Domestic violence in the United States

Domestic violence in the United States

Domestic violence in United States, experienced by 22-25% of American women in their lifetime, is part of a dynamic of control and oppression, often with multiple forms of physical and non-physical abuse. 60% of Native American women are physically assaulted in their lifetime by a partner or spouse. Women are nearly three times more likely to be killed by their partner than men and more likely to be killed during pregnancy. More than 50% of homeless women were subject to domestic violence.

Men are also subject to domestic violence, such as in situational couple violience, but are less likely to be physically hurt. Intimate terrorism, an ongoing, complicated use of control, power and abuse is what is what generally results in the most violence against women.


Definition of Domestic Violence

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary definition, domestic violence is: "the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another; also: a repeated or habitual pattern of such behavior."[1]

Governmental definitions

Section 3(a) of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 defined domestic violence for the purposes of that subchapter of the US Code:

The term 'domestic violence' includes felony or misdemeanor crimes of violence committed by a current or former spouse of the victim, by a person with whom the victim shares a child in common, by a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse, by a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction receiving grant monies, or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person’s acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction.[2][3]

The U. S. Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) defines domestic violence as a "pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner". The definition adds that domestic violence "can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender", and can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic, and psychological abuse.[4]

A global problem

Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, declared in a 2006 report posted on the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) website that:

Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime with the abuser usually someone known to her.[5]

Forms of domestic violence

Domestic violence may include verbal, emotional, economic, physical and sexual abuse. All forms of domestic abuse have one purpose: to gain and maintain control over the victim. Abusers use many tactics to exert power over their spouse or partner: dominance, humiliation, isolation, threats, intimidation, denial and blame.[6]

The dynamics between the couple may include:

  • Situational couple violence, which arises out of conflicts that escalate to arguments and then to violence, is not connected to a general pattern of control, generally infrequent, and likely the most common type of intimate partner violence. Women are as likely as men to be abusers, however, women are more likely to be physically injured, require police intervention and become fearful of their mates.[7]
  • Intimate terrorism (IT), involve a pattern of ongoing control using emotional, physical and other forms of domestic violence and is what generally leads victims, who are generally women, to women's shelters. It is what was traditionally the definition of domestic violence and is generally illustrated with the "Power and Control Wheel"[8] to illustrate the different and inter-related forms of abuse.[9]
  • Violent resistance (VR), or "self-defense", is violence perpetrated by victims against their abusive partners.[10] It is generally used infrequently because, generally, men are able to physically overpower women. Michael Johnson finds that "Most women who resist violently soon turn to other means of coping with their abuse."[7]
  • Common couple violence, where both partners are engaged in domestic violence actions.[11]
  • Mutual violent control (MVC) is a rare type of intimate partner violence that occurs when both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control.[12]

Incidence of domestic violence

Domestic violence
Gender aspects of abuse

Women are subjected to domestic violence more often and more severely than are men.[13][14]

A large study, compiled by Martin S. Fiebert, shows that women are as likely to be abusive to men, but the men are less likely to be hurt. However, he noted, men are seriously injured in 38 percent of the cases in which "extreme aggression" is used. Fiebert additionally noted that his work was not meant to minimize the serious effects of men who abuse women.[15][16][nb 1] Women are far more likely to use weapons, such as throwing a plate or firing a gun.[17]

The National Institute of Justice contends that national surveys supported by NIJ, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Bureau of Justice Statistics that examine more serious assaults do not support the conclusion of similar rates of male and female spousal assaults. These surveys are conducted within a safety or crime context and clearly find more partner abuse by men against women.[18][nb 2]


Domestic violence within a year
  • 1% of all women (age > 18) who participated in a UN national study in 1995-6, who may or many not have been married or partnered, were victims of domestic abuse within the previous 12 month period. Since this population included women who had never been married or partnered, the prevalence of domestic violence may have been greater.[19]
  • About 2.3 million people are raped or physically assaulted each year by a current or former intimate partner or spouse.[20]
  • 3-4 million women are beaten each year by their husbands, male lovers, or ex-husbands.[21]
  • Physically assaulted women receive an average of 6.9 physical assaults by the same partner per year.[20]
Violence during pregnancy

The United States was one of the countries identified by a United Nations study with a high rate of domestic violence resulting in death during pregnancy.[22][nb 3]

Domestic violence during a woman's life
  • According to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The National Institute of Justice, nearly 25% of women experience at least one physical assault during adulthood by a partner.[20]
  • 22% of the women had been subject to domestic violence during some period of their life, per a United Nations study. Since this population included women who had never been married or partnered, the prevalence of domestic violence may have been greater.[19]
  • According to a report by the United States Department of Justice, a survey of 16,000 Americans showed 22.1 percent of women and 7.4 percent of men reported being physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend or girlfriend, or date in their lifetime.[23]
  • 60% American Indian and Alaska Native women will be physically assaulted in their lifetime.[20]

For women between 15 and 44, domestic violence is the leading cause of injury, more than rapes, muggings, and car accidents combined.[24][25]


1 in 33 men and 1 in 6 women have experienced and attempted or completed rape against a partner. More than one in three American Indian and Alaska Native women will be raped in their lifetimes.[20][26]


Women are more likely than men to be murdered by an intimate partner. Of those killed by an intimate partner about three quarters are female and about a quarter are male. In 1999 in the United States 1,218 women and 424 men were killed by an intimate partner,[27] and 1181 females and 329 males were killed by their intimate partners in 2005.[28][29]

Dating violence

Dating violence is often a precursor to domestic violence. 22% of high school girls and 32% of college women experienced dating violence in a 2000 study. 20.6% of women experienced two or more types of dating violence and 8.3% of women experienced rape, stalking or physical aggression while dating.[30]

Socio-economic impacts

Domestic violence crosses all socio-economic classes, however, Intimate Terrorism (IT) is more prevalent among poor people. When evaluating situational couple violence, poor people, subject to greater strains, have the highest percentage of situational couple violence, which does not necessarily involve serious violence.[31]

Regarding ethnicity, socio-economic standing and other factors often has more to do with rates of domestic violence. When comparing African American population to European Americans by socio-economic class, the rates of domestic violence are roughly the same. Since there are more poor African Americans, though, there is a higher incidence of domestic violence overall. It is not possible to evaluate the rate of domestic violence by ethnicity alone, because of the variability of cultural, economic, historical influences and the forms of domestic violence (situational couple violence, intimate terrorism) affecting each population of people.[32]


Per the authors of "Housing Problems and Domestic Violence," 38% percent of domestic violence victims will become homeless in their lifetime.[20] Domestic violence is the direct cause of homelessness for over half of all homeless women in the United States.[33]

Economic impacts

The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence in the United States reports that:

  • 25% - 50% of victims of abuse from a partner have lost their job due to domestic violence.
  • 35% - 56% of victims of domestic violence are harassed at work by their partners.
  • More than 1.75 million workdays are lost each year to domestic violence. Lost productivity due to missed workdays and decreased productivity, with increased health and safety costs, results in a loss of $3 to $5 billion dollars each year.[34]


One 2004 study by William Bradford Wilcox examined the relationship between religious affiliation, church attendance, and domestic violence, using data on wives' reports of spousal violence from three national United States surveys conducted between 1992 and 1994.[35] The study found that the lowest reported rates of domestic violence occurred among active conservative Protestants (2.8% of husbands committed domestic violence), followed by those who were religiously unaffiliated (3.2%), nominal mainline Protestants (3.9%), active mainline Protestants (5.4%), and nominal conservative Protestants (7.2%).[35] Overall (including both nominal and active members), the rates among conservative Protestants and mainline Protestants were 4.8% and 4.3%, respectively.[35] Examining Wilcox's study, Van Leewun finds that the parenting style of conservative Protestant fathers is characterized by features which have been linked to positive outcomes among children and adolescents,[nb 4][36] that there is no evidence that gender-traditionalist ideology of the "soft patriarchal" kind is a strong predictor of domestic physical abuse,[nb 5][36] and that "gender hierarchialist males" who are frequent and active church members function positively in the domestic environment. [nb 6][36]

Another 2007 study by Christopher G. Ellison found that "religious involvement, specifically church attendance, protects against domestic violence, and this protective effect is stronger for African American men and women and for Hispanic men, groups that, for a variety of reasons, experience elevated risk for this type of violence."[37]

Straus and Gelles found that in couples reporting spousal violence, 27 percent of the time the man struck the first blow; in 24 percent of cases, the woman initiated the violence. The rest of the time, the violence was mutual, with both partners brawling. The results were the same even when the most severe episodes of violence were analyzed. In order to counteract claims that the reporting data was skewed, female-only surveys were conducted, asking females to self-report, and the data was the same.[38] The simple tally of physical acts is typically found to be similar in those studies that examine both directions, but some studies show that male violence may be more serious. Male violence may do more damage than female violence;[39] women are more likely to be injured and/or hospitalized. Wives are more likely to be killed by their husbands than the reverse (59 percent to 41 percent per Dept of Justice study), and women in general are more likely to be killed by their spouses than by all other types of assailants combined.[40]


Prior to the mid 1800s, most legal systems accepted wife beating as a valid exercise of a husband's authority over his wife.[41][42] One exception, however, was the 1641 Body of Liberties of the Massachusetts Bay colonists, which declared that a married woman should be "free from bodilie correction or stripes by her husband."[43]

Political agitation during the nineteenth century led to changes in both popular opinion and legislation regarding domestic violence within the United Kingdom and the United States.[41][44] In 1850, Tennessee became the first state in the United States to explicitly outlaw wife beating.[45][46] Other states soon followed suit.[42][47] In 1878, the Matrimonial Causes Act made it possible for women in the UK to seek separations from abusive husbands.[48] By the end of the 1870s, most courts in the United States were uniformly opposed to the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives.[49] By the early twentieth century, it was common for police to intervene in cases of domestic violence in the United States, but arrests remained rare.[50]

Modern attention to domestic violence began in the women's movement of the 1970s, particularly within feminism and women's rights, as concern about wives being beaten by their husbands gained attention. The first known use of the expression "domestic violence" in a modern context, meaning "spouse abuse, violence in the home" was in 1973.[51][52] With the rise of the men's movement of the 1990s, the problem of domestic violence against men has also gained significant attention.


Violence Against Women

Three Violence Against Women Acts (VAWA) (1994, 2000, 2005) United States federal laws have been signed into by the President to end domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence, and stalking. The law helps victim advocates and government agencies work together, created prevention and victim support programs, and resulted in new punishments for certain violent crimes, which by 2005 resulted in:

  • 49.8% reduction of non-fatal, violent victimizations committed by intimate partners.
  • In the first six years an estimated $14.8 billion in net averted social costs were realized.
  • 51% increase in reporting of domestic violence and 18% increase in National Domestic Violence Hotline calls each year, evidence that as victims become aware of remedies, they break the code of silence.[20][53]
Family Violence Prevention and Services Act

The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) provides federal funding to help victims of domestic violence and their dependent children by providing shelter and related help, offering violence prevention programs, and improving how service agencies work together in communities.

  • Formula Grants. This money helps states, territories, and tribes create and support programs that work to help victims and prevent family violence. The amount of money is determined by a formula based partly on population. The states, territories, and tribes distribute the money to thousands of domestic violence shelters and programs.
  • The 24-hour, confidential, toll-free National Domestic Violence Hotline provides support, information, referrals, safety planning, and crisis intervention in more than 170 languages to hundreds of thousands of domestic violence victims each year.
  • The Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances (DELTA) Program teaches people ways to prevent violence.[53]
Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban

The Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban is a United States federal law enacted in 1996 to ban firearms and ammunitions to individuals convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence, or who are under a restraining (protection) order for domestic abuse in all 50 states.[54][55]

Supervised release of domestic violence offenders

The United States federal probation and supervised release law:

  • Requires first-time domestic violence offenders convicted of domestic violence crimes to attend court-approved non-profit offender rehabilitation programs within a 50-mile radius of the individual's legal residence.
  • Makes probation mandatory for first-time domestic violence offenders not sentenced to a term of imprisonment.[56]

Domestic violence support organizations


A contributing factor to the disparity of responses to abuse is lack of training, many Christian seminaries had not educated future church leaders about how to manage violence against women. Once pastors began receiving training, and announced their participation in domestic violence educational programs, they immediately began receiving visits from women church members who had been subject to violence.[57]

The first Theological Education and Domestic Violence Conference, sponsored by the Center for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence, was held in 1985 to identify topics that should be covered in seminaries. First, church leaders will encounter sexual and domestic violence and they need to know what community resources are available. They need to focus on ending the violence, rather than on keeping families together.[57]

One of the Salvation Army's missions is working with victims of domestic abuse. They offer safe housing, therapy, and support.

Domestic violence hotlines

  • The National Domestic Violence Hotline is a 24-hour, confidential, toll-free hotline created through the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. Hotline staff immediately connect the caller to a service provider in his or her area. Highly trained advocates provide support, information, referrals, safety planning, and crisis intervention in 170 languages to hundreds of thousands of domestic violence victims.[58]
  • Loveisrespect, National Teen Dating Abuse Helpline, launched February 8, 2007 by the National Domestic Violence Hotline, is a 24-hour national Web-based and telephone resource was created to help teens (ages 13-18) experiencing dating abuse, and is the only helpline in the country serving all 50 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.[59]

Programs to reduce domestic violence

Community activism by men

Men's groups against domestic violence and forced rape, found around the world, take measures to reduce their use of violence. Typical activities include group discussions, education campaigns and rallies, work with violent men, and workshops in schools, prisons and workplaces. Actions are frequently conducted in collaboration with women's organizations that are involved in preventing violence against women and providing services to abused women. In the United States alone, there are over 100 such men's groups, many of which focus specifically on sexual violence.[60]

Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (Duluth Model)

The Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (Duluth Model), featured in the documentary Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America,[61][62] was the first multi-disciplinary program designed to coordinate the actions of a variety of agencies in Duluth, Minnesota dealing with domestic violence for a more effective outcome and has become a model for programs in other jurisdictions.[63] A nationwide study published in 2002 sponsored by the federal government found that batterers who complete programs based on the "Duluth Model," are less likely to repeat acts of domestic violence than those who do not complete any batterers intervention program.[64]

See also

Legal remedies




  1. ^ Martin S. Fiebert of the Department of Psychology at California State University, Long Beach, has compiled an annotated bibliography of research relating to spousal abuse by women on men. This bibliography examines 275 scholarly investigations: 214 empirical studies and 61 reviews and/or analyses appear to demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 365,000.[15] In a Los Angeles Times article about male victims of domestic violence, Fiebert suggests that "...consensus in the field is that women are as likely as men to strike their partner but that—as expected—women are more likely to be injured than men."[16]
  2. ^ The National Institute of Justice states that studies finding equal or greater frequency of abuse by women against men are based on data compiled through the Conflict Tactics Scale. This survey tool was developed in the 1970s and may not be appropriate for intimate partner violence research because it does not measure control, coercion, or the motives for conflict tactics; it also leaves out sexual assault and violence by ex-spouses or partners and does not determine who initiated the violence.[18]
  3. ^ India and Bangladesh were also noted as countries with a high prevelance of death during pregnancy due to domestic abuse.[22]
  4. ^ "He concludes that conservative Protestant fathers’ neotraditional parenting style seems to be closer to the authoritative style—characterized by moderately high levels of parental control and high levels of parental supportiveness—that has been linked to positive outcomes among children and adolescents."
  5. ^ ‘The upshot is that we have no evidence so far that a gender-traditionalist ideology—at least of the soft patriarchal variety—is a strong predictor of domestic physical abuse.’
  6. ^ "Gender hierarchicalist males—at least those who have frequent and active church involvement—turn out, on average, to be better men than their theories: more often than not, they are functional egalitarians, and the rhetoric of male headship may actually be functioning as a covert plea for greater male responsibility and nurturant involvement on the home front."
  1. ^ Domestic Violence. Merriam Webster. Retrieved 14 Nov. 2011.
  2. ^ Section 3(a) of the [Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005
  3. ^ US Code. Title 42. Chapter 136. Subchapter III. Section 13925(a)(6)
  4. ^ "About Domestic Violence". Office on Violence Against Women. Retrieved 2007-06-13. 
  5. ^ Moradian, Azad. Domestic Violence against Single and Married Women in Iranian Society. Tolerancy International. September 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2011.
  6. ^ Domestic Violence and Abuse: Warning Signs and Symptoms of Abusive Relationships Sept. 6, 2009.
  7. ^ a b A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer. Center for Law and Social Policty (CLASP). Page 3. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  8. ^ Power and Control Wheel, National Center on Domestic and Sexual Violence. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  9. ^ A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer following May 2006 conference. Center for Law and Social Policty (CLASP). Pages 2-4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  10. ^ Bachman, R. and D. Carmody (1994). "Fighting Fire with Fire: The Effects of Victim Resistance in Intimate Versus Stranger Perpetrated Assaults Against Females". Journal of Family Violence 9 (4): 317–31. doi:10.1007/BF01531942. 
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  12. ^ Saunders DG (1988). "Wife Abuse, Husband Abuse, or Mutual Combat? A Feminist Perspective on the Empirical Findings". In Bograd ML, Yllö K. Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. pp. 90–113. ISBN 0-8039-3053-4. 
  13. ^ Brinkerhoff, David B.; Lynn K. White, Suzanne T. Ortega, Rose Weitz (2008). Essentials of Sociology (7th ed.). Thomson/Wadsworth. p. 13. ISBN 0495096369. "A conflict analysis of domestic violence, for example, would begin by noting that women are battered far more often and far more severely than are men..." 
  14. ^ Compton, Michael T. (2010). Clinical Manual of Prevention in Mental Health (1st ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 245. ISBN 9781585623471. "Women are more often the victims of domestic violence than men and are more likely to suffer injuries and health consequences..." 
  15. ^ a b Fiebert, Martin S. References examining assaults by women on their spouses or male partners:an annotated bibliography
  16. ^ a b Academic website of Martin S. Feibert, Ph. D.
  17. ^ "Violence by Intimates Analysis of Data on Crimes by Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, and Girlfriends". US Department of Justice. Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^ a b In-depth study on all forms of violence against women. United Nations, General Assembly. 6 July 2006. Page 54. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2011.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g The Violence Against Women Act of 2005, Summary of Provisions. National Network to End Domestic Violence. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  21. ^ "Women and Violence," Hearings before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, August 29 and December 11, 1990, Senate Hearing 101-939, pt. 1, p. 12.
  22. ^ a b In-depth study on all forms of violence against women. United Nations, General Assembly. 6 July 2006. Page 48. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2011.
  23. ^ Tjaden, Patricia; Thoennes, Nancy (November 2000). "Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women". National Institute of Justice, United States Department of Justice. 
  24. ^ "Violence Against Women, A Majority Staff Report," Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 102nd Congress, October 1992, p.3.
  25. ^ Facts on Domestic Violence. Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, Indiana. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  26. ^ "Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women." U.S. Department of Justice. November 1998. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  27. ^ Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001
  28. ^ "CDC - Injury - Intimate Partner Violence Consequences". 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  29. ^ "Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs, Home of the Duluth Model". Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  30. ^ In-depth study on all forms of violence against women. United Nations, General Assembly. 6 July 2006. Page 42. Retrieved 16 Nov. 2011.
  31. ^ A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer. Center for Law and Social Policty (CLASP). Page 4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  32. ^ A Sociologist’s Perspective on Domestic Violence, A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D. Theodora Ooms, interviewer. Center for Law and Social Policty (CLASP). Page 4. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  33. ^ Ringwalt CL, Greene JM, Robertson M, McPheeters M (September 1998). "The prevalence of homelessness among adolescents in the United States". Am J Public Health 88 (9): 1325–9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.88.9.1325. PMC 1509094. PMID 9736871. 
  34. ^ Economic Abuse. National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  35. ^ a b c Wilcox, William Bradford. Soft Patriarchs, New Men: How Christianity Shapes Fathers and Husbands. University of Chicago Press (2004), p181-82. ISBN 0226897095.
  36. ^ a b c Van Leeuwen, ‘Social Sciences’, in Husbands & Larsen, ‘Women, ministry and the Gospel: Exploring new paradigms’, p. 190 (2007).
  37. ^ Ellison, Christopher G. "Race/Ethnicity, Religious Involvement, and Domestic Violence". Violence Against Women vol. 13 no. 11 (2007).
  38. ^ Murray Straus, Richard J. Gelles. Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. Transaction Publishers. p. 105. ISBN 978-1560008286. 
  39. ^ Vivian, Dina; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer (1994). "Are Bi-directionality Violent Couples Mutually Victimized? A Gender-sensitive Comparison". Violence and Victims 9: 107–123. 
  40. ^ Angela Browne and Kirk R. Williams, "Exploring the Effect of Resource Availability and the Likelihood of Female-perpetrated Homicides", Law and Society Review 23 (1989): pp. 75-94
  41. ^ a b "Domestic violence". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved October 31, 2011. "In the early 1800s most legal systems implicitly accepted wife-beating as a husband’s right, part of his entitlement to control over the resources and services of his wife." 
  42. ^ a b Daniels, Cynthia R. (1997). Feminists Negotiate the State: The Politics of Domestic Violence. Lanham: Univ. Press of America. p. 5–10. ISBN 0761808841. 
  43. ^ The Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641) at Hanover Historical Texts Project.
  44. ^ Gordon, Linda (2002). Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. 253–255. ISBN 0252070798. 
  45. ^ Kleinberg, S. J. (1999). Women in the United States, 1830-1945. Rutgers University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0813527295. 
  46. ^ Pleck, Elizabeth (1989). "Criminal Approaches to Family Violence". Family Violence 11. 
  47. ^ Pleck, Elizabeth (1979). "Wife Beating in Nineteenth-Century America". Victimology: An International Journal 4: 64–65. 
  48. ^ Arnot, Margaret L.; Usborne, Cornelie (2003). Gender and crime in modern Europe ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). London: Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 1857287460. 
  49. ^ Green, Nicholas St. John. 1879. Criminal Law Reports: Being Reports of Cases Determined in the Federal and State Courts of the United States, and in the Courts of England, Ireland, Canada, etc. with notes. Hurd and Houghton. "The cases in the American courts are uniform against the right of the husband to use any [physical] chastisement, moderate or otherwise, toward the wife, for any purpose."
  50. ^ Feder, Lynette (1999). Women and Domestic Violence: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Haworth Press. p. 22. ISBN 0789006677. 
  51. ^ National Women's Aid Federation.
  52. ^ House of Commons Sitting (1973) Battered Women.
  53. ^ a b Laws on violence against women. Office on Women's Health, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. May 18, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  54. ^ "PUBLIC LAW 104-208". 
  55. ^ "Criminal Resource Manual 1117 Restrictions on the Possession of Firearms by Individuals Convicted of a Misdemeanor Crime of Domestic Violence.". 
  56. ^ 18 U.S.C. § 3561(b)
  57. ^ a b Adams, Carol J.; Fortune, Mary M. (1998). Violence against women and children: a Christian Theologocial Sourcebook. New York: The Continuum Publishing Company. Page 10. ISBN 0-8264-0830-3.
  58. ^ Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) Program Summary. Office on Women's Health, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  59. ^ Jewish Women International
  60. ^ Flood M. Men’s collective anti-violence activism and the struggle for gender justice. Development, 2001,44:42–47.
  61. ^ University of Minnesota Duluth conceptual framework
  62. ^ "Power and Control Film". Power and Control: Domestic Violence in America. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  63. ^ Domestic Abuse Intervention Project: History
  64. ^ Twohey, Megan (2009-01-02). "How Can Domestic Violence Be Stopped?". Chicago Tribune.,0,1147422.story?page=2. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 

Further reading

  • Joanne Carlson Brown and Carold R. Bohn, ed (1989). Christianity, Patriarchy, and Abuse: A Feminist Critique. New York: Pilgrim. ISBN 0829808086. 
  • Annie Imbens and Ineke Jonker (1992). Christianity and Incest. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800625412. 
  • Carol J. Adams and Marie M. Fortune, ed (1995). Violence against Women and Children: A Christian Theological Sourcebook. New York: Continuum. ISBN 0826408303. 
  • Marie M. Fortune (1991). Violence in the Family: a Workshop Curriculum for Clergy and Other Helpers. Cleveland: Pilgrim. ISBN 0829809082. 
  • Carolyn Holderread Heggen (1993). Sexual Abuse in Christian Homes and Churches. Scottsdale, Arizona: Herald Press. ISBN 0836136241. 
  • Anne L. Horton and Judith A. Williamson, ed (1988). Abuse and Religion: When Praying Isn't Enough. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books. ISBN 0669153370. 
  • Mary D. Pellauer, Barbara Chester, and Jane A. Boyajian, ed (1987). Sexual Assault and Abuse: A Handbook for Clergy and Religious Professionals. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0062548107. 
  • Rita-Lou Clarke (1986). Pastoral Care of Battered Women. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 0664240151. 

External links

  • National Domestic Violence Hotline
  • FaithTrust Institute (formerly Center for the Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence), a multifaith, multicultural training and education organization in the United States with global reach working to end sexual and domestic violence.

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  • Reconstruction Era of the United States — In the history of the United States, the term Reconstruction Era has two senses: the first covers the entire nation in the period 1865–1877 following the Civil War; the second one, used in this article, covers the transformation of the Southern… …   Wikipedia

  • Honor killing in the United States — Part of a series on Violence against women …   Wikipedia

  • Human rights in the United States — In 1776, Thomas Jefferson proposed a philosophy of human rights inherent to all people in the Declaration of Independence, asserting that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that… …   Wikipedia