Paramesonephric duct

Paramesonephric duct
Paramesonephric duct
Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old.
Tail end of human embryo, from eight and a half to nine weeks old.
Latin ductus paramesonephricus
Gray's subject #252 1206
Carnegie stage 17
Precursor Intermediate mesoderm
Code TE E5.
MeSH Mullerian+Ducts

Müllerian ducts (or paramesonephric ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the Müllerian eminence in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the upper two-third of the vagina;[1] in the male, they are lost. These ducts are made of tissue of mesodermal origin.[2]



Müllerian duct (blue) develops in females (middle image) and degenerates in males (bottom).

The female reproductive system is composed of two embryological segments: the urogenital sinus and the Müllerian ducts. The two are conjoined at the Müllerian tubercle.[3] Müllerian ducts are present on the embryo of both sexes.[4] Only in females do they develop into reproductive organs. They degenerate in males, but the adjoining Wolffian ducts develop into male reproductive organs. The sex based differences in the contributions of the Müllerian ducts to reproductive organs is based on the presence, and degree of presence, of Müllerian Inhibiting factor.

Regulation of development

The development of the Müllerian ducts is controlled by the presence or absence of "AMH", or Anti-Müllerian hormone (also known as "MIF" for "Müllerian-inhibiting factor", or "MIH" for "Müllerian-inhibiting hormone").[5]

Male embryogenesis The testes produce AMH and as a result the development of the Müllerian ducts is inhibited. Disturbances can lead to persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. The ducts disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis.
Female embryogenesis The absence of AMH results in the development of female reproductive organs, as noted above. Disturbance in the development may result in uterine absence (Müllerian agenesis) or uterine malformations. The ducts develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts.


They are named after Johannes Peter Müller, a physiologist who described these ducts in his text "Bildungsgeschichte der Genitalien" in 1830.

Additional images

See also


  1. ^ Sizonenko, P.C.. "Human Sexual Differentiation". Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  2. ^ Hashimoto R (2011-07-27). "Development of the human Müllerian duct in the sexually undifferentiated stage". The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 272 (2): 514–9. doi:10.1002/ar.a.10061. PMID 12740945. 
  3. ^ Yasmin Sajjad (2011-07-27). "Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo". The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 36 (5): 929–937. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01272.x. 
  4. ^ Rey R, Grinspon R (2011-07-27). "Normal male sexual differentiation and aetiology of disorders of sex development". Male Reproductive Endocrinology 25 (2): 221–238. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2010.08.013. 
  5. ^ Ball B, Conley A, Grundy S, Sabeur K, Liu I (2011-07-27). "Expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in the equine testis". Theriogenology 69 (5): 624–631. 

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • paramesonephric duct — para·me·so·neph·ric duct .mez ə nef rik , .mēz , .mēs , .mes n MÜLLERIAN DUCT * * * (Müllerian duct) either of the paired ducts that form adjacent to the mesonephric ducts (see mesonephros) in the embryo. In the female these ducts develop into… …   Medical dictionary

  • paramesonephric duct — noun A certain duct (of which there are two) in an embryo which in a female develop into the oviducts, uterus, cervix and upper vagina. Syn: Müllerian duct …   Wiktionary

  • paramesonephric duct — see Müllerian duct …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Проток Парамезонефральный (Paramesonephric Duct), Проток Мюллеров (Mullerian Duct) — парный проток, который примыкает к протокам мезонефроса эмбриона. У особей женского пола из этих протоков в дальней шем развиваются фаллопиевы трубы, матка и часть влагалища. У мужчин же эти протоки практически дегенерируют (из них образуется… …   Медицинские термины

  • duct — A tubular structure giving exit to the secretion of a gland or organ, capable of conducting fluid. SEE ALSO: canal. SYN: ductus [TA]. [L. duco, pp. ductus, to lead] aberrant ducts SYN: aberrant ductules, under ductule …   Medical dictionary

  • duct of MÑŒller — mÑŒllerian duct paramesonephric d …   Medical dictionary

  • paramesonephric — Close to or alongside the embryonic mesonephros. See p. duct …   Medical dictionary

  • Müllerian duct — (paramesonephric duct) either of the paired ducts that form adjacent to the Wolffian ducts (see mesonephros) in the embryo. In the female these ducts develop into the Fallopian tubes, uterus, and part of the vagina. In the male anti Müllerian… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Mullerian duct — Müllerian duct also Muellerian duct n either of a pair of ducts parallel to the Wolffian ducts in vertebrate animals and giving rise in the female to the oviducts called also paramesonephric duct J. P. Müller see MÜLLERIAN * * * see… …   Medical dictionary

  • MÑŒller capsule duct etc. — MÑŒl·ler capsule, duct, etc. (meґler) [Johannes Peter MÑŒller, German physiologist, 1801–1858, the founder of scientific medicine in Germany] see capsula glomeruli and ganglion superius nervi glossopharyngei; see paramesonephric duct, under… …   Medical dictionary