Foreign relations of Moldova


Foreign relations of Moldova
Moldova

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Moldova



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Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on March 16, 1994

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova had established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995 the country became the first post-Soviet state admitted to the Council of Europe. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is also a member state of the United Nations, the OSCE, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005 Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures.

After the War of Transnistria, Moldova had sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

Contents

Relations with the European Union

Moldova currently aspires to join the European Union[1] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[2]

Relations with NATO

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO Allies and Partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with Romania

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been sinuous since 1994. Most of Moldova was part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40) and linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian. However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable even to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Since 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on January 1, 2007, with Romania's entry into European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[3]

Relations with Russia and other post-Soviet states

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998 Moldova contributed to the founding of GUAM, a regional cooperation agreement made up of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Separatist movements

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist Transnistria region. Transnistria had a particularly large non-Moldovan population (ca. 60%) and broke away from Moldova less than a year after Moldova became independent at the fall of the Soviet Union. It has its own de facto government and acts independently from Chişinău since the War of Transnistria. The international diplomatic situation with respect to the question of Transnistria determines and is determined by Moldova's relations with Russia. Russia, Ukraine, OSCE, EU, and United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Bilateral relationships

Moldova has embassy-level relationships with:

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia
 Austria 1992-03-25 see Austria–Moldova relations
  • Austrian Embassy, Chişinău
  • Austria is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chişinău.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Innsbruck.[5]
 Belarus see Belarus–Moldova relations

There is no common border between Moldova and Belarus. The number of Belarusians in Moldova and of Moldavians in Belarus is insignificant.

 Belgium
 Bulgaria 1992-02-05
 Croatia 1992-07-28
 Cyprus 1992-02-12
 Czech Republic
  • Czech Embassy, Chişinău
 Denmark 1992-01-20 See Denmark–Moldova relations
 Estonia 1992-11-10
 Finland 1992-02-26
 France
 Georgia 1992-06-25
 Germany see Germany–Moldova relations

Germany has an embassy in Chişinău. Moldova has an embassy in Berlin.

 Hungary
  • Hungarian Embassy, Chişinău
 Ireland 1992
 Israel 1992-06-22 see Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel recognized Moldova on December 25, 1991.
  • Israel is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Haifa.
 Italy
 Japan 1992-03-16 see Foreign relations of Japan
 Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Embassy, Chişinău
 Malta
 Poland
  • Polish Embassy, Chişinău
 Romania See Moldovan–Romanian relations
 Russia see Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180 degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform,[citation needed] with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

 Serbia 1995
 Slovenia 1993-10-27
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
 United States 1991-12-25 see Moldova – United States relations
  • Embassy of the United States to Moldova
  • Moldovan Embassy, Washington, D.C.

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on December 25, 1991 and opened an Embassy in its capital, Chişinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. Generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

See also

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Moldova will prove that it can and has chances to become EU member, Moldpress News Agency, June 19, 2007
  2. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission, December 14, 2004, retrieved July 2, 2007
  3. ^ Cetatenia romana, portita spre Europa December 27, 2006
  4. ^ http://www.tur.md/eng/foreignembassy/112/
  5. ^ "Relations with Austria". Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. http://www.mfa.gov.md/foreign-policy/at_en/. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  6. ^ http://www.ambasadamoldova.be/bilateral/bel_en.htm
  7. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Chişinău
  8. ^ Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
  9. ^ http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=17267&contentlan=2&culture=en-US
  10. ^ Irish embassy in Bucharest (also accredited to Moldova)
  11. ^ Moldovan embassy in London (also accredited to Ireland)
  12. ^ British Embassy in Chisinau

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