Dukes of Braganza


Dukes of Braganza
Original Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Braganza (before 1481).
The Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Braganza (after 1481).
The Coat of Arms of Jaime, 4th Duke of Braganza, sworn heir to the throne when King Manuel I of Portugal travelled to Castile and was yet childless.

The title Duke of Braganza (Portuguese: Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal, as the ancient Duchy of Braganza (Bragança), is one of the oldest and most important dukedoms in Portugal. Since the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal in 1640, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown has been known as the Duke of Braganza together with the title Prince of Brazil (until 1822), or sometimes also by Prince of Beira. The tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders after the foundation of the Republic on October 5, 1910, to signify their claims to the throne.

Contents

History of Dukedom

Feudal dukes

The Duke of Braganza holds one of the most important dukedoms in Portugal, see Duchy of Braganza. Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos (natural son of John I of Portugal), it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal.

By 1640, Portugal was on the verge of rebellion and a new Portuguese king had to be found. The choice fell upon the eighth duke, João II of Braganza, who had a claim both through his grandmother, Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, a legitimate granddaughter of king Manuel I, and through his great-great-grandfather, the 4th duke of Braganza, a nephew of King Manuel I. Duke John II was a modest man without particular ambitions to the Crown. Legend says that his wife, Leonor of Guzman, daughter of the duke of Medina-Sidónia, urged him to accept the offer saying, I'd rather be Queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime. He accepted the leadership of the rebellion, which was successful, and was acclaimed John IV of Portugal on December 1, 1640.

Dukedom in the Braganza monarchy

After the accession of the House of Braganza to the Portuguese throne in 1640, following the Philippine Dynasty of Spanish Habsburgs, the Dukedom became linked to the Crown and later the Duke of Braganza became the traditional title of the heir to the Portuguese Crown, together with, or alternate to Prince of Beira, much as Prince of Wales is in the United Kingdom. When the 8th Duke had ascended the royal throne, and elevated his son and heir Teodosio as the first Prince of Brazil, he granted the Duchy of Braganza to his brother infante dom Duarte de Portugal-Bragança e de Fernandez de Velasco de Frias. He died in 1649, in Spanish incarceration. Then it was granted to king's second son, the future Afonso VI of Portugal.

From this onwards, the Duke of Braganza was kept for the heir apparent of the throne – in its strictest sense. Although the other title for an unavoidable heir, that of Prince of Brazil, was from time to time granted even to female heirs, the Duke of Braganza was always only for the male heir except for two extraordinary creations, in 1683 and 1711 (these two creations are deemed invalid by some legalists, who accordingly number the dukes in a way that the last of them during the monarchy, Luiz Filipe, was 21st Duke).

When Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicated his Brazilian throne in 1831, he took his already invested title Duke of Braganza. After his 1834 death, it was (possibly erroneously[weasel words]) regarded to have reverted to the Portuguese crown and for the next time, passed to his grandson Pedro of Coburg, upon his birth in 1837. However, in 1889 Pedro I's son and heir, the then deposed emperor Pedro II of Brazil, took the use of this ducal title[citation needed]. At that point, for two subsequent years, there were two dukes[citation needed]: the deposed emperor Pedro II who lived in France, and the very young Luiz Filippe (1887–1908), crown prince of Portugal, in Lisbon.

On February 1, 1908, king Carlos I of Portugal was murdered with his eldest son and heir, Luis Filipe, 23rd duke of Braganza, who was the last individual during the monarchy to have that title. He was succeeded by Manuel II of Portugal but for a short time: on October 5, 1910, a republic was instituted and the king was exiled. King Manuel II settled in England.

Dukes in the post-monarchy era

After the foundation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910, the tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders to signify their claims to the throne.

In the last years of the deposed king Manuel II of Portugal, the dukedom of Bragança allegedly passed to Miguel II, son of the exiled king Miguel I of Portugal, who was living in the Austrian Empire. His branch of the Braganza family allegedly became heirs to the crown in 1932 when Manuel II died without children. These Braganzas were officially allowed to return to the country in 1950 and have lived there ever since.

Presently, the commonly acknowledged duke of Braganza and Portuguese heir is Duarte Pio of Braganza (born 1945). Unlike some European countries like Greece, which continues to forbid the presence of the heirs of former royal houses in their lands, republican Portugal and its claimants to the throne have long been reconciled, a fact shown when among the guests at his wedding was the Portuguese President of the Republic and the country's prime minister.

List of the Dukes of Braganza

Note: The blue shade means that the person was not officially created Duke of Braganza, the person only claimed the title.

As title of nobility

No. Name Picture Birth Became Duke Ceased to be Duke Death Other titles Marriages
1. Afonso I, 1st Duke of Braganza DafonsoIbraganca.jpg 4 August 1377
Illegitimate son of King John I
1443 15 December 1461 8th Count of Barcelos, 2nd Count of Neiva Beatriz Pereira de Alvim
Constance de Noronha
2. Fernando I, 2nd Duke of Braganza 2o Duque Bragança.jpg 4 August 1403
Second son of Duke Afonso I
15 December 1461 1 April 1478 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 5th Count of Ourém, 9th Count of Barcelos, 3rd Count of Arraiolos, 3rd Count of Neiva Joana de Castro
3. Fernando II, 3rd Duke of Braganza Armas duques bragança.png 1430
Eldest son of Duke Fernando I
1 April 1478 1483 1st Duke of Guimarães, 2nd Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 10th Count of Barcelos, 6th Count of Ourém, 4th Count of Arraiolos, 4th Count of Neiva, 1st Count of Guimarães Doña Leonor de Menezes
Infanta Isabella of Viseu
4. James, 4th Duke of Braganza
(also known as Jaime)
Jaime, Duque de Bragança.jpg 1479
Eldest son of Duke Fernando II
1483 20 September 1532 Prince of Portugal, 2nd Duke of Guimarães, 3rd Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 11th Count of Barcelos, 8th Count of Ourém, 5th Count of Arraiolos, 5th Count of Neiva Eleonor of Mendoza
Joana of Mendoza
5. Teodósio I, 5th Duke of Braganza Armas novas duques bragança.png 1510
Eldest son of Duke James I
20 September 1532 22 September 1563 3rd Duke of Guimarães, 4th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 12th Count of Barcelos, 6th Count of Arraiolos, 9th Count of Ourém, 6th Count of Neiva Isabel of Lencastre
Beatriz of Lencastre
6. John I, 6th Duke of Braganza
(also known as João I)
DjoaoIbraganca.jpg 1543
Eldest son of Duke Teodósio I
22 September 1563 1583 1st Duke of Barcelos, 5th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 13th Count of Barcelos, 10th Count of Ourém, 7th Count of Arraiolos, 7th Count of Neiva Infanta Catherine of Guimarães
7. Teodósio II, 7th Duke of Braganza TeodosioIIbraganca.jpg 28 April 1568
Eldest son of Duke John I
1583 29 November 1630 2nd Duke of Barcelos, 6th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 14th Count of Barcelos, 11th Count of Ourém, 8th Count of Arraiolos, 8th Count of Neiva Ana de Velasco y Girón
8. John IV of Portugal
(João II as Duke)
Pedro Américo - Dom João IV infante, Duque de Bragança - 1879.jpg 18 March 1603
Eldest son of Duke Teodósio II
29 November 1630 1 December 1640
became King
6 November 1656 21st King of Portugal and the Algarves, 6th Duke of Guimarães, 3rd Duke of Barcelos, 7th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 15th Count of Barcelos, 12th Count of Ourém, 9th Count of Arraiolos, 9th Count of Neiva Luisa of Medina-Sidonia

As heir apparent

No. Name Picture Birth Became Duke Ceased to be Duke Death Other titles Marriages
9. Teodósio III, Prince of Brazil Principe do Brazil D. Teodosio.jpg 8 February 1634
Eldest son of King John IV
1 December 1640 13 May 1653 Prince of Portugal, Prince of Brazil, 4th Duke of Barcelos, 8th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 16th Count of Barcelos, 13th Count of Ourém, 10th Count of Arraiolos, 10th Count of Neiva none
10. Afonso VI of Portugal
(Afonso II as Duke)
Alfons VI..jpg 21 August 1643
3rd son of King John IV
13 May 1653 6 November 1656
became King
12 September 1683 22nd King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince of Brazil, 5th Duke of Barcelos, 9th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 17th Count of Barcelos, 14th Count of Ourém, 11th Count of Arraiolos, 11th Count of Neiva Maria Francisca of Savoy
11. John V of Portugal
(João III as Duke)
Joao V Portugal.jpg 22 October 1689
2nd son of King Peter II
9 December 1706
became King
31 July 1750 24th King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince of Brazil, 10th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 18th Count of Barcelos, 15th Count of Ourém, 12th Count of Arraiolos, 12th Count of Neiva Maria Anna of Austria
12. Joseph I of Portugal
(also known as José I)
JoseIPortugal.jpg 6 June 1714
eldest son of King Peter II
29 October 1714 31 July 1750
became King
24 February 1777 25th King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince of Brazil, 6th Duke of Barcelos, 11th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 19th Count of Barcelos, 16th Count of Ourém, 13th Count of Arraiolos, 13th Count of Neiva Mariana Victoria of Spain
13. Maria I of Portugal Jcarvalho-dmariaI-mhn.jpg 17 December 1734
eldest child of King Joseph I
31 July 1750 24 February 1777
became Queen
20 March 1816 26th Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, Princess of Brazil, Princess of Beira, 7th Duchess of Barcelos, 12th Marchioness of Vila Viçosa, 20th Countess of Barcelos, 17th Countess of Ourém, 14th Countess of Arraiolos, 14th Countess of Neiva Pedro III of Portugal
14. Joseph, Prince of Brazil
(also known as José)
D. José, Príncipe da Beira e do Brasil.jpg 20 August 1761
eldest son of Queen Maria I
24 February 1777 11 September 1788 Prince of Brazil, Prince of Beira, 8th Duke of Barcelos, 13th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 21st Count of Barcelos, 18th Count of Ourém, 15th Count of Arraiolos, 15th Count of Neiva Infanta Benedita of Portugal
15. John VI of Portugal
(also known as João VI)
Anônimo - Retrato de Dom João VI - século XVIII.jpg 13 May 1767
youngest son of Queen Maria I
11 September 1788 20 March 1816 became King 10 March 1826 27th King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince of Brazil, 14th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 22nd Count of Barcelos, 19th Count of Ourém, 16th Count of Arraiolos, 16th Count of Neiva Charlotte of Spain
16. Pedro I of Brazil
(Pedro IV of Portugal)
29- Imperador Rei D. Pedro IV - O Soldado.jpg 12 October 1798
2nd son of King John VI
20 March 1816 October 12, 1822 became Emperor 1st Emperor of Brazil, 28th King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Prince of Beira, 9th Duke of Barcelos, 15th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 23rd Count of Barcelos, 20th Count of Ourém, 17th Count of Arraiolos, 17th Count of Neiva Maria Leopoldina of Austria
Amélia of Leuchtenberg
7 April 1831
after abdication used as style
24 September 1834
Miguel I of Portugal Miguel of Portugal.jpg 26 October 1802
youngest son of King John VI
6 May 1834
never created duke, used as style during his exile
14 November 1866 29th King of Portugal and the Algarves, Duke of Beja Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
18. Maria II of Portugal Maria 02 Portugal 1819 1853 young.jpg 4 April 1819
eldest child of Emperor Pedro I
24 September 1834 28 May 1826
became Queen
15 November 1853 30th Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, Princess of Grão-Pará, Princess Imperial of Brazil, Princes of Beira, Princess of Eichstätt, Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 1st Duchess of Porto, Duchess of Leuchtenberg, Duchess of Santa Cruz, 10th Duchess of Barcelos, 17th Marchioness of Vila Viçosa, 25th Countess of Barcelos, 22nd Countess of Ourém, 19th Countess of Arraiolos, 19th Countess of Neiva Auguste, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Ferdinand II of Portugal
19. Pedro V of Portugal PedroV.JPG 16 December 1837
eldest son of Queen Maria II
15 November 1853 became King 11 November 1861 31st King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 10th Duke of Barcelos, 18th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 26th Count of Barcelos, 23rd Count of Ourém, 21st Count of Arraiolos, 20th Count of Neiva Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
20. Carlos I of Portugal Carlos I de Portugal.jpg 28 September 1863
eldest son of King Louis I
19 October 1889 became King 1 February 1908
assassinated
33rd King of Portugal and the Algarves, Prince Royal of Portugal, 12th Duke of Barcelos, 19th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 27th Count of Barcelos, 24th Count of Ourém, 22nd Count of Arraiolos, 21st Count of Neiva Amélie of Orléans
21. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal Luis Filipe, Duke of Braganza.jpg 21 March 1887
eldest son of King Carlos I
19 October 1889 1 February 1908
assassinated
Prince Royal of Portugal, Prince of Beira, 14th Duke of Barcelos, 25th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 28th Count of Barcelos, 25th Count of Ourém, 23rd Count of Arraiolos, 22nd Count of Neiva none

Post-monarchy use and as claimant to the throne of Portugal

No. Name Picture Birth Claimed title Ceased to be Duke Death Other titles claimed Marriages
Miguel, Duke of Braganza Miguel, Duke of Braganza.jpg 19 September 1853
eldest son of King Miguel I, general of the Austrian Empire
4 October 1910
or
14 November 1866
31 July 1920 11 October 1927 Duke of Barcelos, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Barcelos, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva Princess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis
Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza Duarte Nuno de Bragança.jpg 19 September 1853
3rd son of Miguel
31 July 1920
or
2 July 1932
24 December 1976 Duke of Barcelos, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Barcelos, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva Princess Francisca of Orléans-Braganza
Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza Duarte Pio of Bragança.jpg 15 May 1945
eldest son of Duarte Nuno
24 December 1976 Incumbent Prince of Beira, Duke of Barcelos, Duke of Guimarães, Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Barcelos, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva Isabel de Herédia

The heir apparent is Afonso de Santa Maria, Prince of Beira (b. 1996)

For alternative or self-appointed claimants see the articles Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança and Duke of Loulé.

See also

External links

Bibliography

  • "Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil", Vol. II, pages 433/449. Published by Zairol Lda., 1989, Lisbon.

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