretics, not representative of the entire muslim population, like the heretical White Lotus did not represent all Buddhists.[16] The Qing authorities decreed that there were two different muslim sects, the "old" religion and "new" religion, and that the new were heretics and deviated like White Lotus deviated from Buddhism and Daoism, and stated its intention to inform the muslim community that it was aware that the original Islamic religion was one united sect, before the new "heretics", saying they would separate muslim rebels by which sect they belonged to.[17]

Nature of the Rebellion

The Hui Muslims who revolted in the Dungan revolt had no desire to form their own independent, Islamic state, unlike the Turki Muslims under Yaqub Beg in Xinjiang. Instead, they only fought to protect their homes, and never proclaimed that they wanted to overthrow the Chinese government or took any official titles, unlike the Hui in the Panthay Rebellion who sought to overthrow the dynasty. Non Muslims were reported to have been treated amicably in the territory of the rebels.[18]

During the rebellion, some Muslims never even joined the rebels, a Hui Muslim leader, Wang Dagui, fought on the side of the Qing dynasty against Muslim rebels, and was awarded for doing so, until he and his family were all killed by the rebels.[18]

In addition, the Hui Chinese Muslim rebel leaders never declared a Jihad, and never stated that they wanted to establish an Islamic state, in contrast to the Xinjiang Turki Muslims who called for Jihad. Instead of overthrowing the government, the rebels wanted to exact revenge from local corrupt officials and others who did them injustices.[19]

When Ma Hualong originally negotiated with the Qing authorities in 1866, he agreed to a "srurrender", giving up thousands of foreign weapons, spears, swords, and 26 cannons. Ma assumed a new name signifying loyalty to the Dynasty, Ma Ch'ao-ch'ing. Mu-t'u-shan, the Manchu official, hoped that this would lead to other Muslims following his lead and surrendering, however, Ma Hualong's surrender had no effect, the rebellion continued to spread.[20][21]

Even when Ma Hualong was sentenced to death, Zuo canceled the execution when Ma Hualong surrendered for the second time in 1871, surrendering all his weapons, such as cannons, gingalls, shotguns, and western weapons. Zuo also ordered him to convince other leaders to surrender. Zuo then discovered a hidden cache of 1,200 western weapons in Ma Hualong's headquarters in Chin-chi-pao, and Ma failed to persuade the others to surrender, then Ma, male members of his family, and many of his officers were killed.[22] Zuo then ordered that he would accept the surrenders of New Teaching Muslims who admitted that they were deceived, radicalized, and misled by its doctrines. Zuo excluded khalifas and mullas from the surrender.[23]

As noted in the previous sections, Zuo relocated Han Chinese from Hezhou as a reward for the Muslim leader Ma Zhanao when he and his followers surrendered and joined the Qing in crushing the rebels. Zuo also moved Shaanxi Muslim refugees from Hezhou, only allowing the native Gansu Muslims to stay. Ma Zhanao and his Muslim forces were then recruited into the Green Standard Army of the Qing military.[24]

Situation of Hui Muslims in Non rebellious areas

Hui muslims living in areas not in rebellion were completely unaffected by the revolt, with no restrictions being placed on them, nor did they try to join the rebels. Professor Hugh D. R. Baker stated in his book "Hong Kong images: people and animals", that the Hui muslim population of Beijing was unaffected by the Muslim rebels during the Dungan revolt.[25]

Elisabeth Allès wrote that the relationship between Hui Muslim and Han peoples continued normally in the Henan area, with no ramifications or consequences from th Muslim rebellions of other areas. Allès wrote in the document "Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan" published by French Centre for Research on Contemporary China that "The major Muslim revolts in the middle of the nineteenth century which involved the Hui in Shaanxi, Gansu and Yunnan, as well as the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, do not seem to have had any direct effect on this region of the central plain."[26]

Rebellion in Xinjiang

Shooting exercises of Yakub Beg's Dungan and Chinese taifurchi (gunners)

Pre-rebellion situation in Xinjiang

By the 1860s, Xinjiang had been under Qing rule for a century: it had been conquered in 1754, being the former western part of Mongolia and the Mongolian population became subject to a genocide. But the new territories, being mostly of semi-arid or desert character, were not much attractive to Han settlers except some traders, so the area became resettled predominantly by other steppe people like Uyghurs etc. The entire Xinjiang was administratively divided into three parts ("circuits"; Chinese: 路, lu):

  • The North-of-Tianshan Cirucit (天山北路, Tianshan Beilu), including the Ili basin and Dzungaria. (This region roughly corresponds to the modern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, including prefectures it controls and a few smaller adjacent prefectures).
  • The South-of-Tianshan Circuit (天山南路, Tianshan Nanlu). Ir included the "Eight cities", i.e. the "Four Western Cities" (Khotan, Yarkand, Yangihissar, Kashgar) and the "Four Eastern Cities" (Ush, Aqsu, Kucha, Karashahr).
  • The Eastern Circuit (东路, Donglu), in eastern Xinjiang, centered around Urumqi.

The General of Ili, stationed in Huiyuan Cheng (Ili), had the overall military command in all three circuits. He also was in charge of the civilian administration (directly in the North-of-Tianshan Circuit, and via local Muslim (Uyghur) begs in the South Circuit). However, the Eastern Circuit was subordinated in the matters of civilian administration to the Gansu province.

Trying (not always successfully) to prevent repetition of incursions of Afaqi khojas from Kokand into Kashgaria, such as those of Jahangir Khoja in the 1820s or Wali Khan in 1857, Qing government had increased the troops level in Xinjiang to some 50,000. There were both Manchu and Chinese units in the province; the latter, having been recruited mostly in Shaanxi and Gansu, had a heavily Hui (Dungan) component. A large part of the Qing army in Xinjiang was based in the Nine Forts of the Ili Region, but there were also forts with Qing garrisons in most other cities of Xinjiang as well.

The cost of maintaining this army was much higher than the taxation of the local economy could sustainably provide, and required subsidies from the central government - which, however, became infeasible by the 1850-60s due to the costs of fighting Taiping and other rebellions in the Chinese heartland. The Qing authorities in Xinjiang responded by raising taxes and introducing new ones, and selling official posts to the highest bidders (e.g. that of governor of Yarkand to Rustam Beg of Khotan for 2,000 yambus, and that of Kucha to Sa'id Beg for 1,500 yambus). The new officeholders would then proceed to recoup their investment by fleecing their subject population.

Increasing tax burden and corruption only added to the discontent of the Xinjiang people, who had long suffered both from the maladministration of Qing officials and the local begs subordinated to them and from the destructive invasions of the khojas. The Qing soldiers in Xinjiang, however, still were not paid on time or properly equipped.

With the start of the rebellion in Gansu and Shaanxi in 1862, rumors started spreading among the Hui (Dungans) of Xinjiang that the Qing authorities are preparing a wholesale preemptive slaughter of the Huis in Xinjiang, or in a particular community. The opinions on the veracities of these rumors differ: while Tongzhi Emperor described them as "absurd" in his edict of September 25, 1864, Muslim historian generally believe that massacres were indeed planned, if not by the imperial government, then by various local authorities. Thus it was the Dungans that usually were to revolt in most Xinjiang towns, although the local Turkic people - Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, or Kazakhs - would usually quickly join the fray.

Multi-centric rebellion

The first spark of the rebellion in Xinjiang was small enough for the Qing authorities to extinguish easily. On March 17, 1863, some 200 Dungans from the village of Sandaohe (a few miles west of Suiding), supposedly provoked by a rumor of a preemptive Dungan massacre, attacked Tarchi (塔勒奇城, Taleqi Cheng), one of the Nine Forts of the Ili. The rebels seized the weapons from the fort's armory and killed soldiers of its garrison, but were soon defeated by government troops from other forts and killed themselves.

It was not until the next year that the rebellion broke out again – this time, almost simultaneously in all three Circuits of Xinjiang, and on a scale that made suppressing it beyond the ability of the authorities.

On the night of June 3–4, 1864, the Dungans of Kucha, one of the cities South of Tianshan, rose, soon joined by the local Turkic people. The Chinese fort, which, unlike many other Xinjiang locations, was located inside of the town, rather than outside of it, fell within a few days. Government buildings were burnt and some 1000 Chinese and 150 Mongols were killed. Neither of the Dungan or Turkic leaders of the rebellion having enough authority in the entire community to become commonly recognized as a leader, the rebels instead choose a person who had not participated in the rebellion, but was known for his spiritual role: Rashidin (Rashīdīn) Khoja, a dervish and the custodian of the grave of his ancestor of saintly fame, Arshad-al-Din (? - 1364 or 65). Over the next three years, he was to send military expeditions east and west, attempting to bring the entire Tarim Basin under his control; however, his expansion plans were to be frustrated by Yaqub Beg.

Just three weeks after Kucha, the rebellion started in the Eastern Circuit. The Dungan soldiers of the Ürümqi garrison rebelled on June 26, 1864, soon after learning about the Kucha rebellion. The two Dungan leaders were Tuo Ming (a.k.a Tuo Delin), a New Teaching ahong from Gansu, and Suo Huanzhang, an officer with close ties to Hui religious leaders as well. Large parts of the city were destroyed, the tea warehouses burned, and the Manchu fortress besieged. Then the Ürümqi rebels started advancing westward through what is today Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, taking the cities of Manas (also known then as Suilai) on July 17 (the Manchu fort there fell on September 16) and Wusu (Qur Qarausu) on September 29.

On October 3, 1864, the Manchu fortress of Ürümqi also fell to the joint forces of Ürümqi and Kuchean rebels. In a pattern that was to repeat in other Chinese forts throughout the region, the Manchu commander, Pingžui, preferred to explode his gunpowder, killing himself and his family, rather than surrender.

The Dungan soldiers in Yarkand in Kashgaria learned of the Manchu authorities' plan to disarm or kill them, and rose in the wee hours of July 26, 1864. Their first attack on the Manchu fort (which was outside of the walled Muslim city) failed, but it still cost 2,000 Qing soldiers and their families their lives. In the morning, the Dungan soldiers entered the Muslim city, where some 7,000 Chinese were massacred. The Dungans being numerically few compared to the local Turkic Muslims, they picked a somewhat neutral party – one Ghulam Husayn, a religious man from a Kabul noble family - as the puppet padishah.

By the early fall of 1864, the Dungans of the Ili Basin in the "Northern Circuit" rose too, encouraged by the success of Ürümqi rebels at Wusu and Manas, and worried by the prospects of preemptive repressions by the local Manchu authorities. The Ili General (the Ili Jiangjun, 伊犁将军) Cangcing, hated by the local population as a corrupt oppressor, was sacked by the Qing government after his troops had been defeated by the rebels at Wusu, and Mingsioi was appointed to replace them. His attempts to negotiate with the Dungans were in vain though; on November 10, 1864, the Dungans rose both in Ningyuan (the "Taranchi Kuldja"), the commercial center of the region, and Huiyuan (the "Manchu Kuldja"), the military and administrative center of the region. Kulja's Taranchis (Turkic-speaking farmers who were to form later part of the Uyghur people) joined in the rebellion. When the local Muslim Kazakhs and Kyrgyz felt that the rebels are gained the upper hand, they joined it as well; on the other hand, the Buddhist Kalmyks, and Xibe mostly stayed loyal to the Qing government.

Ningyuan fell to the Dungan and Uighur rebels at once, but the strong government force at Huiyuan made the insurgents retreat after 12 days of heavy fighting in the streets of the city. The local Hans, seeing the Manchus winning, joined forces with them. However, the Qing forces' counter-offensive failed. The imperial troops lost their artillery and the "Ili General" Mingsioi barely escaped capture. With the fall of Wusu and Aksu, the Qing garrison, entrenched in the Huiyuan fortress, was completely cut off from the rest of empire-controlled territory; Mingxu had to send his communications to Beijing via Russia.

While the Qing forces in Huiyuan successfully repelled the next attack of the rebels (12 December 1864), the rebellion kept spreading through the northern part of the province (Dzungaria), where the Kazakhs were glad to take revenge on the Kalmyks that used to rule the area in the past.

Ruins of the Theater in Chuguchak, painting by Vereshchagin (1869–70)

For the Chinese New Year of 1865, the Hui leaders of Tacheng (Chuguchak) invited the local Qing authorities and Kalmyk nobles to assemble in the Hui mosque, in order to swear a mutual oath of peace. But once the Manchus and Kalmyks were in the mosque, the Huis seized the city armory, and started killing the Manchus. After two days of fighting, the Muslims were in control of the town, while the Manchus were besieged in the fortress. However, with the Kalmyk help, the Manchus were able to retake the Tacheng area by the fall of 1865. This time, it was the Huis turn to be locked up in the mosque. The fighting resulted in the destruction of Tacheng and the surviving residents fleeing the town[citation needed].

Both the Qing government in Beijing and the beleaguered Kulja officials asked the Russians for assistance against the rebellion (via Russian envoy in Beijing, G.A. Vlangali, and via the Russian commander in Semirechye, General Gerasim Kolapakovsky (Колпаковский) respectively). The Russians, however, were diplomatically non-committal: on the one hand, as Vlangali wrote to Saint Petersburg, a "complete refusal" would be bad for Russia's relations with Beijing; on the other hand, as Russian generals in Central Asia felt, seriously helping China against Xinjiang's Muslims would do nothing to improve Russia's problems with its own new Muslim subjects – and in case the rebellion were to succeed and form a permanent Hui state, having been on the Qing's side would do nothing good for Russia's relations with that new neighbor. The decision was thus made in Saint Petersburg in 1865 to avoid offering any serious help to the Qing, beyond agreeing to train Chinese soldiers in Siberia - should they send any - and to sell some grain to the defenders of Kuldja on credit. The main priority of Russian government was in guarding its border with China and preventing any possibility of the spread of the rebellion into Russia's own domain.

Considering that offense is the best defense, Kolpakovsky suggested to his superiors in February 1865 that Russia should go beyond defending its border and move in force into Xinjiang's border area, seizing Chuguchak, Kuldja and Kashgar areas and colonizing the area with Russian settlers - all to better protect the Romanovs' empire's other domains. The time was not ripe for such an adventure, however: as Foreign Minister Gorchakov noted, such a breach of neutrality would be not a good thing if China does recover its rebel provinces, after all.

Meanwhile the Qing forces in the Ili Valley did not fare well. In April 1865, the Huining (惠宁) fortress (today's Bayandai (巴彦岱), located between Yining and Huiyuan), fell to the rebels after three months' siege. Its 8,000 Manchu, Xibe, and Solon defenders were massacred, and two survivors, their ears and noses cut off, sent to Huiyuan - Qing's last stronghold in the Valley - to tell the Governor General about the fate of Huining.

Most of the Huiyuan (Manchu Kulja) fell to the rebels on January 8, 1866. Most of the residents and garrison perished; some 700 rebels died as well. Mingsioi, still holding out in the Huiyuan fortress with the remainder of his troops, but having run out of food, sent a delegation to the rebels, bearing a gift of 40 sycees of silver[27] and four boxes of green tea, and offering to surrender, provided the rebels guarantee their lives and allow them to keep their allegiance to the Qing government. Twelve Manchu officials with their families left the citadel along with the delegation. The Huis and Uyghurs received the delegation and allowed the refugees from Huiyuan to settle in Yining ("the Old Kuldja"). However, the rebels would not accept Mingsioi's condition, and required instead that he surrender immediately and recognize the authority of the rebels. As Mingsioi rejected the rebels' proposal, the rebels proceeded to storm the citadel at once. On March 3, the rebels having broken into the citadel, Mingsioi assembled his family and staff in his mansion, and blew it up, dying under its ruins. This was the end, for the time being, of the Qing rule in the Ili Valley.

Yaqub Beg in Kashgaria

Yakub Beg's "Andijani" taifurchi (gunners)

As reported by Muslim sources, the Qing authorities in Kashgar did not just intend to eliminate local Dungans, but in fact managed to carry out such a preemptive massacre in the summer of 1864. Perhaps this weakening of the local Dungan contingent resulted in the rebellion been initially not as successful in this area as in the rest of the province. Although the Dungan rebels were able to seize Yangihissar, neither they nor the Kyrgyz of Siddiq Beg could break into either into the Manchu forts outside of Yangihissar and Kashgar, nor into the walled Muslim city of Kashgar itself, held by Qutluq Beg, a local Muslim appointee of the Qing.

Unable to take control of the region on the own, the Dungan and Kyrgyz turned for help to Kokand's ruler Alim Quli. The help arrived in the early 1865, in the form both spiritual and material. The spiritual part consisted of Buzurg Khoja (also known as Buzurg Khan), member of the influential Afaqis family of khojas, whose religious authority could be expected to raise the rebellious spirit of the populace. He was a fine heir of the long family tradition of starting mischief in Kashgaria, being a son of Jahangir Khoja and brother of Wali Khan Khoja. The material part - as well as the expected conduit of Kokandian influence in Kashgaria - consisted of Yaqub Beg, a young but already well known Kokandian military commander, with an entourage of a few dozen Kokandian soldiers, who became known in Kashgaria as Andijanis.

Although Siddiq Beg's Kyrgyz had already taken the Muslim town of Kashgar by the time Buzurg Khoja and Yaqub Beg arrived, he had to allow the popular khoja to settle in the former governor's residence (the urda). Siddiq's attempts to assert his dominance were crushed by Yaqub Beg's and Buzurg's forces. The Kyrgyz then had to accept Yaqub's authority.

With his small, but comparatively well disciplined and trained army, made of the local Dungans and Kashgarian Turkic people (Uighurs, in modern terms), their Kyrgyz allies, Yaqub's own Kokandians, as well as some 200 soldiers sent by the ruler of Badakhshan, Yaqub Beg was able not only to take the Manchu fortress and the Chinese town of Kashgar during 1865 (the Manchu commander in Kashgar, as usual, blowing himself up), but to defeat much larger force sent by the Rashidin of Kucha, who was trying to dominate the Tarim Basin region himself.

While Yaqub Beg was asserting his authority over Kashgaria, the situation back home in Kokand changed radically. In May 1865, Alim Quli lost his life while defending Tashkent against the Russians; many of his soldiers (primarily, of Kyrgyz and Kipchak background) deemed it advisable to flee for comparative safety of Kashgaria. They appeared at the borders of Yaqub Beg's domain in early September 1865.

Afghan warriors assisted Yaqub Beg.[28]

Uyghurs Declare War against Dungans

The Taranchi Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang initially cooperated with the Dungans when they rose in revolt, but turned on them, because the Dungans attempted to subject the entire region to their rule. The Taranchi massacred the Dungans at Kuldja and driving the rest through Talk pass to the Ili valley.[29]

The Dungans in Xinjiang where neither trusted by the Qing authorities and the Turkestani Muslims.

Yaqub Beg's Uyghur forces declared a civil war against Dungan forces under T'o Ming. Fighting broke out between Dungan and Uyghur rebels in Xinjiang. Yaqub Beg enlisted Han Chinese militia under Hsu Hsuehkung in order to fight against the Dungan troops under T'o Ming. T'o Ming's Dungan forces were defeated by Yaqub in the Battle of Urumqi (1870), who planned to conquer Dzungharia. Yaqub intended to seize all Dungan territory.[30]Poems were written about the victories of Yaqub Beg's forces over the Chinese and the Dungans. Then Yakub Beg seized Aksu from Dungan forces and forced them north of the Tien Shan mountains, committing massacres upon the Dungans.

Independent Han chinese militia (who were not affiliated with the Qing government) joined both the Turkic forces under Yaqub Beg, and the Dungan rebels. In 1870, Yaqub Beg had 1,500 Han Chinese troops with his Turkic forces attacking Dungans in Urumchi. The following year, in 1871, the Han Chinese militia then joined the Dungans in fighting against the Turkic forces.[31]

Dungans Attack Uighurs

As Qing General Zuo Zongtang moved in to Turkestan to crush the Turkic Muslim (Uyghur) rebels under Yaqub Beg, Zuo was joined by Dungan (Chinese Muslim) General Ma Anliang and his forces, which were composed entirely out of Muslims. General Dong Fuxiang had an army of both Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. Ma Anliang and his Chinese Muslim troops began the attack on the Turkic Muslim forces, reconquering Turkestan for China.[32] General Dong Fuxiang's army seized the Kashgar and Khotan area.[33] Dong Fuxiang's army took Khotan.[34]

The Han General Zuo put a conciliatory policy toward the Muslims in place, pardoning Muslims who did not rebel, and he also pardoned Muslims who surrendered if they joined only because of religion.If Muslims assisted the government against the rebel Muslims they received rewards.[35] In contrast to General Zuo, the Manchu leader Dolongga wanted to massacre all the Muslims and saw them all as the enemy.[32]

Zuo Zongtang employed divide and conquer tactics on the Turkestanis, sending messages to Kashgaris that they had been fooled by the Central Asian Turkestanis under Yaqub Beg who persuaded them to rebel. Yaqub Beg became nervous, since the tactic worked, and he executed several native Kashgaris. His forces fell apart after fighting.[36]

The Qing forces beheaded Turkic rebel commanders, and also tortured Ottoman Turkish military officers who served with the rebels.[34]

Aftermath

Punishment

Yaqub Beg and his son Ishana Beg's corpses were "burned to cinders", on display, this angered the population in Kashgar, but Chinese troops quashed a rebellious plot by Hakim Khan.[37] Surviving members of Yaqub Beg's family included his 4 sons, 4 grandchildren (2 grandsons and 2 granddaughters), and 4 wives. They either died in prison in Lanzhou, Gansu, or were killed by the Chinese. His sons Yima Kuli, K'ati Kuli, Maiti Kuli, and grandson Aisan Ahung were the only survivors in 1879. They were all underage children, and put on trial, sentenced to an agonizing death if they were complicit in their father's rebellious "sedition", or if they were innocent of their fathers crimes, were to be sentenced to castration and serving as a eunuch slave to Chinese troops, when they reached 11 years old, and handed over to the Imperial Household to be executed or castrated.[38][39][40] In 1879, it was confirmed that the sentence of castration was carried out, Yaqub Beg's son and grandsons were castrated by the Chinese court in 1879 and turned into eunuchs to work in the Imperial Palace.[41]

Memorials

On January 25, 1891, a temple was constructed by Governor of Gansu Liu Jintang as a memorial to the victims who died during the Dungan revolt in Kashgar and Zungharia, in the capital of Gansu. The victims numbered 24,838 and included Chinese, Manchus, officials, peasants, and members of all social classes. It was named Chun Yi-t'sze. Another temple was already built in honor to the Xiang Army troops from Hunan who fought during the revolt.[42]

Flight of the Dungans to the Russian Empire

The failure of the uprising led to some immigration of Hui people into Imperial Russia. According to Rimsky-Korsakoff (1992), three separate groups of the Hui people fled to Russian Empire across the Tian Shan Mountains during the exceptionally severe winter of 1877/78:

  1. The first group, of some 1000 people, originally from Turpan in Xinjiang, led by Ma Daren (马大人), also known as Ma Da-lao-ye (马大老爷), reached Osh in southern Kyrgyzstan.
  2. The second group, of 1130 people, originally from Didaozhou (狄道州) in Gansu, led by ahong A Yelaoren (阿爷老人), were settled in the spring of 1878 in the village of Yardyk some 15 km from Karakol in Eastern Kyrgyzstan.
  3. The third group, originally from Shaanxi, led by Bai Yanhu (白彦虎; also spelt Bo Yanhu; 1829(?)-1882), one of the leaders of the rebellion, were settled in the village of Karakunuz (now Masanchi), is modern Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan. Masanchi is located on the northern (Kazakh) side of the Chu River, 8 km north from the city Tokmak in north-western Kyrgyzstan. This group numbered 3314 on arrival.

Another wave of immigration followed in the early 1880s. In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg signed in February 1881, which required the withdrawal of the Russian troops from the Upper Ili Basin (the Kulja area), the Hui and Taranchi (Uighur) people of the region were allowed to opt for moving to the Russian side of the border. Most choose that option; according to the Russian statistics, 4,682 Hui moved to Russian Empire under the treaty. They migrated in many small groups between 1881–83, settling in the village of Sokuluk some 30 km west of Bishkek, as well as in a number of points between the Chinese border and Sokuluk, in south-eastern Kazakhstan and northern Kyrgyzstan.

The descendants of these rebels and refugees still live in Kyrgyzstan and neighboring parts of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. They still call themselves the Hui people (Huizu), but to the outsiders they are known as Dungan, which means Eastern Gansu in Chinese.

Soviet propaganda writers like Rais Abdulkhakovich Tuzmukhamedov call the Dungan revolt (1862–1877) a "national liberation movement".[43]

Increase in Muslim Military Power

The Rebellion increased the power of Muslim Generals and military men in Qing dynasty china. Many Muslim Generals who served in the Rebellion, like Ma Anliang, and Dong Fuxiang were promoted by the Qing Emperor, and led Muslim armies to fight again in the Dungan Revolt (1895) against rebel Muslims, and in the Boxer Rebellion against Christian Western Armies. The Muslim Kansu Braves rose to fame for protecting the Emperor and Polytheist Han Chinese against the Chinese Christians and Westerners.

Ma Fuxiang, Ma Qi, and Ma Bufang were the descendants of the Muslim military men from this era, and they became important and high ranking Generals in the Republic of China National Revolutionary Army.

Border Dispute with Russia

The Russians occupied the city of Kuldja in Xinjiang during the revolt. After General Zuo Zongtang and his Xiang Army crushed the rebels, they demanded Russia return the occupied regions.

General Zuo Zongtang was outspoken in calling for war against Russia, hoping to settle the matter by attacking Russian forces in Xinjiang with his Xiang army. In 1878, tension increased in Xinjiang, Zuo massed Chinese troops toward the Russian occupied Kuldja. Chinese forces also fired on Russian expeditionary forces originating from Yart Vernaic, expelling them, resulting in a Russian retreat.[44]

See also

Footnotes

  •  This article incorporates text from Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, Volume 4, Issues 1-2, by Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afd. Letterkunde, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Sectarianism and religious persecution in China: a page in the history of religions, Volume 2, by Jan Jakob Maria Groot, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Accounts and papers of the House of Commons, by Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, a publication from 1871 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events, Volume 4, a publication from 1880 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Translations of the Peking Gazette, by 1880, a publication from now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4, a publication from 1888 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 19, a publication from 1886 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese times, Volume 5, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Canadian spectator, Volume 1, a publication from 1878 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 893. http://books.google.com/books?id=eEwTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA894&dq=The+most+notable+and+most+serious+of+such+outbreaks+have+been+those+of+the+north+(Kan-su+and+Shen-si)+in+1861-74,+and+of+the+south+(Yiin-nan)+in+1858-72.+It+would+be+a+mistake,+however,+to+attribute+these+ruinous+insurrections+to+religious+motives+alone,+for+racial+antagonisms+and+the+conflicting+interests+of+different+social+classes+were+certainly+no+less+potent+factors.&hl=en&ei=-_AITvyjB8zogQfJnuWsDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20most%20notable%20and%20most%20serious%20of%20such%20outbreaks%20have%20been%20those%20of%20the%20north%20(Kan-su%20and%20Shen-si)%20in%201861-74%2C%20and%20of%20the%20south%20(Yiin-nan)%20in%201858-72.%20It%20would%20be%20a%20mistake%2C%20however%2C%20to%20attribute%20these%20ruinous%20insurrections%20to%20religious%20motives%20alone%2C%20for%20racial%20antagonisms%20and%20the%20conflicting%20interests%20of%20different%20social%20classes%20were%20certainly%20no%20less%20potent%20factors.&f=false. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  2. ^ John Powell (2001). John Powell. ed. Magill's Guide to Military History, Volume 3 (illustrated ed.). Salem Press. p. 1072. ISBN 0893560146. http://books.google.com/books?id=SI4YAAAAIAAJ&q=wash+away+the+xi+hui&dq=wash+away+the+xi+hui&hl=en&ei=290ITpaGDY3qgQeYoonBDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFEQ6AEwBw. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  3. ^ Lipman (1998), p. 120–121
  4. ^ Sir H. A. R. Gibb. Encyclopedia of Islam, Volumes 1-5. Brill Archive. p. 849. ISBN 9004071644. http://books.google.com/books?id=jJY3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA849&dq=hui+muslims+chinese+new+year&hl=en&ei=NCeOTc6qLpS80QHZ3aWjCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFsQ6AEwCTgK#v=onepage&q=hui%20muslims%20chinese%20new%20year&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-26. 
  5. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (1991). The search for modern China. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 191. ISBN 0393307808. http://books.google.com/books?id=vI1RRslLNSwC&pg=PA191&dq=muslim+bamboo+poles+taiping&hl=en&ei=PyvLTPy2G8G88gbQ4pAj&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=muslim%20bamboo%20poles%20taiping&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 62. ISBN 0700710264. http://books.google.com/books?id=BwuSpFiOFfYC&pg=PA62&dq=taiping+hui+rebellions&hl=en&ei=zyrLTNfjOIH78Aam7P3UAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD4Q6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=taiping%20hui%20rebellions&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ Jinjibao (Chinese: 金积堡, Jinji Bao, i.e. Jinji Fortress or Jinji Castle) is spelled by some English sources as Jinjipu, using an alternative reading of the character 堡. This site is called the town of Jinji (金积镇, Jinji Zheng), some 8 km southwest from Wuzhong City in Wuzhong prefecture of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (formerly part of Gansu).
  8. ^ See the Town of Jinji (金积镇, Jinji Zheng) on Wuzhong map
  9. ^ 金积镇 (Jinji Town) mentioned as being 金积堡 (Jinji Fortress) in the past
  10. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul., 1984). Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu. Sage Publications, Inc.. p. 294. JSTOR 189017. 
  11. ^ Mary Clabaugh Wright (1957). Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism the T'Ung-Chih. Stanford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0804704759. http://books.google.com/books?id=VaOaAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA114&dq=ma+fu-hsiang&hl=en&ei=AXkzTKenI8GqlAfS1bS-Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEsQ6AEwBw#v=snippet&q=%20ma%20fu-hsiang%20ma%20chan-ao%20ch'ing%20reconquest&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 893. http://books.google.com/books?id=eEwTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA893&dq=tung+fu+hsiang+not+a+fanatical+muslim+at+all&hl=en&ei=0LsITveeAcjdgQfYhNDYDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-11-28. 
  13. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. (Jul., 1984). Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu. Sage Publications, Inc.. p. 293. JSTOR 189017. 
  14. ^ a b Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals". Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University). http://www.ouigour.fr/recherches_et_analyses/Garnautpage_93.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-14.  Page 98
  15. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0521220297. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEfWaxPhdnIC&pg=PA228&dq=tso+publicized+imperial+injunction+only+distinction+between+innocent+and+rebellious+none+between+han+and+muslim&hl=en&ei=yDDLTMuYA8P-8Abq_tnwAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tso%20publicized%20imperial%20injunction%20only%20distinction%20between%20innocent%20and%20rebellious%20none%20between%20han%20and%20muslim&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. ^ Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afd. Letterkunde (1904). Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, Volume 4, Issues 1-2. North-Holland. p. 323. http://books.google.com/books?id=ju8MAAAAIAAJ&dq=eunuch+slaves+turkestan&q=moslem#v=onepage&q=moslem%20heretical%20sect%20white%20lotus%20buddhist%20clergy%20population%20nothing&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ Jan Jakob Maria Groot (1904). Sectarianism and religious persecution in China: a page in the history of religions, Volume 2. J. Miller. p. 324. http://books.google.com/books?id=oL5ZAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=the%20whole%20moslem%20population%20may%20get%20convinced&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. ^ a b Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA131&dq=ma+hualong+qing+loyalist&hl=en&ei=oyrLTJyFBMP98Aa6m8XjAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  19. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA131&dq=ma+hualong+qing+loyalist&hl=en&ei=oyrLTJyFBMP98Aa6m8XjAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=to%20convert%20qing%20territory%20into%20islamic%20sino%20muslim%20qing%20jihad&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  20. ^ Bruce A. Elleman (2001). Modern Chinese warfare, 1795-1989. Psychology Press. p. 66. ISBN 0415214742. http://books.google.com/books?id=Md801mHEeOkC&pg=PA66&dq=ma+hualong+qing+loyalist&hl=en&ei=oyrLTJyFBMP98Aa6m8XjAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=ma%20hualong%20qing%20loyalist&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  21. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 0521220297. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEfWaxPhdnIC&pg=PA220&dq=ma+hua-lung+ch'ing+loyalist&hl=en&ei=rTTLTKPUDcP68Ab80tj6AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ma%20hua-lung%20ch'ing%20loyalist&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  22. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 0521220297. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEfWaxPhdnIC&dq=ma+hua-lung+ch%27ing+loyalist&q=ma+hua-lung+surrendered+execution+arms#v=snippet&q=ma%20hua-lung%20surrendered%20execution%20arms&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  23. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0521220297. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEfWaxPhdnIC&dq=ma+hua-lung+ch%27ing+loyalist&q=pardon+new+teaching+khalifas+mullas#v=snippet&q=pardon%20new%20teaching%20khalifas%20mullas&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  24. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911. Cambridge University Press. p. 234. ISBN 0521220297. http://books.google.com/books?id=pEfWaxPhdnIC&pg=PA234&dq=ma+and+other+erstwhile+rebel+leaders+absorbed+into+local+green+standard+officer&hl=en&ei=uj_LTM_3KcOC8gal7Jj3AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=ma%20and%20other%20erstwhile%20rebel%20leaders%20absorbed%20into%20local%20green%20standard%20officer&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  25. ^ Hugh D. R. Baker (1990). Hong Kong images: people and animals. Hong Kong University Press. p. 55. ISBN 9622092551. http://books.google.com/books?id=6SACPP8mZQ8C&pg=PA55&dq=yet+while+this+slaughter+was+going+on,+we+are+told,+200,000+muslims+in+beijing+remained+quite+unaffected,+neither+giving+nor+suffering+any+trouble&hl=en&ei=NTUmTtHUCIXpgQfe69Vc&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=yet%20while%20this%20slaughter%20was%20going%20on%2C%20we%20are%20told%2C%20200%2C000%20muslims%20in%20beijing%20remained%20quite%20unaffected%2C%20neither%20giving%20nor%20suffering%20any%20trouble&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  26. ^ Allès, Elizabeth (september-october 2003, Online since 17 january 2007). "Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan". French Centre for Research on Contemporary China. p. 6. http://chinaperspectives.revues.org/document649.html. Retrieved 2011-07-20. 
  27. ^ While the weight of a sycee (known in the northern China as yambu - Chinese: 元宝, yuánbǎo) varied, Russian merchants trading at the Chinese border posts at the time reported that a sycee would weigh up to 50 taels, i.e. some 1875 gram, of silver
  28. ^ Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: towards a historical anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. p. 84. ISBN 9004166750. 
  29. ^ Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (1871). Accounts and papers of the House of Commons. Ordered to be printed. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?id=gitcAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA5-PA35&dq=soviets+defeated+by+tungans&hl=en&ei=YuIiTPObAYSBlAe3scTHDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBjgK#v=snippet&q=tungans%20taranchis%20massacred%20kuldja&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  30. ^ John King Fairbank, Kwang-ching Liu, Denis Crispin Twitchett (1980). Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911 Volume 11, Part 2 of The Cambridge History of China Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0521220297. 
  31. ^ Ho-dong Kim (2004). Holy war in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0804748845. http://books.google.com/books?id=AtduqAtBzegC&dq=doing+fuxiang+russian&q=anchu#v=onepage&q=brother%20fifteen%20hundred%20han%20chinese&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  32. ^ a b Lanny B. Fields (1978). Tso Tsung-tʼang and the Muslims: statecraft in northwest China, 1868-1880. Limestone Press. p. 81. ISBN 0919642853. http://books.google.com/books?id=_e8vAQAAIAAJ&q=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's&dq=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's&hl=en&ei=eEqxTPaUG4H48Abx8pWfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  33. ^ DeWitt C. Ellinwood (1981). Ethnicity and the military in Asia. Transaction Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 0878553878. http://books.google.com/books?id=4EqRBIz9GtgC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+fu+hsiang+mongol&hl=en&ei=xRCsTOPMGYKC8ga90LG2Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=ma%20fu%20hsiang%20mongol&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  34. ^ a b Ho-dong Kim (2004). Holy war in China: the Muslim rebellion and state in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877. Stanford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0804748845. http://books.google.com/books?id=AtduqAtBzegC&pg=PA176&dq=doing+fuxiang+russian&hl=en&ei=vIyuTPiOL4KB8gauzqnHBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  35. ^ Lanny B. Fields (1978). Tso Tsung-tʼang and the Muslims: statecraft in northwest China, 1868-1880. Limestone Press. p. 81. ISBN 0919642853. http://books.google.com/books?id=_e8vAQAAIAAJ&q=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's+forces+unlike+those+of+Tung+Fu-hsiang+were+led+and+composed+entirely+of+Muslims&dq=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's+forces+unlike+those+of+Tung+Fu-hsiang+were+led+and+composed+entirely+of+Muslims&hl=en&ei=tUqxTJ30H4T48Ablg82dCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  36. ^ DeWitt C. Ellinwood (1981). Ethnicity and the military in Asia. Transaction Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 0878553878. http://books.google.com/books?id=4EqRBIz9GtgC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+fu+hsiang+mongol&hl=en&ei=xRCsTOPMGYKC8ga90LG2Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage&q=tso%20skill%20policy%20moslems%20kashgaria%20native%20well%20treated%20central%20asians%20yakub%20beg&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  37. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events, Volume 4. TD. Appleton and company. 1880. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=1NwbAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=turkistan+hands+of+china+prisoners+sons+grandsons+granddaughters+four+wives+yakoob+beg&hl=en&ei=kW3LTbafF4uEtgeguJnpBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CE8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=turkistan%20hands%20of%20china%20prisoners%20sons%20grandsons%20granddaughters%20four%20wives%20yakoob%20beg&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  38. ^ Translations of the Peking Gazette. 1880. p. 83. http://books.google.com/books?id=Yjg1AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA83&dq=whether+they+have+attained+full+age+or+not,+be+delivered+imperial+household+made+eunuchs+slaves+to+soldiery+turkestan&hl=en&ei=wG3LTdKpMMG2twfnsOGFCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=whether%20they%20have%20attained%20full%20age%20or%20not%2C%20be%20delivered%20imperial%20household%20made%20eunuchs%20slaves%20to%20soldiery%20turkestan&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  39. ^ The American annual cyclopedia and register of important events of the year ..., Volume 4. D. Appleton and Company. 1888. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=DqYoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=whether+they+have+attained+full+age+or+not,+be+delivered+imperial+household+made+eunuchs+slaves+to+soldiery+turkestan&hl=en&ei=6m_LTdeEC8u3tgfeofTnBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  40. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopedia and register of important events: Embracing political, military, and ecclesiastical affairs; public documents; biography, statistics, commerce, finance, literature, science, agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 19. Appleton. 1886. p. 145. http://books.google.com/books?id=3xYbAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA145&dq=whether+they+have+attained+full+age+or+not,+be+delivered+imperial+household+made+eunuchs+slaves+to+soldiery+turkestan&hl=en&ei=6m_LTdeEC8u3tgfeofTnBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
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  42. ^ The Chinese times, Volume 5. VOLUME V.. TIENTSIN: THE TIENTSIN PRINTING CO.. 1891. p. 74. http://books.google.com/books?id=eR8-AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA74&dq=wei+acting+governor+of+kansu+new+dominion+erection+of+a+temple+capital+memory&hl=en&ei=epLRTZXCHsPq0QG5rcGLDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=wei%20acting%20governor%20of%20kansu%20new%20dominion%20erection%20of%20a%20temple%20capital%20memory&f=false. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  43. ^ Rais Abdulkhakovich Tuzmukhamedov (1973). How the national question was solved in Soviet Central Asia (a reply to falsifiers). Progress Publishers. p. 74. http://books.google.com/books?id=tUY5AQAAIAAJ&q=The+Dungans+who+left+Northwest+China+after+the+defeat+of+their+national+liberation+movement+of+1862-77+and&dq=The+Dungans+who+left+Northwest+China+after+the+defeat+of+their+national+liberation+movement+of+1862-77+and&hl=en&ei=v1IiTefZF8OblgeT0_m9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-01-01. 
  44. ^ The Canadian spectator, Volume 1. 1878. p. 462. http://books.google.com/books?id=778QAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA462&dq=The+difficulty+between+Russia+and+China+on+the+frontier+is+growing+fast.+It+is+reported+that+a+Russian+expedition+from+Yart+Vernaic+has+been+fired+upon+by+Chinese+troops+and+forced+to+return.+The+British+barque+%22+Glamorganshire,%22+which,&hl=en&ei=qCvkTenKEK7q0QGgt9SWBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20difficulty%20between%20Russia%20and%20China%20on%20the%20frontier%20is%20growing%20fast.%20It%20is%20reported%20that%20a%20Russian%20expedition%20from%20Yart%20Vernaic%20has%20been%20fired%20upon%20by%20Chinese%20troops%20and%20forced%20to%20return.%20The%20British%20barque%20%22%20Glamorganshire%2C%22%20which%2C&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

References

General

  • Kim Hodong, "Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877". Stanford University Press (March 2004). ISBN 0-8047-4884-5. (Searchable text available on Amazon.com)
  • Bruce Elleman, "Modern Chinese Warfare (Warfare and History)". 2001, ISBN 0-415-21474-2. (p. 65-, the section on "The Tungan Rebellion, 1862-73").

Background, and the war in Shaanxi-Gansu

  • Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0-295-97644-6. (Searchable text available on Amazon.com)

War in Xinjiang, and the Russian involvement

  • "Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier", by Sarah C. M. Paine (1996) ISBN 1-56324-723-2
  • "The Ili Crisis: A Study of Sino-Russian Diplomacy, 1871-1881", by Immanuel Chung-yueh Hsü (1966)

Russian

Dungan emigration


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