Korean diaspora


Korean diaspora
Korean diaspora
Hangul 동포 / 교포
Hanja /
Revised Romanization dongpo / gyopo
McCune–Reischauer tongp'o / kyop'o
Overseas Koreans
한민족 (韓民族)
Total population
6.8 million (est.)
Regions with significant populations
 People's Republic of China 2,336,771 [1]
 United States 2,102,283 [1][2]
 Japan 912,770 [1]
 Canada 223,322 [1]
 Russia 222,027 [1][3]
 Uzbekistan 175,939 [1]
 Australia 150,873 [4]
 Philippines 115,400 [1]
 Kazakhstan 103,952 [1]
 Vietnam 84,566 [1]
 Brazil 48,419 [1]
 United Kingdom 45,925 [1]
 Indonesia 31,760 [1]
 Germany 31,248 [1]
 New Zealand 30,792 [1]
 Argentina 22,024 [1]
 Thailand 20,200 [1]
 Kyrgyzstan 18,810 [1]
 France 14,738 [1]
 Malaysia 14,580 [1]
 Singapore 13,509 [1]
 Ukraine 13,001 [1]
 Mexico 12,072 [1]
 Guatemala 9,921 [1]
 India 8,337 [1]
 Paraguay 5,229 [1]
 Cambodia 4,772 [1]
 Italy 4,203 [1]
 South Africa 3,949
 Spain 3,647
 Republic of China 3,158
 United Arab Emirates 3,114
Languages

Korean, Various

Religion

Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, Cheondoism. Background of Confucianism and Korean shamanism.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Related ethnic groups

Korean people

The Korean diaspora consists of roughly seven million people, both descendants of early emigrants from the Korean peninsula, as well as more recent expatriates. Nearly four-fifths live in just three countries: China, Japan, and the United States.[1] Countries with greater than 0.5% Korean minorities are Japan, New Zealand, the United States, Kazakhstan, Canada, Uzbekistan and Australia.

Contents

Terminology

North Korea refers to Korean citizens living outside the Korean peninsula as haeoe gungmin (해외국민, "overseas citizens"), while South Korea uses the term jaeoe gungmin (재외국민, "citizens abroad").[12] Another broader term is gyopo (교포, also spelled kyopo); however, the term has come to have negative connotations as referring to people who, as a result of living as sojourners outside the "home country", has lost touch with their Korean roots. As a result, others prefer to use the term dongpo (동포, roughly "brethren" or "people of the same ancestry"). Dongpo has a more transnational implication, emphasising links among various overseas Korean groups, while gyopo has more of a purely national connotation referring to the Korean state.[13][14]

History

Origins

Prior to the modern era, Korea had been a territorially stable polity for centuries; as Rogers Brubaker and Jaeeun Kim describe it, "The congruence of territory, polity, and population was taken for granted".[15] Large-scale emigration from Korea began as early as the mid-1860s, mainly into the Russian Far East and Northeast China; these emigrants became the ancestors of the 2 million Koreans in China and several hundred thousand ethnic Koreans in Central Asia.[16][17]

Korea under Japanese rule

During the Japanese colonial period of 1910-1945, Koreans were often recruited or forced into labour service to work in mainland Japan, Karafuto Prefecture (Sakhalin), and Manchukuo, especially in the 1930s and early 1940s; the ones who chose to remain in Japan at the end of the war became known as Zainichi Koreans, while the roughly 40 thousand who were trapped in Karafuto after the Soviet invasion are typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans.[18][19] According to the statistics at Immigration Bureau of Japan, there were 901,284 Koreans resident in Japan as of 2005, of which 515,570 were permanent residents, and another 284,840 were naturalized citizens.[20][21] Koreans amount to 40.4% of the non-Japanese population of the country. Three-quarters of the Koreans living in Japan are Japanese-born, and most are legal aliens.[citation needed]

Aside from migration within the Empire of Japan or its puppet state of Manchukuo, some Koreans also escaped Japanese-ruled territory entirely, heading to Shanghai, a major centre of the Korean independence movement, or to the already-established Korean communities of the Russian Far East. However, the latter would find themselves deported to Central Asia in 1938.[citation needed]

After the liberation

Korea regained its independence in 1945 at the end of World War II, but was divided into North and South. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, ethnic Koreans in China (Chaoxianzu) became officially recognised as one of the 56 ethnic groups of the country. They are considered to be one of the "major minorities". Their population grew to about 2 million; they stayed mostly in northeastern China, where their ancestors had initially settled. Their largest population was concentrated in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Jilin Province, where they numbered 854,000 in 1997.[17][22]

Korean emigration to the United States is known to have begun as early as 1903, but the Korean American community did not grow to a significant size until after the passage of the Immigration Reform Act of 1965. [23] Between 1.5 and 2 million Koreans now live in the United States, mostly in metropolitan areas.[1][24] A handful are descended from laborers who migrated to Hawaii in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A significant number are descended from orphans of the Korean War, in which the United States was a major ally of South Korea and provided the bulk of the United Nations troops that served there. Thousands were adopted by American (mostly Caucasian) families in the years following the war, when their plight was covered on television. The vast majority, however, immigrated or are descended from those who immigrated after the Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 abolished national immigration quotas.

Europe and Latin America were also minor destinations for post-war Korean emigration. Korean immigration to Latin America was documented as early as the 1950s; North Korean prisoners of war choose to emigrate to Chile in 1953 and Argentina in 1956 under the auspices of the Red Cross. However, the majority of Korean settlement occurred in the late 1960s. As the South Korean economy continued to expand in the 1980s, investors from South Korea came to Latin America and established small businesses in the textiles industry.[25] Brazil has Latin America's largest Koreatown in São Paulo; there are also Koreatowns in cities such as Buenos Aires, Argentina; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Lima, Peru; and Santiago, Chile. Mexico City's Korean population is estimated to be around 30,000.[citation needed] Korean immigrants are increasingly settling in urban centers of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela.

In the 1970s, however, Japan and the United States remained the top two destinations for South Korean emigrants, with each receiving more than a quarter of all emigration; the Middle East became the third most popular destination, with more than 800,000 Koreans going to Saudi Arabia between 1975 and 1985, and another 26,000 Koreans going to Iran. In contrast, aside from Germany (1.7% of all South Korean emigration in 1977) and Paraguay (1.0%), no European or Latin American destinations were even in the top ten for emigrants.[26]

Shifting focus of emigration

Although immigration to the United States briefly became less attractive as a result of the 1992 Los Angeles riots, during which many Korean American immigrants saw their businesses destroyed by looters, the Los Angeles and New York City metropolitan areas still contain by far the largest populations of ethnic Koreans outside of Korea and continue to attract the largest share of Korean immigrants. In fact, the per capita Korean population of Bergen County, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, 6.3% by the 2010 United States Census,[27] is the highest of any county in the United States, with eight of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population;[28] while the concentration of Korean Americans in Palisades Park, New Jersey, within Bergen County, is the highest of any municipality in the United States,[29] at 52% of the population.[30] South Korean media reports on the riots increased public awareness of the long working hours and harsh conditions faced by immigrants to the United States in the 1990s.[31] Instead, with the development of the South Korean economy, the focus of emigration from Korea began to shift from developed nations towards developing nations. With the 1992 normalisation of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea, many citizens of South Korea started to settle instead in China, attracted by business opportunities generated by the reform and opening up of China and the low cost of living. Large new communities of South Koreans have formed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Qingdao; as of 2006, their population is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000.[32] There is also a small community of Koreans in Hong Kong, mostly expatriate businessmen and their families; according to Hong Kong's 2001 census, they numbered roughly 5,200, making them the 12th-largest ethnic minority group.[33] Southeast Asia has also seen an influx of South Koreans. Koreans in Vietnam have grown in number to around 30,000 since the 1992 normalisation of diplomatic relations, making them Vietnam's second-largest foreign community after the Taiwanese.[34] Korean migration to the Philippines has also increased due to the tropical climate and low cost of living compared to South Korea; 370,000 Koreans visited the country in 2004, and roughly 46,000 Korean expatriates live there permanently.[35] Though smaller, the number of Koreans in Cambodia has also grown rapidly, almost quadrupling between 2005 and 2009.[1] They mostly reside in Phnom Penh, with a smaller number in Siam Reap. They are largely investors involved in the construction industry, though there are also some missionaries and NGO workers.[36]

Return migration

Koreans born or settled overseas have been migrating back to both North and South Korea ever since the restoration of Korean independence; perhaps the most famous example is Kim Jong-Il, born in Vyatskoye, Khabarovsk Krai, where his father Kim Il-sung had been serving in the Red Army.[37][38] Postwar migrations of Koreans from throughout the Japanese Empire back to the Korean peninsula were characterised both bureaucratically and popularly as "repatriation", a restoration of the congruence between the Korean population and its territory.[39] The pre-colonial Korean state had not clearly laid out the boundaries of who was a citizen; however, the Japanese colonial government had registered all Koreans in a separate family registry, a separation which continued even if an individual Korean migrated to Manchuria or Japan; thus North and South Korea had a clear legal definition of who was a repatriating Korean, and did not have to create any special legal categories of national membership for them, the way Germany had done for post-World War II German expellees.[40]

The largest-scale repatriation activities took place in Japan, where Chongryon sponsored the return of Zainichi Korean residents to North Korea; starting from late 1950s and early 1960s, with a trickle of repatriates continuing until as late as 1984, nearly 90,000 Zainichi Koreans resettled in the reclusive communist state, though their ancestral homes were in the South. However, word of the difficult economic and political conditions filtered back to Japan, decreasing the popularity of this option. Around one hundred such repatriates are believed to have later escaped from North Korea; the most famous is Kang Chol-Hwan, who published a book about his experience, The Aquariums of Pyongyang.[41][42] South Korea, however, was a popular destination for Koreans who had settled in Manchukuo during the colonial period; returnees from Manchukuo such as Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan had a large influence on the process of nation-building in South Korea.[43]

Until the 1980s, Soviet Koreans did not repatriate in any large numbers and played little role in defining the boundaries of membership in the Korean nation.[44] However, roughly 1,000 Sakhalin Koreans are also estimated to have independently repatriated to the North in the decades after the end of World War II, when returning to their ancestral homes in the South was not an option due to the lack of Soviet relations with the South and Japan's refusal to grant them transit rights. In 1985, Japan began to fund the return of Sakhalin Koreans to South Korea; however, only an additional 1,500 took this offer, with the vast majority of the population remaining on Sakhalin or moving to the Russian Far East instead.[45]

With the rise of the South Korean economy in the 1980s, economic motivations became increasingly prevalent in overseas Koreans' decisions of whether to repatriate and in which part of the peninsula to settle. 356,790 Chinese citizens have migrated to South Korea since the reform and opening up of China; almost two-thirds are estimated to be Chaoxianzu.[46] Similarly, some Koryo-saram from Central Asia have also moved to South Korea as guest workers, to take advantage of the high wages offered by the growing economy; remittances from South Korea to Uzbekistan, for example, were estimated to exceed USD100 million in 2005.[47] Return migration through arranged marriage is another option, portrayed in the 2005 South Korean film Wedding Campaign, directed by Hwang Byung-kook.[48] However, the Koryo-saram often face the most difficulty integrating into Korean society due to their poor command of the Korean language and the fact that their dialect, Koryo-mar, differs significantly from the Seoul dialect considered standard in the South.[47]

Until recently, return migration from the United States has been much less common than that from Japan or the former Soviet Union, as the economic push factor was far less than in 1960s Japan or post-Soviet collapse Central Asia. However, an increasing number of aspiring Korean American singers and actors, finding their career progress in Hollywood blocked, choose to go to South Korea through talent and modelling agencies; prominent examples include singer Brian Joo (of R&B duo Fly to the Sky) and actor Daniel Henney (who initially spoke no Korean).[49][50] [51]

Statistics

Continent Country MOFAT statistics, 2009[1] Proportion of Korean diaspora Number of adopted Koreans[52] Year range for adoption statistics Local census statistics Year of census
Asia  China 2,336,771 34.25%
Americas  United States 2,102,283 30.81% 107145 1953–2007 1555293 2007[24]
Asia  Japan 912,770 13.38% 226 1962–1982
Americas  Canada 223,322 3.27% 2103 1967–2007
Europe/Asia  Russia 222,027 3.25% 148,556 2002[3]
Asia  Uzbekistan 175,939 2.58%
Oceania  Australia 125,669 1.84% 3341 1969–2007 60873 2006[4]
Asia  Philippines 115,400 1.69%
Asia  Kazakhstan 103,952 1.52% 99700 1999[53]
Asia  Vietnam 84,566 1.24%
Americas  Brazil 48,419 0.71%
Europe  United Kingdom 45,295 0.66% 72 1958–1990
Asia  Indonesia 31,760 0.47%
Europe  Germany 31,248 0.46% 2352 1965–2002
Oceania  New Zealand 30,792 0.45% 559 1964–1984
Americas  Argentina 22,024 0.32%
Asia  Thailand 20,200 0.30%
Asia  Kyrgyzstan 18,810 0.28% 19784 1999[54]
Europe  France 14,738 0.22% 11155 1968–2007
Asia  Malaysia 14,580 0.21%
Asia  Singapore 13,509 0.20%
Europe  Ukraine 13,001 0.19%
Americas  Mexico 12,072 0.18%
Americas  Guatemala 9,921 0.15%
Asia  India 8,337 0.12% 3 1960–1964
Americas  Paraguay 5,229 0.08% 2 1969
Asia  Cambodia 4,772 0.07%
Europe  Italy 4,203 0.06% 382 1965–1981
Africa  South Africa 3,949 0.06%
Europe  Spain 3,647 0.05% 5 1968
Asia  Republic of China 3,158 0.05% 4 1967–1968
Asia  United Arab Emirates 3,114 0.05%
Asia  Qatar 2,365 0.03%
Asia  Mongolia 2,323 0.03%
Americas  Chile 2,249 0.03%
Europe  Austria 2,247 0.03%
Europe  Switzerland 2,141 0.03% 1111 1968–1997
Asia  Saudi Arabia 2,014 0.03%
Europe  Czech Republic 1,780 0.03% 1272 2009[55]
Asia  Tajikistan 1,762 0.03%
Europe  Netherlands 1,722 0.03% 4099 1969–2003 4561 2008[56]
Europe  Slovakia 1,495 0.02%
Europe  Sweden 1,434 0.02% 9221 1957–2007
Americas  Ecuador 1,418 0.02%
Europe/Asia  Turkey 1,396 0.02% 1 1969
Europe  Belarus 1,265 0.02%
Europe  Ireland 1,146 0.02% 12 1968–1975
Asia  Kuwait 1,058 0.02%
Europe  Hungary 1,053 0.02%
Asia  Bangladesh 1,046 0.02%
Europe  Poland 1,034 0.02% 7 1970
Africa  Egypt 976 0.01%
Oceania  Fiji 950 0.01%
Africa  Nigeria 920 0.01%
Asia  Myanmar 888 0.01%
Africa  Libya 854 0.01%
Asia  Sri Lanka 854 0.01%
Americas  Peru 812 0.01%
Europe  Belgium 743 0.01% 3697 1969–1995
Americas  Costa Rica 730 0.01%
Americas  Colombia 710 0.01%
Africa  Kenya 707 0.01%
Asia  Oman 699 0.01%
Americas  Bolivia 640 0.01%
Asia  Iran 614 0.01%
Asia  Israel 560 0.01%
Asia  Laos 547 0.01%
Americas  Nicaragua 531 0.01%
Asia  Pakistan 529 0.01%
Africa  Ghana 519 0.01%
Americas  Dominican Republic 518 0.01%
Europe  Norway 488 0.01% 6274 1995–2007
Europe  Romania 456 0.01%
Africa  Angola 455 0.01%
Asia  Turkmenistan 438 0.01%
Americas  Honduras 406 0.01%
Europe  Armenia 378 0.01%
Asia  Nepal 374 0.01%
Africa  Tanzania 360 0.01%
Africa  Morocco 358 0.01%
Europe  Greece 356 0.01%
Asia  Jordan 356 0.01%
Americas  Venezuela 325 0.00%
Americas  Panama 306 0.00%
Europe  Denmark 279 0.00% 8679 1965–2005
Americas  El Salvador 272 0.00%
Africa  Uganda 228 0.00%
Africa  Madagascar 226 0.00%
Asia  Yemen 222 0.00%
Oceania  Papua New Guinea 222 0.00%
Europe  Finland 213 0.00% 1 1984
Africa  Ethiopia 212 0.00% 1 1961
Asia  Bahrain 195 0.00%
Africa  Algeria 183 0.00%
Africa  Senegal 170 0.00%
Africa  Tunisia 170 0.00% 1 1969
Europe  Bulgaria 170 0.00%
Africa  Botswana 163 0.00%
Asia  Azerbaijan 163 0.00%
Asia  Afghanistan 159 0.00%
Europe  Portugal 159 0.00%
Africa  Cameroon 155 0.00%
Americas  Uruguay 152 0.00%
Africa  Côte d'Ivoire 141 0.00%
Africa  Zimbabwe 136 0.00%
Europe  Moldova 126 0.00%
Asia  Syria 121 0.00%
Asia  Lebanon 116 0.00%
Oceania  Palau 113 0.00%
Africa  Malawi 113 0.00%
Asia  Brunei 108 0.00%
Africa  Togo 105 0.00%
Europe  Malta 103 0.00%
Africa  Democratic Republic of the Congo 103 0.00%
Americas  Jamaica 102 0.00%
Africa  Sudan 99 0.00%
Africa  Gabon 90 0.00%
Africa  Zambia 84 0.00%
Africa  Mozambique 78 0.00%
Europe  Albania 72 0.00%
Europe  Serbia 68 0.00%
Americas  Suriname 66 0.00%
Asia  Iraq 62 0.00%
Africa  Rwanda 61 0.00%
Africa  Burkina Faso 59 0.00%
Africa  Sierra Leone 56 0.00%
Europe  Luxembourg 54 0.00% 554 1984–2007
Asia  Timor-Leste 52 0.00%
Europe  Croatia 50 0.00%
Americas  Haiti 47 0.00%
Oceania  Vanuatu 46 0.00%
Oceania  Tonga 46 0.00%
Europe  Latvia 46 0.00%
Africa  Guinea 43 0.00%
Oceania  Solomon Islands 42 0.00%
Europe  Lithuania 41 0.00%
Africa  Liberia 37 0.00%
Americas  Trinidad and Tobago 37 0.00%
Africa  Gambia 36 0.00%
Oceania  Marshall Islands 34 0.00%
Africa  Chad 32 0.00%
Africa  Mauritania 31 0.00%
Americas  Belize 30 0.00%
Europe  Slovenia 29 0.00%
Europe  Georgia 28 0.00%
Oceania  Federated States of Micronesia 25 0.00%
Africa  Swaziland 19 0.00%
Africa  Namibia 19 0.00%
Asia  Maldives 18 0.00%
Africa  Mali 18 0.00%
Asia  Palestine 15 0.00%
Africa  Congo 14 0.00%
Africa  Niger 14 0.00%
Africa  Equatorial Guinea 13 0.00%
Europe  Cyprus 11 0.00%
Africa  Mauritius 11 0.00%
Europe  Macedonia 10 0.00%
Europe  Iceland 10 0.00%
Africa  Guinea-Bissau 10 0.00%
Africa  Burundi 9 0.00%
Africa  Central African Republic 9 0.00%
Africa  Benin 8 0.00%
Africa  Eritrea 7 0.00%
Asia  Bhutan 7 0.00%
Americas  Barbados 7 0.00%
Europe  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6 0.00%
Europe  Estonia 5 0.00%
Americas  Saint Lucia 5 0.00%
Europe  Montenegro 3 0.00%
Africa  Comoros 3 0.00%
Europe  Monaco 2 0.00%
Africa  Cape Verde 2 0.00%
Oceania  Kiribati 1 0.00%
Europe  San Marino 1 0.00%
Americas  Guyana 1 0.00%
Total 6,822,720 100%

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae 재외동포현황/Current Status of Overseas Compatriots. South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2009. http://www.mofat.go.kr/consul/overseascitizen/compatriotcondition/index6.jsp?TabMenu=TabMenu6. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  2. ^ Note that the 2006 American Community Survey gave a much smaller figure of 1,520,703. See S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201TPR&-ds_name=ACS_2006_EST_G00_&-reg=ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201:042;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201PR:042;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201T:042;ACS_2006_EST_G00_S0201TPR:042&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  3. ^ a b The 2002 Russian census gave a figure of 148,556. See (in Russian) (Microsoft Excel) Население по национальности и владению русским языком по субъектам Российской Федерации. Федеральная служба государственной статистики. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/TOM_04_03.xls. Retrieved 2006-12-01 
  4. ^ a b "20680-Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex - Australia" (Microsoft Excel download). 2006 Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?breadcrumb=POLTD&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&subaction=-1&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&documentproductno=0&textversion=false&documenttype=Details&collection=Census&javascript=true&topic=Ancestry&action=404&productlabel=Ancestry%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&order=1&period=2006&tabname=Details&areacode=0&navmapdisplayed=true&. Retrieved 2008-06-02.  Total responses: 25,451,383 for total count of persons: 19,855,288.
  5. ^ Every Culture - Culture of NORTH KOREA
  6. ^ Every Culture - South Koreans
  7. ^ Every Culture - Culture of SOUTH KOREA
  8. ^ state.gov
  9. ^ "Korea.net: The official website of the Republic of Korea - Religion". http://www.korea.net/korea/kor_loca.asp?code=U05. 
  10. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2008 - Korea, Republic of". U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 22 January 2009. http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108411.htm. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  11. ^ state.gov
  12. ^ Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 42-43
  13. ^ Song 2005, p. 221
  14. ^ Kim 1999, p. 227
  15. ^ Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 27
  16. ^ Lee Kwang-kyu (2000). Overseas Koreans. Seoul: Jimoondang. ISBN 89-88095-18-9. 
  17. ^ a b Kim, Si-joong (2003). "The Economic Status and Role of Ethnic Koreans in China" (PDF). The Korean Diaspora in the World Economy. Institute for International Economics. pp. Ch. 6: 101–131. http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/365/6iie3586.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  18. ^ Ban, Byung-yool (2004-09-22). "Koreans in Russia: Historical Perspective". Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/nation/200409/kt2004092218583111950.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-20. 
  19. ^ NOZAKI, Yoshiki; INOKUCHI Hiromitsu, KIM Tae-Young. "Legal Categories, Demographic Change and Japan’s Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century". Japan Focus. http://www.japanfocus.org/products/details/2220. 
  20. ^ 平成15年末現在における外国人登録者統計について (Japanese).
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Zhang Tianlu (2004-03-26). 中国少数民族人口问题研究 (Research on the topic of Chinese minority ethnic group populations). National Population and Family Planning Commission of China. Archived from the original on 2006-11-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20061117001943/http://www.chinapop.gov.cn/rklt/rkyjhsyyj/t20040326_1504.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-16.  See section "民族人口生活质量问题研究".
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ a b S0201. Selected Population Profile in the United States. United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/IPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=NBSP&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201PR&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201T&-qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR&-ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-reg=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201:042;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201PR:042;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201T:042;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:042&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-format=. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  25. ^ Choi, Kate H. (2004) (PDF). Who is Hispanic? Hispanic ethnic identity among African Americans, Asian Americans, and whites. Department of Sociology, University of Texas. http://www.prc.utexas.edu/working_papers/wp_pdf/04-05-07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  26. ^ Korea Statistical Yearbooks for 1972, 1976, 1978. Quoted in Bonacich, Edna; Light, Ivan (1991). Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Koreans in Los Angeles, 1965-1982. United States: University of California Press. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0520076567. 
  27. ^ Karen Sudol and Dave Sheingold (2011-10-12). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. http://www.northjersey.com/news/bergen/Korean_language_ballots_coming_to_Bergen_County.html. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  28. ^ "Korean Ancestry Maps". Copyright © 2007 ePodunk Inc. All rights reserved. http://www.epodunk.com/ancestry/Korean.html. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  29. ^ RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA (2010-12-15). "PALISADES PARK JOURNAL As Koreans Pour In, a Town Is Remade". The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/16/nyregion/16palisades.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=korean%20palisades&st=cse. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  30. ^ Karen Sudol and Dave Sheingold (2011-10-12). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2011 North Jersey Media Group. http://www.northjersey.com/news/bergen/Korean_language_ballots_coming_to_Bergen_County.html. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  31. ^ Abelmann, ; Lie, John (1997). Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots. Massachusetts, United States: Harvard University Press. 
  32. ^ "到了中国就不想回国 在华韩国人激增 (After arriving in China, they don't want to go home; number of South Koreans in China increasing sharply)". Wenhua Ribao. 2006-04-01. http://www.skykiwi.com/news/200604/hotnet21011.shtml. Retrieved 2007-03-18. 
  33. ^ (PDF) 2001 Population Census Thematic Report – Ethnic Minorities. Hong Kong: Census and Statistics Department. 2001-12-17. http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_41/ethnic.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  34. ^ Kelly, Tim (2006-09-18). "Ho Chi Minh Money Trail". Forbes. http://members.forbes.com/global/2006/0918/028.html. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  35. ^ Meinardus, Ronaldo (2005-12-15). ""Korean Wave" in Philippines". The Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200512/kt2005121517211054280.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  36. ^ Lindstrom, Nora (2009-02-19). "Phnom Penh, South Korean Style". The Phnom Penh Post. http://www.phnompenhpost.com/index.php/2009021924290/Life-Style/Phnom-Penh-South-Korean-style.html. Retrieved 2009-05-21 [dead link]
  37. ^ Chung, Byoung-sun (2002-08-22). "Sergeyevna Remembers Kim Jong Il". The Chosun Ilbo. http://nk.chosun.com/english/news/news.html?ACT=detail&res_id=7283. Retrieved 2007-02-19. [dead link]
  38. ^ Sheets, Lawrence (2004-02-12). "A Visit to Kim Jong Il's Russian Birthplace". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1671983. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  39. ^ Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 32
  40. ^ Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 40-41
  41. ^ Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2005-02-07). "Japan's Hidden Role In The 'Return' Of Zainichi Koreans To North Korea". ZNet. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?ItemID=7194. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  42. ^ Morris-Suzuki, Tessa (2007-03-13). The Forgotten Victims of the North Korean Crisis. Nautilus Institute. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927012134/http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/07022MorrisSuzuki.html. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  43. ^ Han, Suk-jung (2005-07-10). "Imitating the colonizers: The Legacy of the Disciplining State from Manchukuo to South Korea". ZNet. http://www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm?itemID=8272&sectionID=1. Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  44. ^ Brubaker & Kim 2010, p. 33
  45. ^ Lee, Jeanyoung (PDF). Ethnic Korean Migration in Northeast Asia. Kyunghee University. http://gsti.miis.edu/CEAS-PUB/200108Lee.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  46. ^ Kim, Hyung-jin (2006-08-29). "No 'real' Chinatown in S. Korea, the result of xenophobic attitudes". Yonhap News. Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060926055411/http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/Engnews/20060829/480100000020060829091233E3.html. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  47. ^ a b Baek, Il-hyun (2005-09-14). "Scattered Koreans turn homeward". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on November 27, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20051127093846/http://joongangdaily.joins.com/200509/14/200509142129404979900091009101.html. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  48. ^ Kim, Tae-jong (2005-08-21). "Farmer Looks for Love in Upcoming 'Wedding Campaign'". The Korea Times. http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/culture/200508/kt2005082120230411710.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-16. 
  49. ^ Song, Jason (2007-01-01). "Called to star in Asia". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/features/lifestyle/la-et-idol1jan01,1,5321296.story?track=rss&ctrack=1&cset=true. Retrieved 2007-02-14. [dead link]
  50. ^ Ito, Robert (2007-02-11). "Stuck in Asia, dreaming of Hollywood". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/11/movies/11ito.html?ex=1328850000&en=de3179a2c903f74b&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  51. ^ Mo, Sin-jeong (2006-05-02). "'플라이투더스카이' 브라이언 "난 뼛속까지 한국인" (Brian of Fly to the Sky: "I'm Korean to the bone")". Daum Media. http://media.daum.net/entertain/broadcast/view.html?cateid=1032&newsid=20060502134208548&p=hankooki. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  52. ^ "Destination by Country, 1953-2007". Statistics on Overseas Koreans. South Korea: Overseas Korean Foundation. 2007. http://oaks.korean.net/n_stastics/StatsProg.jsp?bID=13003. Retrieved 2009-05-31. ; note that the statistics are incomplete regarding Soviet-bloc adoptions of North Korean children, which are known to have occurred in Mongolia, Romania, and East Germany, though they do record the adoption of 7 South Korean children in Poland in 1970 (Communist Poland & South Korea had no diplomatic relations at the time). The source includes 47 Koreans adopted by "Buland" in 1970; no such country exists.
  53. ^ Alekseenko, A. N. (2001). "Республика в зеркале переписей населения". Sotsiologicheskie Issledovaniia (12): 58–62. http://www.ecsocman.edu.ru/images/pubs/2005/06/13/0000213102/010Alekseenko.pdf. Retrieved 2010-04-14 [dead link]
  54. ^ Итоги Первой национальной переписи населения Кыргызской Республики. Kyrgyzstan: Национальный статистический комитет. 1999. http://www.stat.kg/stat.files/census.pdf. Retrieved 2010-04-13 
  55. ^ "Table 1: Foreigners by type of residence, sex, and citizenship". Number of foreigners in the Czech Republic: Excluding Asylum Granted. Czech Statistical Office. 2009-04-30. http://www.czso.cz/csu/cizinci.nsf/engt/B400494439/$File/c01t01.xls. Retrieved 2009-05-31. ; figure consists of all persons with citizenship of one of the Koreas, being 1,248 for "Korea" and 24 for "Korea, lidově demokratická republika"
  56. ^ Population by origin and generation, 1 January. The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 2008. http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?DM=SLEN&PA=37325eng&D1=a&D2=0,2,63,169,242-243&D3=1-2&D4=0&D5=0-1&D6=9-12&LA=EN&HDR=T,G1&STB=G5,G2,G3,G4&VW=T. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 

Bibliography


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Korean American — 한국계 미국인 韓國系美國人 Hangukgye Migukin …   Wikipedia

  • Korean language — This article is about the spoken Korean language. For details of the native Korean writing system, see Hangul. Korean 한국어, 조선말 Hangugeo, Chosŏnmal …   Wikipedia

  • Korean Canadian — Ethnic group group=Korean Canadians population=260,000 regions=Toronto, Vancouver langs=Korean, English, French rels= Christianity, Buddhism related c=KoreansKorean Canadians are Canadians of Korean descent. According to South Korea s Ministry of …   Wikipedia

  • Diaspora Coréenne — La diaspora coréenne comprend au minimum cinq millions de personnes (selon une définition étroite de la notion de personne d origine coréenne), présentes notamment en Chine, au Japon, en Russie, au Kazakhstan et en Amérique (États Unis, Brésil,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Diaspora coreenne — Diaspora coréenne La diaspora coréenne comprend au minimum cinq millions de personnes (selon une définition étroite de la notion de personne d origine coréenne), présentes notamment en Chine, au Japon, en Russie, au Kazakhstan et en Amérique… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • diaspora — diaspora, diaspora studies A diaspora is a dispersion of people throughout the world. The term was first applied collectively to the Jews scattered after the Babylonian captivity, and in the modern period to Jews living outside of Palestine and… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Korean Australian — 한국계 호주인 韓國系濠洲人 Total population 52,760 (by birth, 2006)[1] 150,873 (by ancestry) Regions with significant populations Sydney Languages Australian English …   Wikipedia

  • Korean adoptee — A Korean adoptee or KAD is a person who was adopted from Korea through the international adoption of South Korean children as a child and raised in another country, often by adoptive parents of another race, ethnic background, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Diaspora coréenne — La diaspora coréenne comprend au minimum cinq millions de personnes (selon une définition étroite de la notion de personne d origine coréenne), présentes notamment en Chine, au Japon, en Russie et en Amérique (États Unis, Brésil, et Canada). La… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Korean dialects — Various words for dragonfly (Standard Korean 잠자리) …   Wikipedia


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.