Foreign relations of the Holy See

Foreign relations of the Holy See
See also: Foreign relations of Vatican City State
The Holy See

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The Holy See—which must be clearly distinguished from the city-state of Vatican City—has long been recognised as a subject of international law and as an active participant in international relations. It remains such, and indeed one observer has said that its interaction with the world has, in the period since World War II, been at the highest point it has ever had.[1]

The diplomatic activities of the Holy See are directed by the Secretariat of State (headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State), through the Section for Relations with States.



Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome has been recognized as a sovereign entity. Earlier, there were papal representatives to the Emperors of Constantinople, beginning in 453, but they were not thought of as ambassadors.[2] In the eleventh century the sending of papal representatives to princes, on a temporary or permanent mission, became frequent.[3] In the fifteenth century it became customary for states to accredit permanent resident ambassadors to the Pope in Rome.[4] The first permanent papal nunciature was established in 1500 in Venice. Their number grew in the course of the sixteenth century to thirteen, while internuncios (representatives of second rank) were sent to less-powerful states.[5] After enjoying a brilliant period in the first half of the seventeenth century, papal diplomacy declined after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, being assailed especially by royalists and Gallicans, and the number of functioning nuncios was reduced to two in the time of Napoleon, although in the same period, in 1805, Prussia became the first Protestant state to send an ambassador to Rome. There was a revival after the Congress of Vienna, which, while laying down that, in general, the order of precedence between ambassadors would be determined by the date of their arrival, allowed special precedence to be given to the nuncio, by which he would always be the dean of the diplomatic corps.[6]

In spite of the extinction of the Papal States in 1870, and the consequent loss of territorial sovereignty, and in spite of some uncertainty among jurists as to whether it could continue to act as an independent personality in international matters, the Holy See continued in fact to exercise the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives, maintaining relations with states that included the major powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria-Hungary.[7] Countries continued to receive nuncios as diplomatic representatives of full rank, and where, in accordance with the decision of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Nuncio was not only a member of the Diplomatic Corps but its Dean, this arrangement continued to be accepted by the other ambassadors.[7]

With the First World War and its aftermath the number of states with diplomatic relations with the Holy See increased. For the first time since relations were broken between the Pope and Queen Elizabeth I of England, a British diplomatic mission to the Holy See was opened in 1914.[8] The result was that, instead of diminishing, the number of diplomats accredited to the Holy See grew from sixteen in 1871 to twenty-seven in 1929, even before it again acquired territorial sovereignty with the founding of the State of Vatican City.[9]

In the same period, the Holy See concluded a total of twenty-nine concordats and other agreements with states, including Austro-Hungary in 1881, Russia in 1882 and 1907, France in 1886 and 1923.[9] Two of these concordats were registered at the League of Nations at the request of the countries involved.[10]

While bereft of territorial sovereignty, the Holy See also accepted requests to act as arbitrator between countries, including a dispute between Germany and Spain over the Caroline Islands.[9]

The Lateran Treaty of 1929 and the founding of the Vatican City State was not followed by any great immediate increase in the number of states with which the Holy See had official relations. This came later, especially after the Second World War.

Bilateral relations

Foreign relations with the Holy See
  Diplomatic relations
  Other relations
  No relations
  Vatican City State
  Diplomatic relations, resident mission, nuncio is of ambassadorial rank and with additional privileges[11]
  Diplomatic relations, non-resident accreditation with additional privileges
  Diplomatic relations, resident mission, nuncio has regular ambassadorial status
  Diplomatic relations, non-resident accreditation, regular ambassadorial status

  Formal contact with the government, but no diplomatic relations
  Representative to the Catholic communities only, no diplomatic relations
  Vatican City State
  Diplomatic relations established before the Lateran Treaty
  Diplomatic relations established with state that gained independence after the Lateran Treaty
  No diplomatic relations with state that gained independence after the Lateran Treaty

  Diplomatic relations currently established with state independent in the 1870-1929 period, but status of relations during this period not shown in source used

  Diplomatic relations established after the Lateran Treaty with state that is independent since before the treaty
  No diplomatic relations with state that is independent since before the treaty

The Holy See, as a non-state sovereign entity and full subject of international law, started establishing diplomatic relations with sovereign states in the 15th century.[12] It had the territory of the States of the Church under its direct sovereign rule since centuries before that time. Currently it has the territory of the State of the Vatican City under its direct sovereign rule. In the period of 1870-1929 between the annexation of Rome by the Kingdom of Italy and the ratification of the Lateran Treaty establishing the current Vatican City State, the Holy See was devoid of territory. In this period some states suspended their diplomatic relations, but others retained them (or established such relations for the first time or reestablished them after a break), so that the number of states that did have diplomatic relations with the Holy See almost doubled (from 16 to 27) in the period between 1871 and 1929.[9]

The Holy See currently has diplomatic relations with 179 sovereign states (including the partially internationally recognized Republic of China), the sovereign entity Order of Malta and the supranational union European Union.[12]

The Holy See also has established official non-diplomatic relations "of special nature" with the Palestine Liberation Organization.[12] By agreement with the government of Vietnam, it has a non-resident papal representative to that country.[13] It has official formal contacts, without establishing diplomatic relations, with: Afghanistan, Brunei, Somalia, Oman, and Saudi Arabia.[14]

The Holy See additionally maintains some apostolic delegates to local Catholic Church communities and such delegates are not accredited to the governments of the respective states and work only in unofficial non-diplomatic capacity.[15] The regions and states where such non-diplomatic delegates operate are: Brunei, Comoros, Laos, Mauritania, Myanmar, Somalia, Vietnam, Jerusalem and the Palestinian territories (Palestine), Pacific Ocean (Tuvalu, dependent territories[16]), Arabian Peninsula (Oman, foreigners in Saudi Arabia), Antilles (dependent territories[17]), apostolic delegate to Kosovo[18] (Republic of Kosovo) and the apostolic prefecture of Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)

The Holy See has no relations of any kind with the following states:

The Holy See maintains 179 permanent diplomatic missions abroad, of which 73 are non-residential, so that it has in all 106 concrete missions, some of which are accredited not only to the country in which they are situated, but also to one or more other countries or international organizations.

The Holy See is the only European subject of international law to have diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan), although informal talks between the Holy See and the government of the People's Republic of China on the reestablishment of diplomatic relations have been reported.

During the pontificate of Pope Benedict XVI relations were established with newly independent Montenegro (2006), the United Arab Emirates (2007), Botswana (2008), the Russian Federation (2009), and Malaysia (2011). "Relations of a special nature" had previously been in place with Russia similar to those that continue to exist with the Palestinian Liberation Organization.[19]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Denmark 1982
 Estonia 1991 See Foreign relations of Estonia.
 European Union 1970 See European Union – Holy See relations.

Many of the founders of the European Union were inspired by Catholic ideals, notably Robert Schuman, Alcide de Gasperi, Konrad Adenauer, and Jean Monnet.[21][22]

 France XVI° Century See France – Holy See relations.

Holy See–France relations are very ancient and have existed since the fifth century AD, and have been durable to the extent that France is sometimes called the eldest daughter of the Church. Areas of cooperation between Paris and the Holy See have traditionally included education, health care, the struggle against poverty and international diplomacy. Before the establishment of the welfare state, Church involvement was evident in many sectors of French society. Today, Paris's international peace initiatives are often in line with those of the Holy See, who favors dialogue on a global level.

 Greece 1980 See Greece – Holy See relations.

The Holy See established its Apostolic Nunciature to Greece in Athens in 1980. The Greek ambassador to the Holy See at first resided in Paris, where he was concurrently accredited to France; in 1988 a separate Greek embassy to the Holy See, situated in Rome, was established.

In May 2001, Pope John Paul II made a visit of pilgrimage to Greece.[23]

 Iceland 1977

Diplomatic relations were established in 1977, but the Pope Paul VI in his greeting to the first Ambassador from Iceland referred to these relations as "the millenary ties between your people (i.e. of Iceland) and the Catholic Church".[24]

 Ireland 1929 See Holy See – Ireland relations.

The majority of Irish people are Roman Catholic. The Holy See has an embassy in Dublin. Ireland has, in Rome, an embassy to the Holy See. The government announced plans for the closure of this embassy in November 2011, after which the ambassador will be based in Dublin.

 Italy 1929 See Holy See – Italy relations.

Because of the small size of the Vatican City State, embassies accredited to the Holy See are based on Italian territory. Treaties signed between Italy and the Vatican City State permit such embassages. Like the Embassy of Italy, the Embassy of Andorra to the Holy See is also based on its home territory.

 Lithuania 1927
 Malta 1965
 Poland 1555 See Holy See - Poland diplomatic relations.
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Warsaw.[27]
  • Poland has an embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[28]
 Romania 1920 See Holy See – Romania relations.
  • The Holy See has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy to the Holy See.
 Russia 2009 See Holy See – Russia relations.

Russia has an embassy in Rome accredited to the Holy See. Holy See–Russia relations are largely linked to ecumenical relations with the Russian Orthodox Church.

 Serbia 1919-03 See Holy See – Serbia relations.
 Spain 1530 See Holy See – Spain relations.
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Rome.
 Turkey 1868 See Holy See – Turkey relations.
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Rome.
 Ukraine 1992
 United Kingdom 1914 See Holy See–United Kingdom relations.

Full relations were recognised in 1982 when Pope John Paul II visited the U.K. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom became the first ever British monarch to visit the Vatican in 1980.[32]


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1940-04-17 See Argentina – Holy See relations.
 Canada See Canada – Holy See relations.
  • Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territorially established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See–Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in 1969.
 Mexico See Holy See – Mexico relations.

The Vatican assigned an Apostolic Nuncio to Mexico in 1904.[35] The Holy See has a nunciature in Mexico City. Mexico has an embassy in Rome. As of 1990 about 90 percent of Mexico's 86 million people declared themselves Roman Catholics.[35] In 1992 after more than 130 years the Mexican Government and the Holy See reestablished formal diplomatic relations and restored civil rights to the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico.[35][36]

 United States See Holy See – United States relations.

Holy See priorities for 2008 included freedom of religion, inter-religious dialogue (particularly with the Muslim world), ecumenism, opposition to abortion and same-sex marriage, and peace (particularly for the Middle East). Pope Benedict XVI has also publicly expressed concern over the issue of climate change, describing the protection of the environment as a moral responsibility to safeguard God's creation.

The principal U.S. official is Ambassador Miguel H. Diaz. The Holy See representation is currently vacant, as of 27 July 2011.

The U.S. Embassy to the Holy See is located in Rome in the Villa Domiziana. The Nunciature to the United States is located in Washington, D.C. at 3339 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

 Venezuela See Holy See – Venezuela relations.

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1869. The Holy See has a nunciature in Caracas. Venezuela has an embassy in Rome.


Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Algeria – Holy See relations.
  • During the Algerian War of 1954–1962 the Holy See accepted the occupation of Algeria by France, and did not speak out in favor of Algerian independence.[37] despite pleas from the Algerian rebels to mediate.[38]
  • After Algeria became independent, Algeria maintained diplomatic ties with the Holy See and allowed Roman Catholic priests to continue ministering to the remaining Catholics in Algeria.[39]
 Madagascar 1960
  • The Holy See has an nunciature in Kigali.[41]
  • Rwanda has an embassy to the Holy See.
  • Relations between the two States have been strained since the Rwanda genocide. Many bishops were under the ideological influence of the previous Hutu nationalist government, and the government of Paul Kagame has tried to purge the episcopacy of hostile elements.
  • Priests that participated in the killings behaved in a way no different from the majority of the population, a phenomenon which has led to a grave collective and spiritual guilt, and has led to the growth of Evangelical churches and Islamic organizations. In part, this has been attributed to an ethnic-based liberation theology, which was denounced by the Holy See in the 1970s and 1980s.
 Sudan 1969 See Holy See – Sudan relations.

Middle East

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Iran 1954 See Holy See – Iran relations.

The two countries have had formal diplomatic relations since 1954, since the pontificate of Pius XII, and have been maintained during Islamic revolution.[43] Iran has a large diplomatic corps at the Vatican with only the Dominican Republic having more diplomats accredited to the Holy See.[43]

In 2008 relations between Iran and the Holy See were "warming", and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad "said the Vatican was a positive force for justice and peace" when he met with the Papal nuncio to Iran, Archbishop Jean-Paul Gobel.[44]

 Israel 1993 See Holy See – Israel relations.

Holy See–Israel relations have officially existed since 1993 with the adoption of the fundamental agreement between the two parties. However, relations remain tense because of the non-fulfillment of the accords giving property rights and tax exemptions to the Church.

 Palestinian Authority

An Apostolic Delegation (a non-diplomatic mission of the Holy See) denominated "Jerusalem and Palestine" has existed since 11 February 1948. The Palestine Liberation Organization has non-diplomatic but official relations with the Holy See from October 1994, with an office in Rome. On February 15, 2000, a basic agreement was concluded between the Palestinian Authority and the Holy See. The Holy See, along with many other states, supports a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine.

 Jordan 1994 See Holy See – Jordan relations.

The Holy See has a nunciature in Amman. Jordan has an embassy in Rome. The Holy See has maintained comparatively good relations with Jordan. The name of the country comes from the Jordan River, which is significant to Christians because it was the place where Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist. Various Christian clerics in the Arab world have a Jordanian background, such as Maroun Lahham in Tunisia and Fouad Twal in Israel/Palestine.

 Kuwait 1969
  • Even though diplomatic relations were established in 1969, the first Kuwaiti Ambassador to the Vatican was not accredited until March 1973. As he presented his credentials to Pope Paul VI, the Pontiff treated the establishing of relations as a sign of growing tolerance within Kuwait.[45]
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Safat.[46]
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Rome.
  • Vicariate of Kuwait
 Lebanon 1947 See Holy See – Lebanon relations.
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Harissa.
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Rome.
 Saudi Arabia See Holy See–Saudi Arabia relations.

There have been some important high-level meetings between Saudi and Vatican officials in order to discuss issues and organize dialogue between religions.

 Syria 1762
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Damascus.[47]
  • Syria has an embassy in Rome.
  • At present, the Holy See has comparatively good relations with Syria. It has sought to foster ecumenism between rival Christian factions in Antioch and to ensure the survival of age-old Christian communities in the country. The declaration Nostra Aetate has made possible inter-faith dialogue and cooperation with Syrian Muslims.
  • Some Vatican leaders have also sought to foster greater political independence for Lebanon, which has been tied to Syria since the end of the Lebanese civil war. This call for Lebanese independence has traditionally been resisted by Syrian leaders.
  • John Paul II visited Syria in 2001 and was the first pope been to a Islamic mosque, the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus ,.[48]
  • "Assad Attended John Paul II's Funeral"

Rest of world

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1973
  • Since the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See in 1973, Australia has maintained a non-resident Head of Mission, based in another European capital, as well as an office at the Holy See, headed by a Counsellor.
  • The Holy See has maintained an Apostolic Nunciature in Canberra since 1973.
  • On 21 July 2008, the Australian Government announced that it would appoint for the first time a resident Ambassador to the Holy See – the Hon Tim Fischer AC. According the Australian Foreign Ministry, this marked a significant deepening of Australia's relations with the Vatican since it would allow Australia to expand dialogue with the Vatican in areas including human rights, political and religious freedom, inter-faith dialogue, food security, arms control, refugees and anti-people trafficking, and climate change.[49] Mr Fischer commenced his appointment on 30 January 2009 and presented credentials to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI on 12 February 2009.
  • The Australian Prime Minister, Mr Rudd, visited the Pope Benedict XVI and met the Vatican's Secretary of State on 9 July 2009.
  • The Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Hon Stephen Smith MP, met HE Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, the Holy See's Secretary for Relations with States ( on 3 December 2008 during his visit to Oslo to sign the Convention on Cluster Munitions. The Holy See played a facilitating role in relation to the Oslo process as a member of the Core Group of States.
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in the Baridhara Diplomatic Enclave in Dhaka.[50]
  • Bangladesh also has an embassy in Rome.
 China, Republic of (Taiwan) 1942 See Republic of China – Holy See relations.
 India 1948

Holy See–India diplomatic relations exist since 12 June 1948. An Apostolic Delegation existed from 1881.[52]

 Indonesia 1947
 Malaysia 2011 See Holy See – Malaysia relations.
  • Diplomatic relations were established in 2011[54]
 New Zealand 1948
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Wellington.[55]
  • New Zealand is represented in the Holy See through its embassy in Madrid (Spain).
  • In 1984, John Paul II gave a speech to the ambassador of New Zealand at the Holy See.[56] He later visited the country in 1986.[57][58]
 Pakistan 1961

See Holy See – Pakistan relations

 Philippines 1951
  • The Holy See has a nunciature in Manila.[60]
  • The Philippines has a embassy in the Holy See (Vatican City.)[61]
 South Korea 1963 [62]
  • The Holy See Has a nunciature in Seoul.[63]
  • The current (as of 2008) South Korean ambassador to the Holy See is Kim Ji-Young (Christian name Francis).[64]
  • Pope John Paul II visited the Republic of Korea twice during his pontificate, in 1984 and 1989[65] – the 1984 visit to Seoul was for the canonization of the 103 Korean martyrs, held outside Rome in a break from tradition.[66]
  • In 2000, then-President of the Republic of Korea, Kim Dae Jung, made a state visit to Vatican City, the first Korean head of state to do so.[67]
 Sri Lanka 1978

The Holy See has a nunciature in Colombo. Sri Lanka has an embassy in Rome.

 Thailand 1957


  • 1957: Established as Apostolic Delegation of Thailand and Malay Peninsula
  • 1964: Renamed as Apostolic Delegation of Thailand, Laos and Malay Peninsula
  • 1968.02.23: Renamed as Apostolic Delegation of Thailand (branched to create Apostolic Delegation of Laos, Malaysia and Singapore)
  • 1969.08.28: Promoted as Apostolic Nunciature of Thailand
  • 1983: Branched to create Apostolic Delegation of Malaysia and Brunei
  • 1990: Branched to create Apostolic Delegation of Myanmar
  • 1994.07.16: Branched to create Apostolic Nunciature of Cambodia[70]
  • 2010.07.08: Archbishop Salvatore Pennacchio, Vatican’s Apostolic Nuncio to Thailand, paid a courtesy call on Foreign Minister Kasit Piromya on the occasion of the completion of his mission in Thailand.[71]
 Vietnam See Holy See – Vietnam relations.

Diplomatic relations have not been established with Vietnam. An Apostolic Delegation (a papal mission accredited to the Catholic Church in the country but not officially to the Government) still exists on paper and as such is listed in the Annuario Pontificio; but since the end of the Vietnam War admittance of representatives to staff it has not been permitted. Temporary missions to discuss with the Government matters of common interest are sent every year or two.

Multilateral politics

Participation in international organizations

The Holy See is active in international organizations and is a member of the following groups:[72]

The Holy See is also a permanent observer of the following international organizations:

The Holy See is an observer on an informal basis of the following groups:

The Holy See sends a delegate to the Arab League in Cairo. It is also a guest of honour to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Activities of the Holy See within the United Nations system

Since 6 April 1964, the Holy See has been a permanent observer state at the United Nations. In that capacity, the Holy See has since had a standing invitation attend all the sessions of the United Nations General Assembly, the United Nations Security Council, and the United Nations Economic and Social Council to observe their work, and to maintain a permanent observer mission at the UN headquarters in New York.[73] Accordingly, the Holy See has established a Permanent Observer Mission in New York, has sent representatives to all open meetings of the General Assembly and of its Main Committees and has been able to influence their decisions and recommendations.

Relationship with Vatican City

Although the Holy See is closely associated with Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct.

The State of the Vatican City was created by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 to "ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See" and "to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs" (quotations from the treaty). Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See's former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City is a "minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the Pope with the minimum territory".[74]

The Holy See, not Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states, and foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to Vatican City State. Generally, it is the Holy See that participates in international organizations, with the exception of those dealing with technical matters of clearly territorial character, such as the Universal Postal Union and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization.[72] Likewise, it is the Holy See that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities.

Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority over twenty-three sites in Rome and five Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo. The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in a foreign country.

Diplomatic representations to the Holy See

Of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See, 69 are situated in Rome, although those countries, if they also have an embassy to Italy, then have two embassies in the same city, since, by agreement between the Holy See and Italy, the same person cannot at the same time be accredited to both. The United Kingdom recently housed its to the Holy See in the same building as its embassy to the Italian Republic, a move that led to a diplomatic protest from the Holy See. An ambassador accredited to a country other than Italy can be accredited also to the Holy See. For reasons of economy, therefore, smaller countries accredit to the Holy See a mission situated elsewhere and accredited also to the country of residence and perhaps other countries.

Massimo Franco, author of "Parallel Empires", asserted in April 2009 that the Obama administration had put forward three candidates for consideration but each of them have been deemed insufficiently pro-life by the Vatican.[75] This claim was denied by the Holy See's spokesman Federico Lombardi, and was dismissed by Thomas Patrick Melady, former United States Ambassador to the Holy See, as being in conflict with diplomatic practice. Vatican sources said that it is not the practice to vet the personal ideas of those who are proposed as ambassadors to the Holy See, though in the case of candidates who are Catholics and who are living with someone, their marital status is taken into account. Divorced people who are not Catholics can in fact be accepted, provided their marriage situation is in accord with the rules of their own religion.[76]

In September 2008, French and Italian press reports likewise claimed that the Holy See had refused the required diplomatic approval of several candidates proposed by Paris for the job, which has been vacant since the previous ambassador died in December 2007.[77]

According to press accounts in Argentina in January 2008, the country's nominee as ambassador to the Holy See, Alberto Iribarne, a Catholic, was rejected on the grounds that he was living with a woman other than the wife from whom he was divorced.[78]

Treaties and Concordats

Since the Holy See is legally capable of ratifying international treaties, and does ratify them, it has negotiated numerous bilateral treaties with states and it has been invited to participate - on equal footing with States - in the negotiation of most universal International law-making treaties. Traditionally, an agreement between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state on religious matters is called a concordat. This often includes both recognition and privileges for the Catholic Church in a particular country, such as exemptions from certain legal matters and processes, and issues such as taxation as well as the right of a state to influence the selection of bishops within its territory.



  1. ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies.
  2. ^ Cardinale, p. 64.
  3. ^ Cardinale, p. 65.
  4. ^ Cardinale, p. 68.
  5. ^ Cardinale, p. 70.
  6. ^ Boczek, Boleslaw Adam (2005). International Law: A Dictionary. p. 47. Scarecrow Press (Lanham, Maryland). ISBN 0810850788, ISBN 9780810850781).
  7. ^ a b Lecture by Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, 16 February 2006
  8. ^ UK in the Holy See: Previous ambassadors
  9. ^ a b c d Philippe Levillain, John W. O'Malley, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies (Routledge, 2002 ISBN 0415922305, 9780415922302), p. 718
  10. ^ J.K.T. Chao, The Evolution of Vatican Diplomacy p. 27
  11. ^ Such as in Order of precedence.
  12. ^ a b c BILATERAL RELATIONS OF THE HOLY SEE with dates of establishment
  13. ^ Pope names first diplomatic representative to Vietnam
  14. ^ The Holy See's Diplomatic Net. Latest Acquisition: Russia
  15. ^ Apostolic Delegations
  16. ^ American Samoa, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Niue (dependent but self-governing), Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, U.S. Minor Outlying Islands, Wallis and Futuna
  17. ^ The dependent territories/constituent countries/overseas departments Anguilla, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Turks and Caicos Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands.
  18. ^ Note On Appointment Of Apostolic Delegate To Kosovo:"being completely distinct from considerations regarding juridical and territorial situations or any other question inherent to the diplomatic activity of the Holy See."
  19. ^ Magister, Sandro (14 January 2010). "The Holy See's Diplomatic Net. Latest Acquisition: Russia". www.chiesa. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  20. ^ Vatican Embassy in Denmark
  21. ^[dead link]"Vatican Resists Drive to Canonise EU Founder", by Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 19 August 2004
  22. ^ Luxmoore, Jonathan (7 May 2009). "Finding Catholic inspiration in the European Union". The Herald. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  23. ^ "Almanac". United Press International. Retrieved 7 May 2009. "In 2001, Pope John Paul II flew to Greece to begin a journey retracing the steps of the Apostle Paul through historic lands. ..." 
  24. ^ Pope's greetings to the Ambassador of Iceland
  25. ^ Lithuania (nunciature) at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  26. ^ Malta (nunciature) at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  27. ^ Embassy pages
  28. ^ Ambasciata della Repubblica di Polonia presso la Santa Sede (with map)
  29. ^ Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Holy See’s embassy in Belgrade
  30. ^ Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Serbian embassy to the Holy See
  31. ^ Ukraine (nunciature) at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  32. ^ "Pope Welcomes Queen to the Vatican". BBC. 17 October 1980. Retrieved 17 September 2008. "The Queen has made history after becoming the first British monarch to make a state visit to the Vatican. Pope welcomed Her Majesty and the Duke of Edinburgh, for what was described as a "warm and relaxed" encounter." 
  33. ^ Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: direction of the Argentine embassy to the Holy See
  34. ^ "Argentine Ministry of Foreign Relations and Cult: Direction of the Holy See’s embassy in Buenos Aires"
  35. ^ a b c Rohter, Larry (15 February 1990). "Mexico and Vatican Move Toward Restoring Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2009. "After more than a century of estrangement, the Mexican Government and the Vatican are suddenly moving toward re-establishing formal diplomatic relations and are also having informal talks on restoring some civil rights to the Roman Catholic Church here." 
  36. ^ Golden, Tim (22 September 1992). "Mexico and the Catholic Church Restore Full Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 September 2009. "Mexico and the Vatican re-established full diplomatic relations today after a break of more than 130 years, completing a reconciliation based on the Government's restoration of legal rights to religious groups earlier this year." 
  37. ^ Lazreg, Marnia (2007). Torture and the Twilight of Empire: from Algiers to Baghdad. Princeton University Press. ISBN 069113135X. 
  38. ^ Hofmann, Paul (12 March 1958). "Algerians Appeal to Vatican; New Peace Bid Made to Paris; Algeria Rebels in Plea to Pope". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2009. 
  39. ^ Horne, Alistair (1978). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954–1962. Viking Press. ISBN 0670619647. 
  40. ^ Madagascar (nunciature) at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  41. ^ Nunciature to Rwanda at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  42. ^ Sudan (nunciature) at Catholic-Hierarchy.
  43. ^ a b Israely, Jeff (26 November 2007). "Iran's Secret Weapon: The Pope". Time.,8599,1687445,00.html. Retrieved 14 June 2009. "... Iran, which has had diplomatic relations with the Holy See for 53 years ..." 
  44. ^ Moore, Malcolm (1 June 2008). "Pope Avoids Iran's Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 15 June 2009. "Relations between Iran and the Holy See are warming, and Mr Ahmadinejad said the Vatican was a “positive force for justice and peace” in April after meeting with the new nuncio to Iran, Archbishop Jean-Paul Gobel. Benedict is also thought to have the support of several leading Shia clerics, including Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani in Iraq." 
  45. ^ Paul VI's message to the Kuwaiti Ambassador
  46. ^ Kuwait (nunciature)
  47. ^ Syria (nunciature)
  48. ^ Plett, Barbara (7 May 2001). "Mosque visit crowns Pope's tour". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  49. ^ Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Holy See Brief,
  50. ^ "Foreign Missions in Bangladesh". Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  51. ^ Reynolds, James (9 May 2008). "China-Vatican relations". BBC.
  52. ^ Apostolic Nunciature India
  53. ^ Indonesia (nunciature)
  54. ^ "Malaysia: 179th State with Diplomatic Ties to Holy See". ZENIT News Agency. 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  55. ^ New Zealand (nunciature)
  56. ^ Address to the Ambassador of New Zealand, 12 January 1984
  57. ^ 24 November 1986, Lancaster Park in Christchurch – New Zealand
  58. ^ "Pope in New Zealand"
  59. ^ Pakistan (nunciature)
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  61. ^ "Embassy of Philippines in Vatican, Holy See (Vatican City)". 8 Sep 2010. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. "Head of Mission: Ms Leonida L. Vera, Ambassador" 
  62. ^ "Pontificate of His Holiness Pope John Paul II – 2000 March 4."
  63. ^ Korea (nunciature)
  64. ^ "ZENIT – The World Seen From Rome: Papal Address to South Korean Ambassador, 11 October 2007."
  65. ^ "Vatican Information Service News Archives – Monday, 6 March 2000: John Paul II Welcomes First Head of State from Korea." Refers to two visits in text.
  66. ^ "Mass for the Canonization of Korean Martyrs, Homily of John Paul II."
  67. ^ "Vatican Information Service News Archives – Monday, 6 March 2000: John Paul II Welcomes First Head of State from Korea."
  68. ^ "Apostolic Nunciature of Holy See (Vatican City) in Bangkok, Thailand". 8 Sep 2010. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. "Head of Mission: vacant." 
  69. ^ "Embassy of Thailand in Rome, Italy". 8 Sep 2010. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. "Head of Mission: Mr Vara-Poj Snidvongs, Ambassador" 
  70. ^ "Apostolic Nunciature Thailand". Giga-Catholic Information. as of 2010.05.19. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. 
  71. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand.,%20Archbishop%20Salvatore%20Pennacchio,%20Vatican%92s%20Apostolic%20Nuncio%20to%20Thailand,%20paid%20a%20courtesy%20call%20on%20Foreign%20Minister%20Kasit%20Piromya%20on%20the%20occasion%20of%20the%20completion%20of%20his%20mission%20in%20Thailand.. Retrieved 9 Sep 2010. 
  72. ^ a b "Bilateral Relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2010-11-24. 
  73. ^ UN site on Permanent Missions
  74. ^ Lecture by Archbishop Jean-Louis Tauran, 22 April 2002
  75. ^ Vatican Unhappy with Obama Ambassador Picks
  76. ^ Thavis, John (4 April 2009). "Vatican Dismisses Report That It Rejected US Ambassador Picks. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
  77. ^ "Vatican Rejects France's New Gay Ambassador
  78. ^ "Vatican Nixes Argentina's Ambassador on Grounds of Divorce"

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