Gundu Hirisave Rama Rao


Gundu Hirisave Rama Rao
Gundu Hirisave Rama Rao

Gundu Hirisave Rama Rao was born in Tumkur (Karnataka), India, on 23 August 1937. He is a scientist, entrepreneur and a tenured professor at the Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota. He and Professor John Eaton visited India in 1981 under a National Science Foundation sponsorship (travel grant), to explore opportunities for collaborative research projects. They visited Medical Institutions from Kashmir in the North to Trivandrum in the South. He again visited India during 1990-93, as a Professor and a senior consultant for Government of India under a United Nations Development Program (UNDP) called TOKTEN (Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals) sponsored by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. He is a member of the Minneapolis University Rotary Club. He is listed as a Senior Fulbright Scholar in the Roster.

He is the founder of South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis and AayuSmart LLC, an IT supported web-based health management company. He has been actively involved in creating awareness, developing educational and preventive programs for the prevention of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, obesity, metabolic diseases, type 2-diabetes vascular diseases and stroke. Dr. Rao has spent close to 40 years in Minnesota. Currently he lives in Maryland with his wife, two children, three grand children and spends half of his time in India, developing collaborative projects related to improving health care.

Contents

Early life

Gundu Rao was born in Tumkur , Karnataka, India. His ancestors from father’s side hailed from Hirisave (Hassan District) and from mother’s side from Thimmasandra, a small village 20 miles from Tumkur. He did his primary education from Hindu Gurukula. He did his middle school education in Government Western Middle School and Old Middle School near the District Courts. He graduated from Government High School in 1953. He studied at the First Grade College and obtained his BSc degree with Chemistry, Botany and Zoology in 1957. He obtained his BSc (Hons) in Zoology (1958) and MSc in Entomology (1959) from Poona University.

Early career in India

He worked at the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Bangalore, for almost two years. During this time he spent 8 months at Dalhousie (Himachal Pradesh) collecting and breeding ladybird beetles for export to the USA. That was the year when His Holiness Dalai Lama came to India via Dalhousie. He spent few months in the hill station Coonoor working on pests of tea. After resigning from this Institute, he worked in the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore for five years (1960–65) on problems related to the control of pests that infest food products. During this period he was recipient of junior and senior research fellowship of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Since various administrative complications prevented recognition of his work towards a PhD program, he left for the USA to obtain a PhD degree.

Early career in USA

He studied for his PhD in Agriculture Entomology at the Kansas State University and specialized in Grain Science Technology. He did a year of post-doctoral work in the Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, (1969), on problems related to isolation and purification of polyhedral virus (6). He joined University of Minnesota in 1970 as a faculty in the Department of Entomology, Fisheries and Wildlife. He worked on isolation and characterization fungal toxins (10,11). He joined Prof Marion Andrews in the Department of Pharmacology in 1971 and worked on drug metabolizing enzymes (12,13).

In 1972 he started working with James G White in the [1] Department of Pediatrics, who was working on the morphology and ultra structure of blood platelets. He collaborated with Prof White on platelet physiology and pharmacology for over three decades and published over 200 articles on the subject in peer-reviewed journals. He shared as co-investigator NIH research grants for over 3 decades including the NIH MERIT award (R37) for ten years (1982–92). Independent of this collaboration, he also was the recipient of two NIH/STTR grants for development of Point-of-Care medical devices (Detection of aspirin resistance in human subjects: 1R41HL081979-01 and Detection bacteria in blood bags: 1R41 HL079854-01).

He spent a summer in Kings College London, in the Department of Surgery with Prof. Vijay Kakkar in 1988 (130 ). The following summer he visited the Department of Biochemistry, Royal College of Surgeons and worked with Prof Neville Crawford (117). In the summer of 1989 he visited Thrombosis Research Institute, Chelsea, London and worked again with Prof. Kakkar’s group. In the summer of 1992 he taught at the Institute of Human Physiology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy(157). In early 1990s he recommended the following institutions in India for the recognition by the International Federation of Cardiologists as center of excellence in thrombosis: G.B Panth Hospital, New Delhi,Post Graduate Institute (PGI) of Medical Sciences, Chandigarh, PGI Lucknow, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Institute,KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology, Bangalore.

Contributions

University of Minnesota

He visited India in 1981 with John W Eaton, Professor of Molecular Anthropology, University of Minnesota to explore opportunities to establish Collaborative programs. During this visit to India, he visited Medical Institutions at Mumbai (Hematology and Genetics), Delhi (AIIMS, Malaria Research Institute), Chandigarh (PGI), Srinagar (Medical College: high altitude physiology), Hyderabad (Genetics), Chennai (PGI, Taramani), Vellore (Christian Medical College and Bangalore (Indian Institute of Science).

As an international adviser to the Office of the International Programs, University of Minnesota, he suggested following Medical institutions in India and Nepal for student and faculty exchange program: Tribhuvan University, Nepal, PGI, Chandigarh, Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi, PGI Lucknow, Institute of Immuno-hematology, Mumbai, Sri Jayadeva Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; Sri Chitra Tiruanl Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum. He also recommended following individuals for honorary professorship in the International Health at the University of Minnesota: Dr Naresh Trehan (Escort Heart Institute, New Delhi), Dr. Dipika Mohanty (Institute of Immuno-hematology, Mumbai), DR Prabhudev (Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology, Bangalore), Dr Mohandas (Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences, Trivandrum), Dr Ramdas Pai ( Manipal Academy, Manipal).

As a Rotarian he has developed matching grants from Minneapolis/University Club USD 25,000.00, to improve the educational activities of TTK/Rotary Blood Bank in Bangalore, India. He also raised a similar amount from Rotary International, to improve the Clinical facility at Jnana Sanjeevini Diabetes Clinic, Bangalore. Now that he is a on a phased retirement at the University of Minnesota, he spends 4 months a year in Bangalore, India developing collaborative programs to improve drug development, medical devices development and IT supported health care.

International Activities

He visited India in 1990, 91, and 92 under the TOKTEN program as senior consultant to the Government of India. During these visits, he spent time at the G. B. Pant Hospital, Maulana Abdul Kalam Medical College, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Institute of Immuno-hematology, King Edward Medical Hospital, Mumbai; King George Hospital, and Post Graduate Institute, Lucknow; Nizam’s Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad; Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Sri. Jayadeva Institute of Cardiology, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore; Sri Chitra Tiruanl Institute For Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum.

Prevention of Diabetes and Heart Disease

His visits to India under the TOKTEN program for three years in a row, made him aware of the very high incidence of Type-2 diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease in South Asians. With seed money of USD10, 000 from the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis, USA, he started a professional Society (SASAT) in Minnesota to create awareness and develop educational and preventive programs of the prevention of these diseases in South Asians. He has been organizing international conferences on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, in India (Mumbai 1994, Bangalore 1996, New Delhi 1998, Mumbai 2000, Chennai 2002, Hyderabad 2004, Bangalore 2008, New Delhi 2007, 2008). He has published four books under the aegis of SASAT in India ( ). He has raised more than a million dollars for education and research activities of SASAT in India. SASAT has given awards to clinicians, researchers, teachers and accomplished health care professionals in India (www.sasat.org).

Current activities

Currently he is working with three major professional societies as scientific adviser: South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, North American Thrombosis Forum and International Union of Angiology. He is working on regulatory issues related to outsourcing of generic drugs, issues related to characterization and development of biologics or bio-similars. He is also working on establishing a platform in India for the development of biomarker assays for the early detection of cancer and cardiovascular diseases and hand held medical devices for monitoring these assays. Another area of interest is development of indigenous drugs and cost effective self-diagnostic medical devices. To accomplish these goals he established a company in Bengaluru: aayusmart (www.aayusmart.com). For the first time anywhere in the world this company is trying to provide access to the individuals the health records via web (mobile personal health records: mPHRs). The company is also developing electronic alerts for patient safety, or quality assessment of medical care and a robust work place wellness program to improve the overall health of the individual.

Future Goals

Future goals include development of a large data base on this diverse ethnic group, develop a mobile diagnostic platform with v-sat capability to reach the rural community, improve the connectivity of the health care providers at 600 districts and 33,000 primary health care facility with cost effective diagnostic platform and a web-based consulting service. Diagnosis of diseases also will necessitate the need for cost effective treatment plans. Serious considerations will be given to develop a total integrative health management so that it will cover the largest section of the society. One example of simplification that we are contemplating is to develop capability to do all the blood chemistry on a cell phone like platform, so that data could be obtained with a drop of blood, stored and transmitted to a web based consulting platform or to a personal physician for further interpretation and advise. Similarly we could also include on such a mobile platform diagnostic capability to monitor pulse flow of the blood in regional vascular beds or to monitor the heart rate, EKG (ECG) blood oxygen and various other parameters. By exploring these avenues we will be able to bring the clinic to the individual instead of individual going to clinic for normal risk factor detection and management.

Another area of interest is creation of awareness and education of the individuals. Indian Space Research Organization has a dedicated satellite (EDUSAT). They have connected tele-terminals to more than 10, 000 colleges. This vast network could be used for educational purposes for a nominal cost. Using SASAT platform, he is planning to create a wide educational network.

India is ranked number one in the list of nations with highest incidence of Type-2 diabetes. There are more than 30 million adults who suffer from this disease. There are equal numbers of people who have the disease and not diagnosed. To add to this complexity millions of individuals are in pre-diabetic condition. According to WHO estimate this number will increase by 200% in the net decade. Individuals with diabetes have 2-4 fold higher risks to have acute vascular events such as heart attack or stroke. Indians have the highest incidence of coronary artery disease compared to any other ethnic group in the world. To create awareness and develop educational and preventive programs Dr Rao started SASAT in USA in 1993. Prevention of these chronic metabolic diseases is cost effective and is probably the only choice for the masses. Even if the risk factors for these diseases are detected early, not all individuals can afford the expensive treatment options.

It has been estimated that one third of all the children born in India are of low birth weight (LBW). It has been demonstrated by many studies that these LBW babies are at risk for developing hypertension, diabetes and vascular diseases. One way to reduce this health burden is to develop a strong maternal nutrition program for the pregnant women, so that the number of LBW newborn can be drastically reduced.

The general diet of South Asians by and large is very rich in carbohydrates and this puts a great demand on the insulin secretion. It is therefore essential to improve the general diet of the population. Fortification of foods with nutrients is one cost-effective choice. Alternately genetic engineering of better cereals, fruits and vegetable also could be encouraged. Finally it is very well established that life style changes reduce the disease burden of chronic diseases. Life style changes including work place wellness programs should be encouraged to reduce the disease burden in this population. Prevention in whatever way possible is the primary goal to address this epidemic.

Awards and Fellowships

  • Fellow, Royal Entomological Society, London.
  • Fellow, International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis and Hemostasis, USA.
  • Fellow, Indian College of Cardiology, India.
  • Distinguished Career Award, International Union of Angiology, France.
  • Distinguished Career Award, World Clinical Cardiology Conference, 2009
  • Life Time Achievement Award, 2nd International Conference on Contemporary Biologists, India
  • Paul Harris Fellow, USA

Professional Society Affiliations

  • Member Society for Biomaterials, USA
  • Life Member Society for Biomaterials and Artificial Organs (India)
  • Rotary Club Paul Harris Fellow
  • Life Fellow The Commonwealth Association For Mental Handicap Developmental Disabilities, United Kingdom
  • Member Indian College of Cardiology, India
  • Founder CEO South Asian Society on Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (SASAT)
  • Member American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
  • Member The Biochemical Society, London, United Kingdom
  • Life Member The Academy of Environmental Biology, India
  • Member The New York Academy of Sciences, NY, USA
  • Member American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), USA
  • Member American Society of Hematology, USA
  • Life Member Friends of Vellore, Christian Medical College, India
  • Member American Association of Clinical Chemists (AACC), USA
  • Member National Thrombosis Council, AHA, USA
  • Member International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)
  • Member American Association of Pathologists (AAP), USA
  • Life Member Chronobiological Society of India, India
  • Member Association of Scientists of Indian Origin in America, USA
  • Fellow National Academy of Clinical Biochemists, USA
  • Member American Association for Clinical Chemists, USA
  • Member Minnesota Chromatography Forum, USA
  • Member Sigma Xi and Gamma Sigma Delta, USA
  • Founder Academy of Pest Control Sciences, India
  • Life Member Food and Grain Technologists Research Association, India
  • Life Member Entomological Society of India, India
  • Fellow Royal Entomological Society, London, United Kingdom
  • Member American Association of Blood Banks
  • Member International Society of Blood Transfusion

International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis

  • Board North American Thrombosis Forum
  • Board International Union of Angiology
  • Founder Director, Karnataka Hybrid Micro Devices, Bangalore, India
  • Hon. Professor, Sri Chitra Tiruanl Institute For Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum.
  • Board, Manipal Acunova, Bangalore
  • Founder Chairman, Aayusmart. LLC, Bangalore.

References

BOOKS

1. Rao GHR: (Editor): Handbook of Platelet Physiology and Pharmacology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 1999. ISBN # 0-7923-8538-1

2. Rao GHR: (Editor): Coronary Artery Disease in South Asians: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2001,ISBN #81-7179-811-X.

3. Rao GHR: (Editor): Coronary Artery Disease: Risk Factors, Pathophysiology and Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2005, ISBN # 81-8061-450-6.

4. Rao GHR: (Editor): Handbook of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2006, ISBN # 81-8061-718-1.

5. Rao GHR: (Editor): Diabetes Mellitus (Type-2): Epidemiology, Risk Management and Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2007, ISBN # 81-8061-936-2

Publications:

1. Bano A, Rao GHR and Majumdar SK. (1962). Food preference of Sitophilus and Bruchus. In: Proc. of the Second Congress in Zoology. P. 393-397.

2. Majumdar SK and Rao GHR. (1962). Possible use of food preferences of an insect as a factor for its control in stored commodities. Curr. Sci. 31, 238-239.

3. Rao GHR and Majumdar SK. (1963). Repellency of Kaemferia galanga Linn. (Zingiberaceae) to adults of Tribolium Castaneum. In: Proceedings Symp. Med. Plants. Sci and Cult 32, 461-462.

4. Rao GHR and Majumdar SK. (1964). Intergranular space as a limiting factor for growth of pulse beetles, a new principle for pest control. J. Econ. Entomol. 57, 1013-1014.

5. Rao GHR and Majumdar SK. (1965). Repellency of species, aromatic materials and essential oils to adults of Tribolium castaneum. In: Proc. Symp. Med. Plants, Jammu, India.

6. Keeley LL, Rao GHR and Hazal LG. (1969). Isolation and purification of Heliothis nuclear polyhedra and virions by density-gradient techniques. Agri. Expt. Stn. Bull. PR-2704, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas.

7. Muthu M, Rao GHR and Majumdar SK. (1971). A bio-assay method for determining the fumigant concentration in air. Int. Pest Control 13, 11-14.

8. Rao GHR, Eugenio C, Christensen CM, De Las Casas E and Harein PK.(1971). Survival & reproduction of confused flour beetles exposed to fungus metabolites. J. Econ. Entomol. 64, 1563-1565.

9. Rao GHR and Wilbur DA. (1972). Loss of weight in wheat caused by the feeding of lesser grain borer. J. Kan. Entomol. Soc. 45, 238-241.

10. Rao GHR and Harein PK. (1972). Dichlorvos as an inhibitor of Aflatoxin production on wheat, corn, rice and peanuts. J. Econ. Entomol. 65, 988-989.

11. Harein PK and Rao GHR. (1972). Dichlorvos and Gardona as protectants for stored wheat against granary weevil infestations in laboratory studies. J. Econ. Entomol. 65, 1402-1406.

12. Rao GHR and Anders MW. (1973). Inhibition of microsomal drug metabolism by anticholine-esterase insecticides. Bull Env. Cont. Toxicol. 9, 409.

13. Rao GHR and Anders MW. (1973). Aflatoxin detection by high-speed liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. J. Chromatography 84, 402-406.

14. Rao GHR and Harein PK. (1973). Dichlorvos as an inhibitor of aflatoxin protection on wheat, corn, rice and peanuts. In: Ann. Technol. Agri. Wet Harvested Grains, Paris, France, 22, 477-481.

15. Rao GHR and Harein PK. (1974). Inhibition of aflatoxin and zearalenone biosynthesis with dochlorvos. Bull. Env. Toxicol. 10, 112-115.

16. White JG, Rao GHR and Estensen RD. (1974). Investigation of the release reaction in platelets exposed to phorbol myristate acetate. Am. J. Pathol. 75, 301-314.

17. Rao GHR, Jachimowicz AA and White JG. (1974). Rapid separation of tumor-promoting agents, phorbol and phorbol myristate acetate (12-o-tetradecanyl phorbol-13-acetate) by high pressure liquid chromatography. J. Chromatography 96, 151-154.

18. Rao GHR, White JG, Jachimowicz AA and Witkop CJ Jr. (1974). Nucleotide profiles of normal and abnormal platelets by high pressure liquid chromatography. J. Lab. and Clin. Med. 84, 839-850.

19. White JG, Rao GHR and Gerrard JM. (1974). Effects of the ionophore, A23187, on blood platelets. I. Influence on aggregation and secretion. Am. J. Pathol. 77, 135-149.

20. Gerrard JM, White JG and Rao GHR. (1974). Effects of the ionophore, A23187, on blood platelets. II. Influence on aggregation and secretion. Am. J. Pathol. 77, 151-160.

21. Rao GHR and De Las Casas E. (1974). Effect of Chaetomium Spp. On Tribolium confusum. In: North Central Meetings, Entomological Society of America, Des Moines, Iowa.

22. Rao GHR and White JG. (1975). Influence of esterase inhibitors on platelet aggregation and release induced by phorbol myristate acetate. Biochem. Pharmacol. 24, 293-295.

23. Gerrard JM, White JG, Rao GHR, Krivit W, and Witkop CJ, Jr. (1975). Labile aggregation stimulating substance (LASS): The factor from storage pool deficient platelets correcting defective aggregation and release of aspirin-treated normal platelets. Brit. J. Haematol. 29, 411- 420.

24. Clawson CC, Rao GHR and White JG. (1975). Platelet interaction with bacteria. IV. Stimulation of the release reaction. Am. J. Pathol. 81, 411-420.

25. White JG, Matlack C, Mundschenk D and Rao GHR. (1975). Platelet disorders in normal and a bleeder horse. First International Symposium on Equine Hematology, pp 209–221.

26. Rao GHR. (1976). Microbial insecticides. Chapter in Current Topics in Applied Microbiology.

27. Rao GHR. (1976). Fungal toxins in foods. Chapter in Current Topics in Applied Microbiology.

28. Rao GHR, White JG, Jachimowicz AA and Witkop CJ Jr. (1976). An improved method for the extraction of endogenous platelet secretion. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 87, 129-137.

29. Gerrard JM, White JG, Rao GHR and Townsend D. (1976). Localization of platelet prostaglandin production in the platelet dense tubular system. Am. J. Pathol. 83, 283-299.

30. Horns DJ, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR, Krivit W and White JG. (1976). Smoking and labile platelet aggregation stimulating substance (LASS) synthesizing activity. Thromb. Res. 9, 661-668.

31. Rao GHR, Friedland M, Gerrard JM and White JG. (9177). The influence of metabolites on the assay of platelet serotonin. Thromb. Res. 10, 791-802.

32. Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1977). The influence of reserpine and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on serotonin storage organelles of blood platelets. Am. J. Pathol. 87, 633-646.

33. White JG, Rao GHR and Gerrard JM. (1977). Effects of nitro blue tetrazolium and vitamin E on platelet ultrastructure, aggregation and secretion. Am. J. Pathol. 88, 387-402.

34. Kuettner JF, Dreher KL, Rao GHR, Eaton JW, Blackshear PL and White JG. (1977). Influence of the ionophore, A23187, on the plastic behaviour of normal erythrocytes. Am. J. Pathol. 88, 81-94.

35. Gerrard JM, Stoddard SF, Shapiro RS, Coccia PF, Ramsay NKC, Nesbit ME, Rao GHR, Krivit W and White JG. (1978). Platelet storage pool deficiency and prostaglandin synthesis in chronic myelogenous leukemia. J. Haematol. 40, 597-607.

36. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR, Krick RP and White JG. (1978). Ferrous iron-mediated oxidation of arachidonic acid. Studies employing nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT). Prostaglandins and Medicine 1, 304-317.

37. Schollmeyer JV, Rao GHR and White JG. (1978). An actin- binding protein in human platelets: Interaction with actin on gelatin of actin and the influence of cytochalasin B. A, J. Pathol. 93, 443-6.

38. Johnson GJ, Rao GHR and White JG. (1978). Platelet dysfunction induced by parenteral carbenicillin and ticarcillin: Studies of the dose-response relationship and mechanism of action in dogs. Am. J. Pathol. 91, 85-166.

39. Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Eaton JW and White JG. (1978). Arachidonic acid peroxidation, prostaglandin synthesis and platelet function. Photochemistry and Photobiology 28, 845-850.

40. Repine JE, Rao GHR, Beall GD and White JG. (1978). Inhibition of human neutrophil oxidative metabolism and degranulation in vitro by nitroblue tetrazolium and vitamin E. Am. J. Pathol. 90, 659-674.

41. Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Eaton JW and White JG. (1978). The role of iron in prostaglandin synthesis: Ferrous iron-mediated oxidation of arachidonic acid. Prostaglandins and Medicine 1, 55-70.

42. Rao GHR, Burris SM, Gerrard JM and White JG. (1979). Inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in sheep vesicular gland microsomes (SVGM) by nitroblue tetrazolium (BT) and vitamin E. Prost Med. 2, 203-216.

43. Butler AM, Gerrard JM, Peller J, Stoddard SF, Rao GHR and White JG. (1979). Vitamin E inhibits the release of calcium from a platelet membrane fraction in vitro. Prostaglandins and Medicine 2, 203-216.

44. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1979). Inhibition of ferrous iron induced oxidation of arachidonic acid by indomethacin. Prostaglandins and Medicine 2, 97-108.

45. Johnson GJ, Leis LA, Rao GHR and White JG. (1979). Arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation in the dog. Thromb. Res. 14, 147-154.

46. Rao GHR, Einzig S, Reddy KR and White JG. (1979). Tranylcypromine-induced hypertension is not mediated by the inhibition of prostacyclin synthesis. Prostaglandins and Medicine 3, 201-211.

47. White JG, Rao GHR and Gerrard JM. (1979). Vitamin E and platelets: Cooperative interactions with nitroblue tetrazolium on the inhibition of adhesion, aggregation and secretion. Seminars in Hematology. Am. J. Ped. Hem./Onc. 1, 155-168.

48. Paterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR, Mills EL and White JG. (1980). Interaction of arachidonic acid heme iron in the synthesis of prostaglandins. Adv. Prost. Thromboxane Res. 6, 157-161.

49. Rao GHR, Cox AC, Gerrard JM and White JG. (1980). Effects of 2, 2'-dipyrydil and related compounds on platelet prostaglandin synthesis and platelet function. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 628, 468-479.

50. Johnson GH, Rao GHR, Leis LA and White JG. (1980). Effects of agents which alter cyclic AMP on arachidonic-induced platelet aggregation in the dog. Blood 55, 722-729.

51. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1980). Reduction in ferric heme to ferrous by lipid peroxides: Possible relevance to the role of peroxide tone in the regulation of prostaglandin synthesis. Prostaglandins and Medicine 4, 73-79.

52. Rao GHR, Reddy KR, Hagert K and White JG. (1980). Influence of pH on the prostacyclin (PGI2)-mediated inhibition of platelet function. Prostaglandins and Medicine 4, 263-273.

53. White JG, Rao GHR and Gerrard JM. (1980). Platelet stimulus activation contraction secretion coupling: A frequently fractured chain of events. In: The Regulation of Coagulation (Mann,Taylor, Eds.), Elsevier /North Holland Inc. pp. 363–376.

54. Gerrard JM, Peterson DA, Rao GHR and White JG. (1980). Some recent advances in understanding the tangle of biochemical events involved in thromboxane-dependent and -independent aggregation. In: The Regulation of Coagulation. Elsevier/North Holland Inc. pp. 399–408.

55. Cox AC, Rao GHR, Gerrard JM and White JG. (1980). The influence of vitamin E quinone on platelet structure, function and biochemistry. Blood 55, 907-916.

56. Gerrard JM, Stuart MJ, Rao GHR, Steffes MM, Mauer SM, Brown DM and White JG. (1980). Alteration in the balance of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis in diabetes. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 95, 950-957.

57. Einzig S, Rao GHR and White JG. (1980). Differential sensitivity of regional vascular beds in the dog to low dose prostacyclin infusion. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58, 940-946.

58. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1980). The influence of epinephrine on prostacyclin (PGI2) induced dissociation of ADP aggregated platelets. Prostaglandins and Medicine 4, 385-397.

59. Rao GHR, Johnson GJ and White JG. (1980). Influence of epinephrine on the aggregation response of aspirin-treated platelets. Prost. Med. 5, 45-58.

60. Rao GHR, Krick TP and White JG. (1980). Preparation, separation and characterization of vitamin E quinone. J. Chromatography 196, 506-511.

61. Einzig S, Sotomora R, Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Foker JE and White JG. (1980). Prostacyclin does not increase blood flow in acute ischemic canine myocardium. Prost. Med. 5, 209-221.

62. White JG, Hagert K, Nipper JHJ and Rao GHR. (1980). Functional platelets after storage in vitro for fifteen to twenty days. Am. J. Pathol. 101, 613-634.

63. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1980). Influence of trifluoperazine on platelet aggregation and disaggregation. Prost. Med. 5, 221-234.

64. Gerrard JM, Phillips DR, Rao GHR, Flow EF, Walz DA, Ross R, Harker LA and White JG. (1980). Biochemical studies of two patients with the grey platelet syndrome: Selective deficiency of platelet alpha granules. J. Clin. Invest. 66, 102-109.

65. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1980). Epinephrine and other activators of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase can reduce Fe3+ heme to Fe2+ heme. Prost. Med. 5, 357-365.

66. White JG, Rao GHR and Gerrard JM. (1980). Prostaglandins in platelet activation. In: Platelets-Cellular Response Mechanisms and Their Biological Significance (Rothman AN, Meyers FA, Gitler C and Silberg A, Eds.), John Wiley & Sons Ltd., pp. 201–211.

67. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1981). Salicylic acid inhibition of the irreversible effect of acetylsalicylic acid on prostaglandin synthetase may be due to competition for the enzyme-cationic-binding site. Prost. Med. 6, 161-164.

68. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1981). Modification of human platelet response to sodium arachidonate by membrane mediation. Prost. Med. 6, 75-90.

69. Rao GHR, Johnson JM, Einzig S and White JG. (1981). Effect of amrinone: A cardiotonic durg on hemodynamics and platelet function. Prost. Med. 6, 75-90.

70. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Peller J, Rao GHR and White JG. (1981). Interaction of zinc with arachidonic acid. Prost. Med. 6, 91-99.

71. Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Wikop CJ and White JG. (1981). Platelet aggregation independent of ADP release or prostaglandin synthesis in patients with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Prost. Med. 6, 459-472.

72. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1981). Low dose aspirin, platelet function and prostaglandin synthesis: Influence of epinephrine and alpha-adrenergic blockade. Prost. Med. 6, 485-494.

73. Rao GHR, Cox CA, Gerrard GM and White JG. (1981). Alpha-tocopherol quinone (TQ): A potent inhibitor of platelet activation. Prog. Lipid Res. 20, 549-552.

74. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1981). Reduction of heme by lipid peroxides and its potential relevance to understanding the control of cyclooxygenase activity. Prog. Lipid Res. 20, 299-302.

75. Gerrard JM, Rao GHR, Stuart MJ and White JG. (1981). Alterations in the balance of thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in platelet and the vessel wall in a diabetic model. In: The Effects of Platelet Active Drugs on the Cardiovascular System (Hirsch J, Steele PP and Vernier RL, Eds.), University of Colorado Press, pp. 207–223.

76. Rao GHR and White JG. (1981). Epinephrine potentiation of arachidonate-induced aggregation of cyclooxygenase deficient platelets. Am. J. Hematol. 11, 355-366.

77. Rao GHR, Peller JD and White JG. (1981). Rapid separation of platelet nucleotides by reverse-phase, isocratic, high pressure liquid chromatography with a rapidly compressed column. J. Chromatography 226, 466-470.

78. Rao GHR, Johnson GJ, Reddy KR and White JG. (1981). Rapid return of cyclooxygenase active platelets in dogs after a single oral dose of aspirin. Prostaglandins 22, 761-772.

79. Peterson DA, Gerrard JM, Glover SM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1982). Epinephrine reduction of heme: Implication for understanding the transmission of an agonist stimulus. Science 215, 71-73.

80. Einzig S, Rao GHR, Pierpont ME and White JG. (1982). Acute effects of amrinone on regional myocardial and systemic blood flow distribution in the dog. Can. J. Physiol. 60, 811-818.

81. Rao GHR, Schmid HHO, Reddy KR and White JG. (1982). Human platelet activation by an alkyl-acetyl analogue of phosphatidylcholine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 715, 205-214.

82. Rao GHR, Peller JD, Richards KL, McCullough J and White JG. (1982) Rapid separation of nucleotides from granulocytes by isocratic, reverse-phase, high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatography 229, 205-210.

83. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1982). Effect of acetoaminophen and salicylate on aspirin-induced inhibition of human platelets cyclooxygenase. Prost. Leuko. Med. 9, 109-115.

84. Rao GHR, Reddy KR and White JG. (1982). A simple method for the separation of monohydroxy fatty acid metabolites of arachidonic acid metabolism. J. Chromatography 232, 176-179.

85. Rao GHR and White JG. (1982). Platelet activating factor (PAF) causes human platelet aggregation through the mechanism of membrane modulation. Prost. Leuko. Med. 9, 459-472.

86. White JG and Rao GHR. (1983). Effects of microtubule stabilizing agent on the response of platelets to vincristine. Blood 60, 474-483.

87. White JG and Rao GHR. (1983). Influence of microtubule stabilizing agent on platelet structural physiology. Am. J. Pathol. 112, 217. 88. Rao GHR, Johnson GJ, Reddy KR and White JG. (1983). Ibuprofen protects platelet cyclooxygenase from irreversible inhibition by aspirin. Arteriosclerosis 3, 384-388.

89. Gragg A, Einzig S, Castanedo-Zuniga W, Amplatz K, White JG and Rao GHR. (1983). Altered vessel wall arachidonate metabolism after angioplasty: Possible mediators of post-angioplasty vasospasm. Am. J. Cardiol. 51, 1441-1445.

90. White JG, Reddy KR and Rao GHR. (1983). Pencillin induced human platelet dysfunction and its reversal by epinephrine. Prost. Leuko. Med. 11, 199-211.

91. Rao, GHR, Radha E and White JG. (1983). Effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on arachidonic metabolism and platelet function. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 117, 549-556.

92. Cox AC, Carroll RC, White JG and Rao GHR. (1984). Recycling of platelet phosphorylation and cytoskeletal assembly. J. Cell Biol. 98, 8-15.

93. Rao GHR, Radha E, Johnson GJ and White JG. (1984). Enteric-coated aspirin, platelet cyclooxygenase activity and function. Prost. Leuko. Med. 13, 3-12.

94. Rao GHR and White JG. (1985). Heme-polyenoic acid interaction and prostaglandin synthesis. In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Lipoxins (Bailey JM, Ed.), Plenum Publications Corporation, pp. 357–371.

95. Rao GHR and White JG. (1985). Role of arachidonic acid metabolism in human platelet activation and irreversible aggregation. Am. J. Hematol. 19, 339-347.

96. Rao GHR and White JG. (1985). Disaggregation and reaggregation of irrversibly aggregated platelets: A method for more complete evaluation of antiplatelet drugs. Agents and Actions 16, 425-434.

97. Rao GHR and White JG. (1985). Comparative pharmacology of cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Prost. Leuko. Med. 18, 119-131.

98. Einzig S, Borgwardt B, Noren GR, Staley NA, White JG and Rao GHR. (1985). Arachidonic metabolism in thrombocytes and vascular tissues of turkeys. Prostaglandins 30, 999-1018.

99. Rao GHR, Radha E and White JG. (1985). Irreversible platelet aggregation does not depend on lipoxygenase metabolites. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commn. 131, 50-57.

100. Rao GHR, Peller JD and White JG. (1985). Measurement of ionized calcium in blood platelets with a new generation calcium indicator. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 132, 652-657.

101. Radha E, Hill TD, Rao GHR and White JG. (1985). Glutathione levels in human platelets display a circadian rhythm in vitro. Thromb. Res. 40, 823-831.

102. Rao GHR, Peller JD, Semba CP and White JG. (1986). Influence of the calcium sensitive fluorophore Quin 2 on platelet function. Blood 67, 354-361.

103. Rao GHR, Hill TD, John V, Vennerstrom JL, White JG and Holmes TJ. (1986). Inhibition of platelet aggregation by novel triphenylethylene analogs. Thromb. Res. 44, 527-538.

104. Rao GHR, Escolar G and White JG. (1986). Epinephrine reverses the inhibitory influence of aspirin on platelet-vessel wall interaction. Thromb. Res. 44, 65-74.

105. Rao GHR, Kishore NP and White JG. (1987). Differential effects of lipoxygenase inhibitors on arachidonic acid metabolism in cell free and intact platelet preparations. Prst. Leuko. Med. 26, 281-290.

106. Rao GHR, Kishore NP, Peller JD and White JG. (1987). Influence of polyenoic acids on arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet function. Cardiovascular Disease (Gallo L, Ed.), NY, Plenum Press, pp. 495–505.

107. Rao GHR, Hordinsky M, Witkop CJ and White JG. (1987). Influence of psoralen and ultraviolet therapy on platelet function and arachidonic acid metabolism in patients with vitilago. Prostaglandins and Lipid Metabolism in Radiation Injury (Walden TL., Jr, and Hughes HN, Eds.), NY, Plenum Press, pp. 179–184.

108. Rao GHR, Cox CA, Witkop CH and White JG. (1987). Influence of UV light (250 nm) on platelet activation. Prostaglandin and Lipid Metabolism in Radiation Injury (Walden TL., Jr, and Hughes HN, Eds.), NY, Plenum Press, pp. 339–344.

109. Rao GHR, White JG and Cox CA. (1987). Influence of a calcium-dependent protease inhibitor on platelet activation and secretion. Thromb. Res. 47, 625-637.

110. Burris SM, Smith CM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1987). Aspirin treatment reduces platelet resistance to deformation. Arteriosclerosis 7, 385-388.

111. Rao GHR. (1987). Polyenoic acids and platelet function. Recent Advances in essential fatty acid research (Das UN, Ed.), Academic Press, India, pp. 36–49.

112. Rao GHR. (1987). Influence of anti-platelet drugs on platelet-vessel wall interactions. Prost. Leuko. Med. 30, 133-145.

113. Rao GHR. (1987). Influence of calmodulin antagonist (stelazine) on agonist-induced calcium mobilization and platelet activation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 148, 768-775.

114. Smith CM, Burris SM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1988). Epinephrine-induced reveral of aspirin effects on platelet deformability. Thromb. Res. 51, 35-44.

115. Rao GHR. (1988). Measurement of ionized calcium in normal human blood platelets. Anal. Biochem. 169, 400-408.

116. Rao GHR and White JG. (1988). An improved method for measuring endogenous serotonin in platelet of patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Thromb. Res. 51, 225-227.

117. Authi KS, Rao GHR, Evenden BJ and Crawford N. (1988). Action of guanosine-5-0-[2-thidiphosphate] (GDPBS) on thrombin-induced activation and calcium mobilization in saponized and intact human platelets. Biochem. J. 255, 885-893.

118. Folts JD, Rowe GG and Rao GHR. (1988). Problem with aspirin as anti-thrombotic agent in coronary artery disease. Lancet 1, 937.

119. Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Witkop CJ and White JG. (1988). Origin and role of calcium in platelet activation contraction-secretion coupling. Cell Calcium Metabolism (Fiskum G, Ed.), NY, Plenum Publications, pp. 411–427.

120. Rao GHR. (1988). Platelets, Prostaglandins and Thrombosis. Med. Update: Assoc. Phys. Ind. 8, 33-38, 1998.

121. Rao GHR and White JG. (1989). Influence of phospholipase A2 on human blood platelet α-adrenergic receptor function. Thromb. Res. 53, 427-434.

122. Rao GHR and White JG. (1989). Epinephrine-induced platelet membrane modulation. In: Platelet Amine Storage Granules (Myers, K. Ed.), Academic Press.

123. Hill TD, White JG and Rao GHR. (1989). Platelet hypersensitivity induced by 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitro-benzene, hydroperoxides and inhibition of lipoxygenase. Thromb. Res. 53, 447-457.

124. Hill TD, White JG and Rao GHR. (1989). The influence of glutathione depleting agents on human platelet function. Thromb. Res. 53, 457-467.

125. Hill TD, White JG and Rao GHR. (1989). Role of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in human platelet arachidonic acid metabolism. Prostaglandins 38, 21-32.

126. Schorer AE, Kaplan ME, Rao GHR and Moldow CF. (1989). Interleukin 1 stimulated endothelial cell tissue factor production and expression by a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. Thromb. Haemosta. 56, 256—259.

127. Rao GHR, Cox CA, Mahadevappa VG and White JG. (1989). Influence of GDP(β)S on agonist-induced calcium mobilization and platelet function. In: Biology of Cellular Transducing Signals (Franklin J, Ed.), Plenum Press, pp. 343–353.

128. Grouse LH, Rao GHR, Weiss DJ, Perman V and White JG. (1990). Surface activated bovine platelets do not spread, they unfold. Am. J. Pathol. 136, 399-408.

129. Rao GHR, Raij L, Lester B and White JG. (1990). Inhibition of agonist-induced human platelet activation by nitric oxide. Proc. Royal Society Sym. (Moncada S and Higgs EA, Eds.), Elsevier Publishing Company Inc,., NY, pp. 355–367.

130. Krishnamurthi S, Wheeler-Jones CPD, Patel Y, Sadowska K, Kakkar VV and Rao GHR. (1990). Nitroprusside inhibits platelet function primarily by inhibiting calcium mobilization. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 18, 468-470.

131. Rao GHR, Krishanmurthi S, Raij L and White JG. (1990). Influence of nitric oxide on agonist-mediated calcium mobilization in platelets. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 43, 271-275.

132. Weiss DJ, McClay CB, Smith CM II, Rao GHR and White JG. (1990). Platelet function in the racing through-bred. Implications for exercise-induced hemorrahage. Vet. Clin. Pathol. 19, 35-39.

133. Witkop CJ, Babcock MN, Rao GHR, Gaudier F, Summers CG, Shanahan F, Harmon KR, Townsend D, King RA, Sedano HO, Cal SX, Krumwiede M, Almadovar C, Cruz H, Piners B and White JG. (1990). Albinism and Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome in Puerto Rico. Biol. Assoc. Med. Puerto Rico 82, 333-339.

134. Rao GHR and White JG. (1990). Aspirin, PGE1 and Quin-2 AM induced platelet dysfunction. Restoration of function by norepinephrine. Prost. Leuk. Essen. Fatty Acids 39, 141-146.

135. Rao GHR, Escolar G, Zavoral J and White JG. (1990). Influence of adrenergic receptor blockade on aspirin-induced inhibition of platelet function. Platelets 1, 145.

136. Rao GHR, Mahadevappa VG, Hill TD and White JG. (1990). Arachidonic acid oxidation and platelet function (Reddy CC, Hamilton GA and Madyasta KM, Eds.), Biological Oxidation Systems, Academic Press, 770-790.

137. Rao GHR, Fareed J and White JG. (1991). Influence of heparins on inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-induced calcium mobilization in permeabilized human platelets. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 45, 171-180.

138. Rao GHR, Wilson RF, White CW and White JG. (1991). Influence of thrombolytic agents on human platelet function. Thromb. Res. 62, 319-334.

139. Bonebrake FL, Bertha B, Folts JD and Rao GHR. (1991). Verapamil combined with aspirin for inhibiting epinephrine-stimulated platelet thrombus formation in stenosed canine coronary arteries. Cor. Art. Dis. 2, 487-492.

140. Prikyl P, Siegelova J, Comelissen G, Dusek J, Dankova E, Fiser B, Vacha J, Ferrazzani S, Tocci A, Carusso A, Rao GHR, Fink H and Hallberg F. (1991). Chronotherapeutic treatment daily low-dose aspirin. University of Minnesota-Medtronic Chronobiology Sem Ser. 3, 1-8.

141. Kahmann RD, Donohue JM, Bradford DS, White JG and Rao GHR. (1992). Platelet function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 17, 145-148.

142. Rao GHR. (1992). The role membrane lipid in the platelet storage lesion. Commentary. Blood Cells 18, 498-500.

143. Rao GHR, Smith CM II and White JG. (1992). Influence of calcium antagonists on thrombin-induced calcium mobilization and platelet-vessel wall interactions. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 47, 226-231.

144. Rao GHR, Ericson DG, Weiss DJ, Parks PG and White JG. (1992). Influence of aspirin and carbacyclin on bovine platelet function. ASAIO J. 38, 830-834.

145. Rao GHR. (1992). Influence of storage on signal transduction pathways and platelet function. Blood Cells 18, 383-396.

146. Rao GHR, Rao ASC and White JG. (1992). Influence of low-dose enteric coated aspirin on platelet function. Ind. Heart J. 44, 365-371.

147. MacFarlane GD, Herzberg MC, Zhao QI and Rao GHR. (1992). The role of dense granule secretate and arachidonic acid metabolites in streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet aggregation. Blood 80, 2774-2780.

148. Smith CM II, Burris SM, Rao GHR and White JG. (1992). Detergent-resistant cytoskeleton of the surface activated platelet differs from the suspension-activated platelet cytoskeleton. Blood 80, 2774-2780.

149. Rao GHR and White JG. (1992). Epinephrine-induced platelet membrane modulation. In: The Platelet Amine Storage Granule (Meyers KM and Barnes CD, Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Baton, pp. 117–195.

150. Rao GHR (1993). Signal transduction, second messengers and platelet function. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 121, 18-22.

151. Sugihara T, Rao GHR and Hebbel RP. (1993). Diphenyllanine: An unusual antioxidant. Free Rad. J. 14, 381-387.

152. Rao GHR, Escolar G and White JG. (1993). Biochemsitry, physiology and function of platelets stored as concentrates. Transfusion 33, 766-778.

153. Rao GHR, Escolar G, Smith CM and White JG. (1993). Influence of heat on platelet biochemistry, physiology and function. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 122, 455-465.

154. Rao GHR, Gerrard JM, Murthy M, White JG. (1993). Possible mechanisms of epinephrine actions in human platelets that are refractory to arachidonic acid. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 50, 322-337.

155. Rao GHR and White JG. (1993). Coronary artery disease: risk factors-an overview. Ind. Heart J. 145, 143-153.

156. Rao GHR, Rao ASC and White JG. (1993). Aspirin in ischemic heart disease: An overview. Ind. Heart J. 45, 73-79.

157. Rao GHR and Doni MG. (1993). Influence of nitro-vasodilators on platelet function. Thromb. Athero. 4, 293-305.

158. Rao GHR, Tate M, Hebbel R and White JG. (1994). Influence of antioxidants on arachidonic acid metabolism and platelet function. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 51, 74-79.

159. Rao GHR, Escolar G and White JG. (1994). Monitoring signal transduction and cytoskeletal alterations by fluorescent imaging and confocal microscopy. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 714, 297-300.

160. Murthy, M, Rao GHR, and Reddy S. (1994). 1, 3-dicotonoyl glycerol (1, 3-diC8) is as effective as 1, 2-diC8 in priming phospholipase A2 activation in human platelets and neutrophils. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 52, 89-96.

161. Reddy S, Rao GHR and Murthy. (1994). Differential effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and diacylglycerols on thromboxane A2-dependent phospholipase A2 in collagen-stimulated human platelets. Biochem. Med. Met. Biol. 51, 118-128.

162. Rao GHR and White JG. (1994). Influence of various doses of aspirin (in vivo) on platelet arachidonic acid metabolism (ex vivo) and function. Prost. Leuk. Essen. Fatty Acids 51, 63-69.

163. Rao GHR, Smith CM II, Doni MG and White JG. (1994). Intracelluar calcium to adherent human platelets. Arterioscler. Thromb. 5, 95-105.

164. Rao GHR. (Press). Signal transduction, second messengers and pathogenesis of cardiovasacular disease. Proc. Fourth Internat. Conf. Health Diseases, India

165. Rao GHR, Fields CM, White JG and Fields G. (1994). Promotion of human platelet adhesion and aggregation by a synthetic, triple-helical mini-collagen. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 13899-13903.

166. Rao GHR. (1994). Signal transduction, second messengers and platelet pharmacology. Pharmacol (Life Sci.) 13, 39-44.

167. Rao GHR. (1994). Signal transduction, second messengers and platelet pharmacology. In: Environ. Physiol. (Mallick BN and Singh R, Eds.), Narosa Publishing House, Delhi.

168. Rao GHR, Peller JD, Prakash YS, Doni MG and White JG. (1994). Monitoring signal transduction and cytoskeletal alterations in adherent platelets. Arterioscler. Thromb. 5, 155-165.

169. Rao GHR. (1994). Physiology of blood platelet activation. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 37, 263-275.

170. Rao GHR and Rao AT. (1994). Pharmacology of platelet inhibitory drugs. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 38, 69-84.

171. Rao GHR. (1994). Circadian variations and coronary artery disease. Chronobiologia 21, 63-64.

172. Rao GHR, Peller JD, Prakash YS, Doni MG and White JG. (1994). Monitoring signal transduction and cytoskeletal alterations in adherent platelets. Arterioscler. Thromb. 5, 155-168.

173. Prikryl P, Siegelova J, Cornelissen G, Dusek J, Dankova E, Ferrazzani S, Tocci A, Caruso A, Rao GHR, Fink H, and Halberg F. (1994). Chronotherapeutic pilot on 6 persons may guide tests on thousands: toward a circadian optimization of prophylactic treatment with daily low-dose aspirin. In: Chronobiology and Chronomedicine, Humans in Time and Cosmos (Otsuka K, Cornelissen G and Halberg F, Eds.), Life Science Publishing Co., pp. 113–117.

174. Murthy M, Rao GHR, Robinson P and Reddy S. (1995). Influx of extracellular calcium and agonist-coupling appear essential for the activation of thromboxane A2-dependent phospholipase A2 in human platelets. Prost. Leuko. Essen. Fatty Acids. 53, 31-39.

175. Reddy S, Bose R, Rao GHR and Murthy M. (1995). Phospholipase A2 activation in human neutrophils requires influx of extracellular calcium and leukotriene B4. Am. J. Physiol. 268, C138-C146.

176. Rao GHR. (1995). Physiology and pharmacology of platelets. Internat. J. Prog. Cardiovas. Sci. 2, 108-110.

177. White JG, Krumwiede MD, Cocking-Johnson D and Escolar G. (1995). Retention of GPIb/IX receptors on external surfaces of thrombin-activated platelets in suspension. Blood 86, 3468-3478. 1. \

178. Rao GHR, Peller JD, Lee JY, Knopman DS and White JG. (1996). Biochemical and functional responses of platelets from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 40, 5-14.

179. Padoni E, Alexandre A, Cavalline L, Rao GHR and Doni MG. Human platelet activation is inhibited by the occupancy of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 333, 407-413, 1996.

180. Escolar G, Rao GHR, Nieuwenhuis K and White JG. Ultrastructure expression of p-selectin on surface activated platelets. Platelets 7, 297-301, 1996.

181. White JG and Rao GHR. (1996).Thrombin-induced inhibition of platelet agglutination by von Willebrand factor (vWF): Reversal by ionized calcium. Platelets 7, 321-328.

182. Song CW, Kim GE, Lynos JC, Makepeace CM, Griffin RJ, Rao GHR and Cragoe EJ. (In Press). Thermosensitization by increasing intracellular acidity with amiloride and its analogs. Int. J. Radiation Oncol. Biol. Phys.

183. Rao GHR. (1996). Effect of exercise on platelet physiology and pharmacology. In: Pharmacology in Exercise and Sports (Somani SM, Ed.), CRC Press, Boca Baton, pp. 211–234.

184. White JG and Rao GHR. Aggregated-disaggregated, refractory platelets retain sensitivity to ristocetin. Thromb. Res. 84, 253-256,1996.

185. Rao GHR. (1996). Clinical relevance of platelet research in thrombosis and hemostasis. Int. J. Cardiovas. Sci. 3, 21-24.

186. Rao GHR and Parthasarathy S. (1996). Antooxidants, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Prost. Leuko. Essen. Fatty Acids. 54, 155-166

187. Rao GHR, Peller JD and White JG. Influence of ionized calcium on thrombin-induced down-regulation of GPIb/IX receptors in human platelets. Thromb. Res. 85, 23-31, 1997.

188. White JG, Krumweide MD, Cocking-Johnson DJ, Burris S and Rao GHR. Influence of cytochalasin B (CB) on GPIb distribution after thrombin or TRAP and before surface activation. Platelets 8, 53-60, 1997.

189. Rao GHR and White JG. Epinephrine and platelet function. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 130, 238-239, 1997.

190. Rao GHR. (1997). Mechanism of platelet activation. Int. J. Cardiovas. Sci.

191. Rao GHR, Mohanty D and Rao ASC. (1997). Coronary heart disease: risk factors for Indian men and women. Ind. J. Hematol. Blood Trans. 15, 3-8.

192. White JG and Rao GHR. Microtubule coils versus the surface membrane cytoskeleton in maintenance and restoration of platelet discoid shape. Am. J. Pathol. 152, 597-609, 1998.

193. Rao GHR: Role of platelet adhesion and aggregation on thrombus formation. Thromb. Haemost. 79, 454-455, 1998.

194. Chandy T, Vasudev SC and Rao GHR: Changes in pericardial calcification due to anti-platelet agents: in vitro studies. Art. Org. 22:666-71,1998.

195. Chandy T, Mooradian DL and Rao GHR: Chitosan/polyethylene glycol-alginate microcapsules for oral delivery of hirudin. J. Applied Polymer Sci. 70:2143-53,1998.

196. Chandy T, Moordian DL and Rao GHR: Platelet adhesion and spreading on protein coated surfaces. Variations in behavior in washed cells, PRP and whole blood. J. Biomat. Appl. 13:46-65,1998.

197. Chandy T, Vasudev SC, Rao GHR and Sharma CP: Pericardial calcification: Changes due to antiplatelet agents. Cardiovas. Eng. 3:79-85,1998.

198. Rao GHR. (1998). Platelets as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. In: Coronary artery disease in South Asians: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention (Rao GHR, Ed.).

199. Rao GHR. (1998). Aspirin and coronary artery disease. In: Coronary Artery Disease in South Asians: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Prevention (Rao GHR, Ed.).

200. Escolar G, Lozano M, Diaz-Ricart M, Rao GHR, Ordinas A and White JG. Modifications in accessibility of membrane glycoproteins binding specific ligands and coagulation factors V during the activation of platelets in blood emerging from bleeding time wounds. Am J Hematol 60:260-67, 1999.

201. Rao GHR, Chandy. (1999). Role of platelets in blood-biomaterial interactions. Bull of Mater Sci. 22: 101-107.

202. Chandy T, Das GS, Wilson RF, Rao GHR. Surface immobilized biomolecules on albumin modified porcine pericardium for preventing thrombosis and calcification. Intern J. Artif. Organs 22:547-558, 1999.

203. Chandy T, Mooradian DL Rao GHR (1999). Evaluation of modified alginate-PEG microcapsules for cell encapsulation Artif. Organs 23:894-903.

204. Chandy T and Rao GHR. (1999). Platelet biomaterial interactions. In: Platelet Physiology and Pharmacology (Rao GHR, Ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA.

205. Rao GHR: Handbook of Platelet Physiology and Pharmacology, Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN #0 7923 8538-1 (Ed. Gundu H. R. Rao) 1999.

206. Rao GHR. (1999). Platelet Physiology and Pharmacology: An Overview. In: Platelet physiology and Pharmacology (Rao GHR, Ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA.

207. Chandy T, Das GS, Rao GHR: 5 Fluorouracil-loaded chitosan coated polylactic acid microspheres as biodegradable drug carriers for cerebral tumours. J. Microencapsulation. 17: 625-638, 2000.

208. Rao, GHR, Escolar G, White JR, Weiss DJ, Burris S, Ordinas A, White JG: Differential response of human and bovine platelets to bovine von Willebrand factor and vascular sub endothelium. Platelets 12: 150-155, 2001.

209. Rao GHR: Coronary artery disease in South Asians: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi ISBN #81 7179-811-X (Ed; Gundu H. R. Rao), 2001

210. Chandy T, Wilson RF, Rao GHR and Das GS: Changes in Cisplatin Delivery Due to Surface-Coated Poly (Lactic Acid) /Poly (e-Carpolactone) Microspheres. J. Biomat. Appl.16: 275-292, 2002.

211. Chandy T and Rao GHR: Preparation of surface-Engineered Elastin/Lamin Nerve Guide Tubes of Poly (lactic acid) /Poly (ethylene vinyl acetate). J. Bioacitve & Comp Polymers 17: 183-195, 2002.

212. Chandy T, Rao GHR, Wilson RF, Das GS: The development of porous Alginate/PEG/Composite for Cardiovascular Engineering. J. Biomaterial Applications. 17:287-363, 2003.

213. Karnicki K, St. Cyr J, Ericson D, and Rao GHR: Preservation of in vitro platelet concentrates with Via Cyte. Vox sangui. 85:262-266, 2003.

214. Guettier J, Georgopoulos A, Tsai M, Radha V, Shanthirani S, Deepa R, Gross M, Rao GHR, and Mohan V: Polymorphisms in the FABP2 and APOC3 genes are associated with the metabolic syndrome in a South Indian Population. J Clin Endocrinol. Metabolism. Dec 2004.

215. Rao GHR: Platelet hypertension as risk for acute coronary syndromes. In: CAD: Risk Promoters, Pathophysiology and Prevention. JP Med. Publishers, 2004.

216. Rao GHR: Global risk assessment for diabetes and vascular diseases: New guidelines for risk promoters. IN: CAD: Risk Promoters, Pathophysiology and Prevention. JP Med. Publishers, 2004.

217. Rao GHR: (Editor): Coronary Artery Disease: Risk Promoters, Pathophysiology and Prevention. Jaypee Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India. 2004.

218. Rao GHR: World Health Organization (WHO) should follow the rotary model for disseminating knowledge, distributing funds and providing funds. CV Network 4:11-13, 2005.

219. Rao GHR: Aspirin Resistance: A fact or myth? Expt. Clin Cardiol 10:17-20, 2005.

220. Rao GHR. Aspirin Resistance: Need for a specific, Rapid, Point of Care Assay. World Heart Journal. 1:63-78, 2006.

221. Rao GHR Michiels Jan Jaques: Aspirin Resistance: Does it exist? Sem Thromb. Hemost. 33:210-214, 2007.

222. Rao GHR: Aspirin Resistance: Need for a specific, Rapid, Point of Care Assay. In: Frontiers in Atherosclerosis Research ( Kepper, KF), Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2007 pp191–213

223. Rao GHR, Divani A: Past, Present, and future of anti-platelet therapy. J Vasc Interven Neurol. 1:57-60, 2008.

224. Rao GHR: Aspirin Resistance: Expectations and limitations. Advances in Heamtology, New Delhi 2009


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