Dohasan


Dohasan
Dohäsan

Teh-too-sah, painted by George Catlin,
oil on canvas, 1834[1]
Born has been variously translated as Little Mountain, Little Bluff, or Top-of-the-Mountain in Kiowa
late 1780s to early 1790s
Oklahoma or Texas
Died 1866
unknown
Occupation Chief
Known for Last Undisputed Principal Chief of the Kiowa and Battlefield Leader of the Native American Forces at the First Battle of Adobe Walls who forced Kit Carson to retreat

Dohäsan, Dohosan, Tauhawsin or Tohausen (late 1780s to early 1790s – 1866[2]) was a prominent Native American. He was War Chief of the Kata or Arikara band of the Kiowa Indians, and then Principal Chief of the entire Kiowa Tribe, a position he held for an extraordinary 33 years. He is best remembered as the last undisputed Principal Chief of the Kiowa people before the Reservation Era, and the battlefield leader of the Plains Tribes in the largest battle ever fought between the Plains tribes and the United States.[3]

Contents

Name

Dohäsan's name, which was hereditary, has been variously translated as Little Mountain, Little Bluff, or Top-of-the-Mountain. He was the son of a chief named Dohá (Bluff). Because his name, and the Chieftainship of his band, was hereditary, (though not necessarily father to son) – Dohäsan himself was succeeded by his nephew, rather than one of his sons, and though his father was a chief, it was his uncle who was the hereditary war chief from whom he got his name.[3]

Life before becoming Principal Chief

The Arikara band was so named because of their close trading relationship with the Arikaras in the upper Missouri valley during the tribe's early recorded history. Because of their trading relationships with traders from the US, Spain, and the French, the Kiowa, and the Arikata in particular, were well known to European-Americans. Dohäsan was known to traders as early as the late 1820s. He gained a reputation as a fierce, but tricky, warrior and successful war chief.[4] Dohäsan was a member of the elite warrior society, the Koitsenko.[5]

Although his position as Chief of the Arikara band was hereditary, the Principal Chief of the entire Kiowa people was not a hereditary position. The elders of all the bands met together and elected the Principal Chief, and he generally held that position the rest of his life. Dohäsan became principal chief of the Kiowas in the spring of 1833, after the tribe elders and sub-chiefs deposed then-Principal Chief A'date. This followed the massacre of A'date's village by Osages at Cutthroat Gap, near the head of Otter Creek in what became the Indian Territory of the Oklahomas. Dohäsan was the last undisputed Principal Chief of the Kiowa Tribe while they were a free people.[3]

After ascension to Principal Chieftainship

After A’date was deposed, and Dohäsan arose to become principal Chief of the entire Kiowa people, the United States Army became acquainted with Dohäsan. The slaughter of an entire village of the Kiowa prompted the dragoon expedition of Colonel Henry Dodge to Western Oklahoma in the summer of 1834. Dohäsan was among those on hand to greet the colonel and his expedition. Artist George Catlin, who accompanied the expedition, sketched and painted Dohäsan 's portrait. The purpose of the expedition was to end the ferocious fighting between the various Plains Tribes, and in May 1837 Dohäsan was one of the principals who signed the Fort Gibson Treaty, by which the United States government sought to end intertribal warfare in Indian Territory.[3] [6]

Treaties did little to end the Kiowas' frequent raids for horses and other plunder, and it is arguable whether they even slowed the fighting between the tribes. Texas was basically wide open to joint Kiowa-Comanche raids, and the annual raids into Mexico became a dreaded part of life in both Mexico proper and its northern states. In his raids, Dohäsan and his tribesmen and allied Comanche came to live in the winter in the Staked Plains, especially along the Canadian River valley and Palo Duro Canyon, which served as a base for both wintering and the ever increasing annual raids.[3] [7]

At Palo Duro Canyon, on September 17, 1845, he was sketched by Lt. James W. Abert in his watercolor portfolio. In the summer of 1851 Dohäsan led a war party of the various Kiowa bands, and allied Comanches against the Pawnees near the head of Medicine Lodge Creek in Kansas, slaughtering them.[3]

His name again rises in Army records in 1857 when he successfully led his warriors out of an ambush by Mexican soldiers at Hueco Tanks near El Paso Norte in Texas. The Mexicans had pursued the raiders north out of Mexico, and hoped to eliminate them. Instead, most of the Mexican troops were killed or wounded.[3]

The American Government was anxious to keep the Kiowa friendly as the Civil War beckoned, and in late 1859, as a goodwill gesture, Major John Sedgwick's troops gave Dohäsan an old army ambulance wagon along with the usual presents. When he was unable to master the art of driving a team, Dohäsan had a couple of Kiowa boys ride the harnessed horses as he sat in the driver's seat.[3]

In 1861, when federal authorities threatened to withhold annuity goods and send troops against the Kiowas if they did not cease their raiding, Dohäsan angrily and contemptuously called the "white chief" a fool with the "heart of a woman."[4]

First Battle of Adobe Walls

Other than the extraordinary length of his service as Principal Chief, and being the last Principal Chief of the free Kiowa, Dohäsan will be remembered in military history for commanding the Native American forces at the First Battle of Adobe Walls.[6]

The first battle of Adobe Walls occurred on November 26, 1864, in the vicinity of Adobe Walls, the ruins of William Bent's abandoned adobe trading post and saloon near the Canadian River in Hutchinson County, Texas. The battle was one of the largest engagements in terms of numbers between European-Americans and Indians on the Great Plains, and the largest engagement ever between the Comanche and Kiowa and their allies, against the non-Natives. It came about because Gen. James H. Carleton, commander of the military district of New Mexico, decided to punish Comanche and Kiowa attacks on Santa Fe wagon trains. The Indians saw the wagon trains as trespassers who killed buffalo and other game the Indians needed to survive.[7]

Col. Christopher (Kit) Carson, was given command of the First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, and told to proceed and campaign against the winter campgrounds of the Comanches and Kiowas. This was the second invasion of the heart of the Comancheria, after the Antelope Hills Expedition. The campgrounds in question were reported to be somewhere on the south side of the Canadian River. On November 10, 1864 Carson started from Fort Bascom with 335 cavalry, and 75 Ute and Jicarilla Apache scouts. Those Carson had recruited from Lucien Maxwell's ranch near Cimarron, New Mexico. On November 12, 1864, Carson’s force, supplied with two mountain howitzers under the command of Lt. George H. Pettis, twenty-seven wagons, an ambulance, and forty-five days' rations, proceeded down the Canadian River into the Texas Panhandle. Carson had decided to march first to Adobe Walls, which he was familiar with from his employment there by Bent over 20 years earlier. Inclement weather, including an early snow storm, caused slow progress, and on November 25, 1864, the First Cavalry reached Mule Springs, in Moore County, approximately 30 miles (48 km) west of Adobe Walls. Scouts reported the presence of a large Indian encampment at Adobe Walls, and Carson ordered his cavalry forward, to be followed by the wagons and howitzers.[8]

Approximately two hours after daybreak on November 26, 1864, Carson's cavalry attacked a Kiowa village of 150 lodges. The Chief, Dohäsan, and his people fled, passing the alarm to allied Comanche villages nearby. Marching forward to Adobe Walls, Carson dug in there about 10 AM, using one corner of the ruins for a hospital. Carson discovered to his dismay that there were numerous villages in the area, including one very large Comanche village, with a total of between 3–5,000 Indian warriors. Carson saw thousands of warriors pouring forward to engage him in battle, a much greater force than he had expected.[9]

Dohäsan, assisted by Satank (Setting Bear) and Satanta (White Bear), led the Kiowas in the first attack. Fierce fighting developed as the Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, and Comanche warriors repeatedly attacked Carson's position. Reportedly, Satanta replied to Carson's bugler with his own bugle calls. Carson succeeded in repelling the attacks only through his clever use of supporting fire from the twin howitzers. After six to eight hours of fairly continuous fighting, Carson realized he was beginning to run low on shells for the howitzers, and ammunition in general, and ordered his forces to withdraw. [8] The angry Indians tried to block his retreat by setting fire to the grass and brush down near the river. The wily Carson, however, set back-fires and retreated to higher ground, where the twin howitzers continued to hold off the Indians. When twilight came, Carson ordered a group of his scouts to burn the lodges of the first village, which also resulted in the death of the Kiowa-Apache chief, Iron Shirt, when he refused to leave his tepee.[10]

Despite the fact that Carson was forced to retreat in the face of much more opposition than he had expected, the United States Army declared the First Battle of Adobe Walls a victory. Carson was probably outnumbered 10-1, and his clever use of backfires and the howitzers prevented his being overrun. As it was, Carson lost 6 dead, 25 wounded, to approximately 50-60 killed among the Indians. Nothing could obscure the fact however that the Kiowa and their allies had driven the American army from the field. Dohäsan, probably in his 70's, had commanded the largest force of Plains Indians ever massed against the army, and compelled a force armed with howitzers to retreat and yield the day.[11]

Little Arkansas Treaty and death

In October 1865 Dohäsan signed the Little Arkansas Treaty, but he vigorously protested confinement to a reservation, declaring that the Kiowas owned all the land from the North Platte River to the upper Texas Panhandle and needed room to roam about. Shortly afterward, in early 1866, he died.[3]

Beginning of the reservation era

As noted earlier, though the chief position in the Kata or Arikara band of the Kiowa Indians was hereditary, it was not necessarily given from father to son, and in this case, it was not.

Dohäsan's sister's son, Agiati or "Gathering Feathers" inherited his name in 1864.[12] The younger Dohäsan took part in the remaining battles as the Kiowa struggled to remain a free people. But time was running out, and he was part of the delegation to Washington in 1872, which appealed to the government to allow the Kiowa to remain free.[3]

Afterward, as the remaining Kiowa went to the reservation, the younger Dohäsan lived with his family in peace on the reservation near Fort Sill until his death.[3]

Artist and calendar keeper

Dohäsan was the primary calendar keeper among the Kiowa throughout most of the 19th century.[13] He added many innovations to Kiowa pictorial art. In his winter count, he added an image for each year's summer Sun Dance. To painted tipi designs, Dohäsan introduced images of counting coup. When he died, his nephew Agiati became a calendar keeper, followed in turn by Agiati's son, Silver Horn (1860–1940), one of the most prolific of all Kiowa artists.[12]

Dohäsen's original calendar is in the collection of the Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology at the University of California at Berkeley.[14] In 1892 the young Dohäsan gave his annual family calendar history, begun by his uncle, the last great principal chief of the Kiowa, to Capt. Hugh L. Scott, who in turn donated it to the Smithsonian Institution.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Greene, 32
  2. ^ Davis, p.45.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mayhall, Mildred The Kiowas
  4. ^ a b DOHASAN Handbook of Texas Online
  5. ^ Greene 92
  6. ^ Trosser, John (2004). [1]. "Adobe Walls Texas” September 7, 2007.
  7. ^ Trosser, John (2004). [2]. "Adobe Walls Texas” September 7, 2007.
  8. ^ Trosser, John (2004). [3]. "Adobe Walls Texas” September 7, 2007.
  9. ^ The Comanches: Lords of the Southern Plains. University of Oklahoma Press. 1952.
  10. ^ [4]. "Adobe Walls Texas” September 7, 2007.
  11. ^ Trosser, John (2004). [5]. "Adobe Walls Texas” September 7, 2007.
  12. ^ a b Greene, 31
  13. ^ Greene, 25
  14. ^ Greene and Thornton, 300

References

  • Davis, Lucile, The Kiowa of Texas, New York : PowerKids Press, 2003. OCLC 49529816
  • Greene, Candace S. Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8061-3307-2.
  • Greene, Candace S. and Russell Thornton, eds. The Year the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2007. ISBN 0-8032-2211-4
  • Mayhall, Mildred. The Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962.

Further reading

  • Bial, Raymond. Lifeways: The Comanche. New York: Benchmark Books, 2000.
  • Brice, Donaly E. The Great Comanche Raid: Boldest Indian Attack on the Texas Republic McGowan Book Co. 1987
  • John, Elizabeth and A.H. Storms Brewed in Other Men's Worlds: The Confrontation of the Indian, Spanish, and French in the Southwest, 1540-1795. College Station, TX: Texas A&M Press, 1975.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dohäsan — Infobox Person name = Dohäsan caption = birth name = has been variously translated as Little Mountain, Little Bluff, or Top of the Mountain in Kiowa birth date = late 1780s to early 1790s birth place = Oklahoma or Texas death date = 1866 death… …   Wikipedia

  • Dohäsan — Le Chef Dohosan, peint par George Catlin Dohäsan (né dans les années autour de 1790 et mort en 1866[1]) était un important Chef indien. Il fut Chef de guerre du groupe Kata ou Arikara des Indiens Kiowas, puis Chef suprême de la tribu kiowa tout… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Satanta (White Bear) — Satanta (ca. 1820 1878) was a Kiowa War Chief who was the real life model for Larry McMurty’s character Blue Duck, a fictionalized character in McMurtry s Lonesome Dove series . A member of the Kiowa tribe, he was born about 1820, during the… …   Wikipedia

  • Satanta (chief) — Satanta This article refers to the Kiowa chief Satanta. For the Irish hero Sétanta, please see Cú Chulainn. Satanta (ca. 1820 1878) was a Kiowa war chief. He was a member of the Kiowa tribe, he was born around 1820, during the height of the power …   Wikipedia

  • Première bataille d'Adobe Walls — 35°53.608′N 101°09.725′W / 35.893467, 101.162083 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • First Battle of Adobe Walls — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=First Battle of Adobe Walls colour scheme=background:#ffcccc caption= partof=the Indian Wars date=November 25, 1864 place=Hutchinson County, Texas result=considered U.S. victory by the Army, and an Indian… …   Wikipedia

  • Sitting Bear — Satank ( Set ankeah , translated as Sitting Bear), was a prestigious Kiowa warrior and medicine man. He was born about 1800, probably in Kansas, and killed in 1871. An able warrior, he became part of the Koitsenko ( Ko eet senko ), the society of …   Wikipedia

  • Texas–Indian Wars — The Texas Indian Wars were a series of conflicts between settlers in Texas and Plains Indians. These conflicts began when the first settlers moved into Spanish Texas, and continued through Texas s time as part of Mexico, as its own nation,… …   Wikipedia

  • Texanische Indianerkriege — Die Texanischen Indianerkriege waren eine Reihe von Konflikten zwischen texanischen Siedlern, Armeeeinheiten und Prärie Indianern. Diese Auseinandersetzungen begannen bereits zu Zeiten, als das texanische Territorium noch unter spanischer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Дохасан — англ. Dohasan Дохасан, 18 …   Википедия