Digit symbol substitution test

Digit symbol substitution test

DSST is a neuropsychological test sensitive to brain damage, dementia, age and depression. It isn’t sensitive to the location of brain-damage (except for damage comprising part of the visual field)[1]. It consists of (e.g. nine) digit-symbol pairs (e.g. 1/-,2/┴ ... 7/Λ,8/X,9/=) followed by a list of digits[2][3][4]. Under each digit the subject should write down the corresponding symbol as fast as possible. The number of correct symbols within the allowed time (e.g. 90 or 120 sec) is measured.

The DSST contained in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is called Digit Symbol (WAIS-R) or Digit Symbol-Coding (WAIS-III). To examine the role of memory in Digit-Symbol-Coding performance, WAIS-III (but not WAIS-IV[5]) contains an optional implicit learning test: after the Digit Symbol-Coding test paired and free recall of the symbols is assessed [6][7][8][9].

See also

  • Four boxes test


  1. ^ Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B., & Loring, D.W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 368–370. ISBN 9780195111217. http://books.google.com/books?id=FroDVkVKA2EC&pg=PA368&dq=%22Digit+Symbol-Coding%22&lr=#v=onepage&q=%22Digit%20Symbol-Coding%22&f=false. 
  2. ^ http://www.stacommunications.com/journals/diagnosis/2002/02-February/dxfeb02Concussion.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.sportmed.mb.ca/uploads/pdfs/Concussions-Craton.pdf
  4. ^ Brukner, P., Khan, K., & Kron, J. (2004). The encyclopedia of exercise, sport and health. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. p. 109. ISBN 1741140587. http://books.google.com/books?id=SCld4N1xpdMC&pg=PA109&dq=%22Digit+symbol+substitution+test%22&lr=. 
  5. ^ Lichtenberger, E.O.; Kaufman, A.S. (2009). Essentials of WAIS-IV assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. p. 27. ISBN 9780471738466. LCCN http://lccn.loc.gov/2009015529. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=4iHTzkqdQYQC&pg=PT49&dq=deletions+%22Digit+Symbol%22+%22Incidental+Learning%22&lr=#v=onepage&q=deletions%20%22Digit%20Symbol%22%20%22Incidental%20Learning%22&f=false. 
  6. ^ Ryan, J.J., & Lopez, S.J. (2001). "Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III". In W.I. Dorfman & M. Hersen. Understanding psychological assessment. Perspectives on individual differences. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers,. p. 23. ISBN 9780306462689. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=RkBuWf28ok0C&pg=PA36&dq=WAIS-III+incidental+learning#v=snippet&q=%22Digit%20Symbol-Incidental%20learning%22%20&f=false. 
  7. ^ Milberg, W.P. , Hebben, N., & Kaplan, E. (2009). "The Boston Process Approach to Neuropsychological Assessment". In I. Grant & K.M. Adams. Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780195378542. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8_tmbkk8OQ8C&pg=PT66&dq=WAIS-III+incidental+learning&lr=#v=onepage&q=WAIS-III%20incidental%20learning&f=false. 
  8. ^ Golden, C.J., Espe-Pfeifer, P., & Wachsler-Felder, J. (2000). Neuropsychological interpretation of objective psychological tests. Critical issues in neuropsychology. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. p. 125. ISBN 9780306462245. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=7O66Q2-Oa9gC&pg=PA125&dq=WAIS-III+incidental+learning&lr=#v=onepage&q=WAIS-III%20incidental%20learning&f=false. 
  9. ^ Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B., & Loring, D.W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 472. ISBN 9780195111217. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FroDVkVKA2EC&pg=PA472&dq=Digit-Symbol+%22incidental+learning%22&lr=#v=onepage&q=Digit-Symbol%20%22incidental%20learning%22&f=false. 

External links

Strauss, E., Sherman, E.M.S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: administration, norms, and commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 301. ISBN 0195159578. http://books.google.com/books?id=dvE1mzbqI14C&pg=PA301&dq=%22Digit+Symbol-Coding%22&lr=#v=onepage&q=%22Digit%20Symbol-Coding%22&f=false. 

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