- Directorial system
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A Directorial Republic is a country ruled by a College of several people which jointly exercise the powers of Head of State. This system of government is in contrast both with presidential republics and parliamentary republics. In political history, the term Directory, in French Directoire, applies to high collegial institutions of state composed of members styled director. The most important of these by far was the Directory of 1795–1799 in France. This form of government was also established in the European regions conquered by France during the French Revolutionary Wars.
In modern times, the sole country using this form of government is Switzerland, where directories rule all levels of administration, federal, cantonal and municipal. The Swiss Federal Council is elected by the Parliament for four years (members can't be dismissed); direct popular elections are used at local level. In past, Uruguay, Yugoslavia (after Tito's death), Ukraine, and other countries were ruled by directories. The government of the Soviet Union could in some ways be characterized as a directory, but developed in a much different pattern discussed in the article on Communist states.
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