History of display technology


History of display technology

Over the years, a variety of display devices and technologies have been used in order to display electronic data in a way that's legible to humans.

Contents

Early history

One of the earliest electronic displays is the cathode ray tube (CRT), which was made commercial in 1922. The CRT consists of an electron gun that forms images by firing electrons onto a phosphor-coated screen. The earliest CRTs were monochrome and were used primarily in oscilloscopes and black and white televisions. The first commercial colour CRT was produced in 1954.[1] CRTs were the single most popular display technology used in television sets and computer monitors for over half a century; it was not until the 2000s that LCDs began to gradually replace them.

A derivative of CRTs were storage tubes, which had the ability to retain information displayed on them, unlike standard CRTs which need to be refreshed periodically. In 1968, Tektronix introduced the Direct-View Bistable Storage Tube, which went on to be widely used in oscilloscopes and computer terminals.[2]

Cathode ray tube

Monochrome CRT

1922 Monochrome cathode ray tube:

Dual trace, showing different time bases on each trace.

Color CRT

1954 Color cathode ray tube for the display of color television[3]:

19" inch (48.3 cm tube, 45.9 cm viewable) ViewSonic CRT computer monitor.

Direct-View Bistable Storage Tube

1968[4] The Direct-View Bistable Storage Tube CRT retains static information displayed upon it, written using a steerable electron beam that can be turned off. In principle the DVBST is similar to an Etch-a-Sketch, and was used in vector displays of early computers and in oscilloscopes.

Tektronix 4014 with a "DVBST" storage display screen

Flip-flap/disc display

1957 Split-flap display:
Fallblattanzeigetafel ausschnitt ffm hbf.jpg

1961 Flip-disc display:

Flip-Dot-Display

Monochrome plasma display

1964 Monochrome plasma display:

Plasma displays were first used in PLATO computer terminals. This PLATO V model illustrates the display's monochromatic orange glow as seen in 1988.

Light-emitting diode

1968 Light-emitting diode:

LED destination displays on buses, one with a colored route number.
Outdoor 4 x 3 m large LED screen in Jelgava, Latvia.

Eggcrate display

1968 Eggcrate display

Vacuum fluorescent display

1967 Vacuum fluorescent display as used in consumer electronics.

Vacuum fluorescent display used in a videocassette recorder.
VFD raster display

Twisted nematic field effect LCD

1972 Twisted nematic field effect LCD[5][6]:

DTV-LCD-MOD.jpg

Pin screen

Pin screen:

Pin art, Flickr.jpg


1969 Braille display:[7]

Refreshable Braille display

Thin film transistor LCD

1986 Color Thin film transistor liquid crystal display[8]:

An ASUS Eee PC netbook.

Full-color plasma display

1995 Full-color plasma display[9]:

A Samsung PN50B450 50-inch Plasma HDTV, an example of a modern Plasma television.

Organic light-emitting diode

2003 Organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) [10]

Sony XEL-1, the world's first OLED TV


2003 Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED):[11]

HTC smartphone

Electronic paper

2004 Electronic paper[12]:

iLiad E-book reader equipped with e-paper display
iLiad in sunlight


Electroluminescent display

1974 Electroluminescent display (ELD)[13]:

See also

References


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