- Rassvet (ISS module)
Rassvet (Russian: Рассве́т; lit. "dawn"), also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) (Russian: Малый исследовательский модуль, МИМ 1) and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module (DCM), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The module's design is similar to the Mir Docking Module launched on STS-74 in 1995. Rassvet is primarily used for cargo storage and as a docking port for visiting spacecraft. It was flown to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-132 mission on May 14, 2010, and was connected to the ISS on May 18. The hatch connecting Rassvet with the ISS was first opened on May 20. On 28 June 2010, the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft performed the first docking with the module.
Rassvet was docked to the nadir port of Zarya with help from the SSRMS. Rassvet carried externally attached outfitting equipment from NASA for the Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), a spare elbow joint for the European Robotic Arm, and a radiator. Delivering Rassvet thus enabled NASA to fulfill its promise to ship 1.4 metric tons to equip the MLM.
Rassvet has two docking units: one to attach to the nadir port of the Zarya module, and one to provide a docking port for a Soyuz or Progress spacecraft. It implements the role of the Docking and Stowage Module from the original ISS design. Russia announced the cancellation of the last of the two planned Russian Research Modules when it announced the plans for Rassvet.
The initial ISS plan included a Docking and Stowage Module (DSM). This planned Russian element was intended to provide facilities for stowage and an additional docking port, and would have been launched to the station on a Proton launch vehicle. The DSM would have been mounted to Zarya's nadir (Earth-facing) docking port. It would have been similar in size and shape to the Zarya module.
The DSM was cancelled due to Russian budgetary constraints for some time, but its design was eventually modified into the Docking and Cargo Module (Rassvet) that was to be connected to the same Zarya location to provide stowage space and a docking port. During the cancellation period, it was proposed that a Multi Purpose Module (MPM) called Enterprise should be docked to Zarya, and later the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) was proposed to be located there as well, but the Enterprise module has since been cancelled and the MLM will be docked to Zvezda's nadir port instead.
Rassvet was designed as a solution to two problems facing the ISS partners:
- NASA was under contract to carry the MLM outfitting equipment into space.
- The overlapping missions of the Progress, Soyuz, and ATV spacecraft highlighted the need to have four Russian docking ports available on the ISS. The cancellation of both Russian Research Modules meant that the ISS would be left with just three such docking ports after the installation of the Permanent Multipurpose Module in 2011, which made the nadir port of Zarya unusable.
Rassvet solved both of these issues. NASA did not need to add another payload flight to accommodate the MLM outfitting equipment, as it could attach the hardware to the exterior of MRM-1; the ISS now had 4 docking ports available: the aft port of Zvezda, the port of Pirs, later MLM (on the nadir port of Zvezda), the port of MRM-2 (on the zenith port of Zvezda), and the port on MRM-1 (on the nadir port of Zarya); and Russia's cancellation of the Research Module came to be of less consequence for the ISS program as a whole.
Design and construction
On December 17, 2009, an Antonov An-124 carrying the Rassvet Module and ground process equipment arrived at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Upon unloading, the equipment was delivered to a prelaunch processing facility run by the Astrotech. Energia specialists and technicians continued their work on the processing of the Rassvet module at the facility, completing stand-alone electrical tests and leak tests of the module and the airlock. They also prepared the airlock and the radiative heat exchanger for installation onto Rassvet. The module was moved to NASA's Space Station Processing Facility on April 2, 2010. After completing the final touches, it was placed into the shuttle payload transporter on April 5, 2010. The payload canister containing the Rassvet Module arrived at Launch Pad 39A on April 15, 2010.
Engineers at Launch Pad 39A preparing Space Shuttle Atlantis had noticed paint peeling from the MRM-1 module. Although the problem was declared to have no impact on the operation of Rassvet, it posed a potential threat of releasing debris on orbit.
MRM-1 basic specifications:
Module launch mass 5075 kg Total Launch mass 8015 kg Maximum hull diameter 2.35 m Hull length between docking assembly planes 6 m Pressurized volume 17.4 m3 Habitable volume 5.85 m3
- ^ Chris Gebhardt (9 April 2009). "STS-132: PRCB baselines Atlantis' mission to deliver Russia’s MRM-1". NASAspaceflight.com. http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2009/04/sts-132-prcb-baselines-mission-to-deliver-russias-mrm-1/. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- ^ NASA (May 18, 2010). "STS-132 MCC Status Report #09". http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/news/STS-132-09.html. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- ^ NASA (May 20, 2010). "STS-132 MCC Status Report #13". http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/sts132/news/STS-132-13.html. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- ^ Justin Ray (June 28, 2010). "Station crew takes Soyuz for 'spin around the block'". SpaceFlight Now. http://spaceflightnow.com/station/exp24/100628relocate/. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
- ^ "Docking Cargo Module". NASAspaceflight.com. http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=7493.0.
- ^ "NASA Extends Contract With Russia’s Federal Space Agency". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2007/apr/HQ_C07-18_Roscosmos.html.
- ^ NASA оплатило полёты своих астронавтов до 2011 года Novosti Kosmonavtiki №2007/6
- ^ Justin Ray (March 25, 2010). "Russian space module set for American launch aboard the shuttle Atlantis". Spaceflight Now. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/shuttle/sts132/100325rassvet/. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- ^ "Mini-Research Module MRM1 At Cape For Shuttle Processing". December 30, 2009.
- ^ Justin Ray (April 15, 2010). "Russian space station module shipped to NASA's space shuttle launch pad". Spaceflightnow. http://spaceflightnow.com/shuttle/sts132/100415payload/. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- ^ Chris Bergin (April 28, 2010). "STS-132: Managers work through SSP FRR – Will slip launch date if required". NASAspaceflight.com. http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2010/04/sts-132-managers-ssp-frr-will-slip-launch-date-if-required/. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- ^ "Space Shuttle Mission STS 132 PRESS KIT". NASA. May 2010. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/451029main_sts132_press_kit.pdf. Retrieved 2010-05-10.
- http://nasatech.net/Astrotech-MM2_100324/ Rassvet at Astrotech looking NW
- http://nasatech.net/Astrotech-Rassvet1_100324/ Rassvet at Astrotech looking north
- http://nasatech.net/Astrotech-Rassvet2_100324/ Rassvet at Astrotech from above
- http://nasatech.net/Astrotech-Rassvet3_100324/ Rassvet at Astrotech looking SE
Components of the International Space Station Overview Major components
in orbitZarya (Functional Cargo Block) · Zvezda (Service Module) · Unity (Node 1) · Harmony (Node 2) · Tranquility (Node 3) · Destiny (Laboratory) · Columbus (Laboratory) · Kibō (PM, ELM-PS, EF) · Quest (Airlock) · Pirs (Airlock / Docking Module) · Rassvet (MRM 1) · Poisk (MRM 2) · Leonardo (PMM) · Cupola · Integrated Truss Structure (ITS)
with no launch plan
Scheduled for launch
Proposed module Cancelled Support vehicles Mission control centers ← 2009 · Orbital launches in 2010 · 2011 →Compass-G1 | Globus-1M No.12L | Progress M-04M | STS-130 (Tranquility · Cupola) | SDO | Intelsat 16 | Kosmos 2459 · Kosmos 2460 · Kosmos 2461 | GOES 15 | Yaogan 9A · Yaogan 9B · Yaogan 9C | EchoStar XIV | Soyuz TMA-18 | STS-131 (Leonardo MPLM) | CryoSat-2 | GSAT-4 | Kosmos 2462 | USA-212 | SES-1 | Kosmos 2463 | Progress M-05M | STS-132 (Rassvet · ICC-VLD) | Akatsuki · IKAROS (DCAM-1 · DCAM-2) · Shin'en · Waseda-SAT2 · Hayato · Negai ☆'' | Astra 3B · COMSATBw-2 | USA-213 | SERVIS-2 | Compass-G3 | Badr-5 | Dragon Spacecraft Qualification Unit | STSAT-2B | Shijian XII | Prisma · Picard · BPA-1 | Soyuz TMA-19 | TanDEM-X | Ofek-9 | Arabsat-5A · Chollian | Progress M-06M | EchoStar XV | Cartosat-2B · AlSat-2A · StudSat · AISSat-1 · TIsat-1 | Compass-IGSO1 | Nilesat 201 · RASCOM-QAF 1R | Yaogan 10 | USA-214 | Tian Hui 1 | Kosmos 2464 · Kosmos 2465 · Kosmos 2466 | Chinasat-6A | Gonets-M No.2 · Kosmos 2467 · Kosmos 2468 | Progress M-07M | Michibiki | USA-215 | Yaogan 11 · Zheda Pixing 1B · Zheda Pixing 1C | USA-216 | Kosmos 2469 | Chang'e-2 | Shijian 6G · Shijian 6H | Soyuz TMA-01M | XM-5 | Globalstar 73 · Globalstar 74 · Globalstar 75 · Globalstar 76 · Globalstar 77 · Globalstar 79 | Progress M-08M | Eutelsat W3B · BSat 3B | Compass-G4 | Meridian 3 | Feng Yun 3B | COSMO-4 | SkyTerra-1 | STPSat-2 · RAX · O/OREOS · FASTSAT (NanoSail-D2) · FalconSat-5 · Sara-Lily · Emma | USA-223 | Chinasat-20A | Intelsat 17 · Hylas 1 | Glonass-M No.39 · Glonass-M No.40 · Glonass-M No.41 | Dragon C1 · Mayflower · SMDC-ONE 1 · QbX-1 · QbX-2 · Perseus 000 · Perseus 001 · Perseus 002 · Perseus 003 | Soyuz TMA-20 | Compass-IGSO2 | GSAT-5P | KA-SATPayloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in (brackets).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Poisk (ISS module) — Poisk docking module at the Space Station. Poisk (Russian: Поиск; lit. Search), also known as the Mini Research Module 2 (MRM 2), Малый исследовательский модуль 2, or МИМ 2, is a docking module of the International Space Station. Its original… … Wikipedia
Tranquility (ISS module) — Tranquility photographed just before being installed to Unity node … Wikipedia
Pirs (ISS module) — View of SO1 Pirs Docking compartment The Pirs docking compartment is a Russian module of the International Space Station (ISS). Pirs (Russian: Пирс, meaning pier ) also called Stikovochny Otsek 1 or SO 1 (Russian: Стыковочный отсек, docking… … Wikipedia
Unity (ISS module) — ISS Unity connecting module (NASA) The Unity connecting module was the first U.S. built component of the International Space Station. It is cylindrical in shape, with six berthing locations (forward, aft, port, starboard, zenith, and nadir)… … Wikipedia
Nauka (ISS module) — Outdated drawing with Nauka docked to Zarya Nauka (Russian: Наука; lit. Science), also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), (Russian: Многофункциональный лабораторный модуль, or МЛМ), will be a component of the International Space… … Wikipedia
Cupola (ISS module) — Tracy Caldwell Dyson in the Cupola module of the International Space Station observing the Earth below … Wikipedia
Zvezda (ISS module) — For other uses, see Zvezda (disambiguation). ISS Zvezda The Zvezda service module of the ISS with Zarya to the right and a docked Soyuz spacecraft to the left … Wikipedia
Columbus (ISS module) — The Columbus Module on the International Space Station … Wikipedia
Destiny (ISS module) — The Destiny Laboratory Module (NASA) being installed on the International Space Station. See also: Scientific research on the ISS The Destiny module is the primary operating facility for U.S. research payloads aboard the International Space… … Wikipedia
Harmony (ISS module) — Node 2 shown connected to Columbus, JEM, PMA 2 and Discovery. The nadir and zenith locations are open. Harmony, also known as Node 2, is the utility hub of the International Space Station. The hub contains four racks that provide electrical power … Wikipedia