- Local anesthesia
Local anesthesia Intervention MeSH
Local anesthesia is any technique to induce the absence of sensation in part of the body, generally for the aim of inducing local analgesia, that is, local insensitivity to pain, although other local senses may be affected as well. It allows patients to undergo surgical and dental procedures with reduced pain and distress. In many situations, such as cesarean section, it is safer and therefore superior to general anesthesia. It is also used for relief of non-surgical pain and to enable diagnosis of the cause of some chronic pain conditions. Anesthetists sometimes combine both general and local anesthesia techniques.
The following terms are often used interchangeably:
- Local anesthesia, in a strict sense, is anesthesia of a small part of the body such as a tooth or an area of skin.
- Regional anesthesia is aimed at anesthetizing a larger part of the body such as a leg or arm.
- Conduction anesthesia is a comprehensive term, which encompasses a great variety of local and regional anesthetic techniques.
A local anesthetic is a drug that causes reversible local anesthesia and a loss of nociception. When it is used on specific nerve pathways (nerve block), effects such as analgesia (loss of pain sensation) and paralysis (loss of muscle power) can be achieved.
Clinical local anesthetics belong to one of two classes: aminoamide and aminoester local anesthetics. Synthetic local anesthetics are structurally related to cocaine. They differ from cocaine mainly in that they have no abuse potential and do not act on the sympathoadrenergic system, i.e. they do not produce hypertension or local vasoconstriction, with the exception of Ropivacaine and Mepivacaine that do produce weak vasoconstriction.
Local anesthetics vary in their pharmacological properties and they are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as:
- Topical anesthesia (surface)
- Plexus block
- Epidural (extradural) block
- Spinal anesthesia (subarachnoid block)
- localized prolonged anesthesia or paresthesia due to infection, hematoma, excessive fluid pressure in a confined cavity, and severing of nerves & support tissue during injection,
- systemic reactions such as depressed CNS syndrome, allergic reaction, vasovagal episode, and cyanosis due to local anesthetic toxicity.
- lack of anesthetic effect due to infectious pus such as an abscess.
Non-medical local anesthetic techniques
- Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, which has been found to be ineffective for lower back pain, however, it might help with diabetic neuropathy.
- Pulsed radiofrequency, neuromodulation, direct introduction of medication and nerve ablation may be used to target either the tissue structures and organ/systems responsible for persistent nociception or the nociceptors from the structures implicated as the source of chronic pain.
- ^ thefreedictionary.com > local anesthesia In turn citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. Copyright 2009
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"Nerve damage associated with peripheral nerve block". Risks associated with your anaesthetic, (The Royal College of Anaesthetists) Section 12. January 2006. http://www.rcoa.ac.uk/docs/nerve-peripheral.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
- New York School of Regional Anesthesia
- Anesthesia Books
- General information and tutorials in peripheral regional anesthesia
-  Free online manual of regional anaesthesia- John Hyndman
- Clinical Use of Peripheral Nerve Stimulators and The Neuromuscular Junction
Anesthesia Types Techniques Measurements Instruments Drugs Complications Fields of study Professions HistoryA.C.E. mixture · Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology · History of tracheal intubation OrganizationsAmerican Society of Anesthesia Technologists & Technicians · American Society of Anesthesiologists · Anaesthesia Trauma and Critical Care · Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland · Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists · Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists · Australian Society of Anaesthetists · International Anesthesia Research Society
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Look at other dictionaries:
local anesthesia — n loss of sensation in a limited and usu. superficial area esp. from the effect of a local anesthetic * * * anesthesia confined to one area of the body; see also regional a … Medical dictionary
local anesthesia — n. see ANESTHESIA (sense 2) * * * … Universalium
local anesthesia — n. see ANESTHESIA (sense 2) … English World dictionary
local anesthesia — anesthesia confined to a particular place on the body … English contemporary dictionary
local anesthesia — noun loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction) • Syn: ↑local anaesthesia • Hypernyms: ↑anesthesia, ↑anaesthesia … Useful english dictionary
local anesthesia — Drugs that cause a temporary loss of feeling in one part of the body. The patient remains awake but has no feeling in the part of the body treated with the anesthetic … English dictionary of cancer terms
Bier local anesthesia — Bier block … Medical dictionary
anesthesia — [an΄es thē′zhə, an΄is thē′zhē ə, an΄is thē′zē ə; an΄isthē′zē ə] n. [ModL < Gr anaisthēsia < an , without + aisthēsis, feeling < aisthanesthai: see AESTHETIC] 1. a partial or total loss of the sense of pain, temperature, touch, etc.,… … English World dictionary
Local — generally means that which relates to a specific area or place, and is not vast or widespread.Local may also refer to:In medicine: * Local refers to a restricted part of the organism; such as a local anesthesiaIn computing: * Locale, a term used… … Wikipedia
Anesthesia — Not to be confused with Paresthesia. For other uses, see Anesthesia (disambiguation). Anesthesia, or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek αν , an , without ; and αἴσθησις, aisthēsis, sensation ), traditionally meant the condition of… … Wikipedia