- Differences between standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian
- 1 History
- 2 Outline
- 3 Writing
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Notes on comprehension
- 6 Language samples
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
In socialist Yugoslavia, the official policy insisted on one language with two standard varieties – Eastern (practiced in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina by all nationalities, either Ekavian or Ijekavian) and Western (practiced in Croatia by all nationalities, Ijekavian only). However, since the late 1960s, because of discontent in Croatian intellectual circles, Croatian cultural workers started to refer to that language exclusively as 'Croatian literary language', or sometimes 'Croatian or Serbian language', as it was common before the Yugoslavia. The language was regarded as one common language with different variants and dialects. The unity of the language was emphasized, making the differences not an indicator of linguistic divisions, but rather factors enriching the "common language" diversity. In addition, Yugoslavia had two other official languages on federal level, Slovenian and Macedonian – reflecting Yugoslavia's acceptance of diversity with regards to language use. No attempts were made to assimilate those languages into Serbo-Croatian language.
With the breakup of the Federation, in search of additional indicators of independent and separate national identities, language became a political instrument in virtually all the new republics. With a boom of neologisms in Croatia, an additional emphasis on Turkisms in the Muslim parts of Bosnia and a privileged position of the Cyrillic script in Serb inhabited parts of the new states, every state and entity showed a 'nationalization' of the language.
In that context, the Bosnian language went into its independent development after the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina was proclaimed in 1992. Independent development of Montenegrin language became a topic among some Montenegrin academics in 1990s.
It should be noted that Serbian and Bosnian language standards tend to be "inclusive", i.e. to accept a wider range of idioms and to use loan-words, while the Croatian standard is more purist and prefers neologisms instead of loan-words, as well as re-use of neglected older words. These approaches are, again, due to different cultural, historical and political development of the three languages and the societies they belong to.
There are differing opinions between linguists as to whether the differences between the four standards (if the Montenegrin language is included) are sufficient to justify their treatment as separate languages.
Croatian linguist Miro Kačić has given the following general overview of differences between the Croatian and Serbian languages. This blueprint can be, by extension, slightly modified to include Bosnian.
"In this book I have tried to present some of the fundamental delusions and distortions which have brought about the misconception, which is still present in world linguistics today, that Croatian and Serbian are one language. I have shown that Croatian and Serbian differ to a greater or lesser degree on all levels. These differences exist on the following ones:
- The level of literary language. There are two traditions of writing which are temporally and spatially separated due to the different historical, cultural and literary development of the two nations.
- The level of standard language. The two traditions of linguistic codification are completely disparate. The period of Croato-Serbian normative convergence, from the time of Croatian "Vukovians" to the imposed unification of these two languages in the former Yugoslavia, is only an interval in the development of the Croatian linguistic norm. As a turning point, this period was atypical with respect to three centuries of this development.
- The level of genetic relatedness. Croatian is based on three macro dialects, while Serbian is dominated by two macro dialects. The interference between three Croatian dialects which provided the basis for Croatian writing and literature has uninterruptedly existed for centuries as a formative force in the codification of standard Croatian.
- The typological level. Differences exist on all levels of the linguistic system: phonetic/phonological, accentual, morphological, word-formation, syntactic, semantic-pragmatic and lexical. Linguistic systems which differ on all these levels cannot be one language."
On the other hand, Ivo Pranjković, the author of Grammar of Croatian Language states that "On the level of standardisation, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian and even Montenegrin are different varieties, but of a same language. Thus, on purely linguistic level, or genetic level, on typological level, we're talking about one language and that must be clearly said. If anyone disagrees with that, let him present the arguments." Pranjković himself has stated in numerous cases (for instance in the language and culture paper Vijenac, to which he contributes regularly) that "Ćorić (an opponent in a debate) does not, of course, agree with the contention I've stated at the beginning of my text, that Croatian and Serbian standard language, as far as they exist, function as separate standard languages". "
Though all could theoretically use either, the scripts differ:
- Bosnian uses both Latin and the Cyrillic alphabet.
- Croatian uses strictly the Latin alphabet.
- Standard Serbian language uses both Cyrillic (ћирилица) and Latin script (latinica). (Cyrillic is the official script of the administration in Serbia and Republika Srpska).
Historically, Croats had used glagoljica, the Glagolitic alphabet for writing both Croatian Church Slavonic and vernacular documents.
There was another, less standardised Cyrillic script. It had more versions and names: arvacko pismo or arvatica, meaning the script used by Croats; this name was used in Povaljska listina; bosanica or bosančica, meaning the script of the region of Bosnia); and begovica (used by beys); poljičica, meaning from the Poljica region of southern Croatia. In some regions of Croatia, this script was used until the late 1860s, while the Roman Catholic seminary in Omiš taught new priests in writing in that script ("arvacki šeminarij") .
Muslim populations in the areas of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Montenegro who converted to Islam after the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans in the 15th century, also once used a modified Arabic script known as Arebica (pronounced [aˈrabitsa]). It remained in use from the 15th century until the early 20th century, primarily used by the literate, upper-class. The last known text published in Arebica was produced in 1941, after which the unification of Yugoslavia dictated that Cyrillic and Latin were the two official alphabets of all the Yugoslav Republics. It has all but fallen out of use as the number of people literate in Arebica today are minuscule.
All standard languages have the same set of 30 regular phonemes, so the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian Latin and Serbian Cyrillic alphabets map one to one with one another, and with the phoneme inventory.
Some linguists analyze the yat reflexes ‹je› and ‹ije›, commonly realized as [ie] in Croatian and Bosnian dialects, as a separate phoneme – "jat diphthong" – or even two phonemes, one short and one long. There are even several proposals by Croatian linguists for an orthography reform concerning these two diphthongs, but they have not been seriously considered for implementation.
The ongoing standardization of Montenegrin has introduced two new letters, ‹Ś› and ‹Ź›, for the sounds [ç] and [ʝ] respectively. These are optional spellings of the digraphs ‹sj› and ‹zj›. Critics note that [ç] and [ʝ] are merely allophones of /sj/ and /zj/ in Herzegovinian dialects such as Montenegrin, so the new letters are not required for an adequate orthography
Most dialects of Serbia originally lack the phoneme /x/, instead having /j/, /v/, or nothing (silence). /x/ was introduced with language unification, and the Serbian standard allows for some doublets such as snaja–snaha and hajde–ajde. However, in other words, especially those of foreign origin, ‹h› is mandatory.
In some regions of Croatia and Bosnia, sounds for letters ‹č› (realized as [t͡ʂ] in most other dialects) and ‹ć› [t͡ɕ] merged or nearly merged, usually into [t͡ʃ]. The same happened with their voiced counterparts, i.e. ‹dž› and ‹đ› merged into [d͡ʒ]. As result, speakers of those dialects often have difficulties distinguishing the corresponding these sounds. However, this merger is nonstandard.
The official language in Croatia alphabetically transliterates foreign names (and sometimes words) even in children's books [but not from Russian, and all other languages using Cyrillic alphabet] whereas the Serbian standard allows both a transliteration and a phonetic transcription. Officially, the Bosnian language follows the Croatian example, but many books and newspapers phonetically transcribe foreign names.
Also, when the subject of the future tense is omitted, producing a reversal of the infinitive and auxiliary "ću", only the final "i" of the infinitive is elided in Croatian, while in Serbian the two are merged into a single word. Bosnian accepts both variants:
- "Uradit ću to." (Croatian)
- "Uradiću to." (Serbian)
Regardless of spelling, the pronunciation is roughly the same.
In general, the Shtokavian dialects that represent the foundation of the standard languages have four pitch accents on stressed syllables: falling tone on a short vowel, written e.g. ‹ı̏› in dictionaries; rising tone on a short vowel, written e.g. ‹ì›; falling tone on a long vowel, written e.g. ‹î›; and rising tone on a long vowel, written e.g. ‹í›. In addition, the following unstressed vowel may be either short, ‹i›, or long, ‹ī›. In declension and verb conjugation, accent shifts, both by type and position, are very frequent.
The distinction between four accents and preservation of post accent lengths is common in vernaculars of western Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, in parts of Serbia, as well as in parts of Croatia with strong Serb immigration. In addition, a distinct characteristics of some vernaculars is stress shift to proclitics (e.g. phrase u Bosni (in Bosnia) will be pronounced /ùbosni/ instead of /ubȍsni/ as in northern parts of Serbia.
The northern vernaculars in Serbia also preserve the four-accent system, but the unstressed lengths have been shortened or disappeared in some positions. However, the shortening of post-accent lengths is in progress in all Shtokavian vernaculars, even in those most conservative in Montenegro. Stress shift to enclitics is, however, in northern Serbia rare and mostly limited to negative verb constructs (ne znam = I don't know → /nȅznām/).
The situation in Croatia, is however, different. A large proportion of speakers of Croatian, especially those coming from Zagreb, do not distinguish between rising and falling accents. This is considered to be a feature of the Zagreb dialect, which has strong Kajkavian influence, rather than standard Croatian.
In Croatian official linguistics, most of the literature in circulation promotes the four-accent system. Serbian standard language is based on four-accent-system that is common in most of Serbian vernaculars. Both dialects that are considered to be base of standard Serbian language (East-Herzegovinian and Šumadija-Vojvodina dialects) have four accents. Bosnian language is officially founded on East-Bosnian dialects, which are of Old-Shtokavian type, but in practice the norm is Neo-Shtokavian accentuation just like in Croatian and Serbian.
Feature Croatian Serbian English Opposition -u/e burza berza stock exchange porculan porcelan porcelain Opposition -u/i tanjur tanjir plate Opposition -l/-o after o sol so salt vol vo ox kolčić kočić stick Serbian often drops letter H in
the initial and medial position:
čahura čaura cartridge hrvač rvač wrestler hrđa rđa rust
There are three variants of the Štokavian dialect that stem from the different uses of the reflexive proto-Slavic vowel Jat. The jat appears in modern dialects in the following way: the Church Slavonic word for child, děte, is:
- dete in Ekavian
- dite in Ikavian
- dijete in Ijekavian
The Serbian language recognises ekavian and ijekavian as equal variants, while Croatian and Bosnian use only ijekavian. In Bosnia and Herzegovina (regardless of the official language) and in Montenegro, ijekavian is used almost exclusively.
English ekavian ijekavian ikavian wind vetar vjetar vitar milk mleko mlijeko mliko to want hteti htjeti htiti arrow strela strijela strila But: small arrow strelica strelica strilica
A few Croatian linguists have tried to explain the following differences in morphological structure for some words, with the introduction of a new vowel, "jat diphthong". This is not the opinion of most linguists.
Sometimes this leads to confusion: Serbian poticati (to stem from) is in Croatian "to encourage". Croatian "to stem from" is potjecati, while Serbian for "encourage" is podsticati. Standard Bosnian allows both variants, and inconsistencies are generally resolved with preference to the Croatian variant.
English Croatian Serbian add by pouring* dolijevati dolivati* diarrhea proljev proliv gulf, bay zaljev zaliv to influence utjecati uticati
The Bosnian official language allows both variants, and ambiguities are resolved with preference to the Croatian variant; this is a general practice for Serbian-Croatian ambiguities.
Another example for phonetical differences is words which have h in Croatian and Bosnian, but v in Serbian:
English Serbian Bosnian and Croatian tobacco duvan duhan to cook kuvati kuhati dry suvo suho deaf gluvo gluho
Phonetically and phonologically, the phoneme "h" is reinstated in many words as a distinct feature of Bosnian speech and language tradition, some Bosniaks prefer not to use the Serbian terminology. However, there are many people who do not speak this way. It is a regional or colloquial way of speaking.
English Bosnian Croatian Serbian easy lahko lako lako soft mehko meko meko coffee kahva kava kafa
As ijekavian is the common dialect of all official languages, it will be used for examples on this page. Other than this, examples of different morphology are:
English Bosnian Croatian Serbian (ijekavian) point tačka točka tačka correct tačno točno tačno municipality općina općina opština priest svećenik svećenik sveštenik male student student student student female student studentkinja studentica studentkinja male professor profesor profesor profesor female professor profesorica profesorica profesorka scientist naučnik znanstvenik naučnik translator prevodilac prevoditelj prevodilac reader čitalac čitatelj čitalac diver ronilac ronilac ronilac But: assembly skupština skupština skupština male president predsjednik predsjednik predsjednik female president predsjednica predsjednica predsjednica male Black crnac crnac crnac female Black crnkinja crnkinja crnkinja thinker mislilac mislilac mislilac teacher učitelj učitelj učitelj
Also many internationalisms and transliterations are different:
English Bosnian Croatian Serbian to organise organizovati
organizirati organizovati to construct konstruisati
konstruirati konstruisati But: to analyse analizirati analizirati analizirati
Historically, modern age internationalisms entered Bosnian and Croatian mostly through German and Italian, while Serbian received them through French and Russian, so different localisation patterns were established based on those languages. Also, Greek borrowings came to Serbian directly, but through Latin into Croatian:
English Croatian Serbian Note Bethlehem Betlehem Vitlejem Through Latin in Croatian, through Greek in Serbian Athens Atena Atina Europe Europa Evropa Cyprus Cipar Kipar chlorine klor hlor impedance impedancija impedansa Through Latin in Croatian, through French in Serbian licence licencija licenca Through Latin in Croatian, through German in Serbian resonance rezonancija rezonanca tendency tendencija tendencija Through Latin in both
Most of chemical element names are different: for international names, Bosnian and Croatian use -ij where Serbian has -ijum (uranij–uranijum). In some native names, Croatian have -ik where Serbian has -(o)nik (kisik–kiseonik(oxygen), vodik–vodonik(hydrogen)), while Bosnian accepts all variants. Yet others are totally different (dušik–azot (nitrogen), kositar–kalaj (tin)). Some are the same: srebro (silver), zlato (gold), bakar (copper).
Still, it is important to note that there are words from Russian that are considered "to be in spirit of Croatian language", and are felt to be Croatian, not a foreign word. Other Russian loanwords are considered as "Serbisms".
English Bosnian and Serbian Croatian minute (n.) minut/minuta minuta second (n.) sekund/sekunda sekunda But: planet planeta planet comet kometa komet territory teritorija teritorij mystery misterija misterij
In Serbian and Bosnian, pronoun what has form što when used as relative, but šta when used as interrogative; the latter applies also to relative sentences with interrogative meaning. Croatian uses što in all contexts.
English Bosnian and Serbian Croatian What did he say? Šta je rekao? Što je rekao? Ask him what he said. Pitaj ga šta je rekao. Pitaj ga što je rekao. What he said was a lie. To što je rekao je laž. To što je rekao je laž.
In Croatian, the pronoun who has the form tko, while Serbian and Bosnian use ko. The declension is the same: kome, koga, etc. In addition, Croatian uses komu as an alternative form in the dative case.
Usage of locative pronouns gd(j)e, kuda i kamo differs between Serbian and Croatian (the latter not being used in Serbian):
English Bosnian and Serbian (ijekavian) Croatian Where will you be? Gdje ćeš biti? Gdje ćeš biti? Where will you go? Gdje ćeš ići??
(Kuda ćeš ići?)
Kamo ćeš ići? Which way will you go? Kuda ćeš ići? Kuda ćeš ići?
Infinitive vs. subjunctive
With modal verbs such as ht(j)eti (want) or moći (can), the infinitive is prescribed in Croatian, while the construction da (that/to) + present tense is preferred in Serbian. This is a remnant of subjunctive, and possibly an influence of Balkan linguistic union. Again, both alternatives are present and allowed in Bosnian.
The sentence "I want to do that" could be translated with any of
- Hoću to da uradim
- Hoću to uraditi
This difference partly extends to the future tense, which in Serbo-Croatian is formed in a similar manner to English, using (elided) present of verb "ht(j)eti" -> "hoću"/"hoćeš"/... -> "ću"/"ćeš"/... as auxiliary verb. Here, the infinitive is formally required in both variants:
- Ja ću to uraditi. (I shall do that.)
However, when da+present is used instead, in it can additionally express the subject's will or intention to perform the action:
- Ja ću to da uradim. (I will do that.)
This form is more frequently used in Serbia and Bosnia. The nuances in meaning between two constructs can be slight or even lost (especially in Serbian dialects), in similar manner as the shall/will distinction varies across English dialects. Overuse of da+present is regarded as Germanism in Serbian linguistic circles, and it can occasionally lead to awkward sentences.
However, Croatians seldom naturally use da+present form. Instead, a different form can be used to express will:
- Ja hoću to uraditi. (I want to do that.)
In interrogative and relative constructs, Croatian uses the interrogative participle li after the verb, while Serbian also allows forms with da li. (A similar situation exists in French, where a question can be formed either by inversion or using est-ce que, and can be stretched in English with modal verbs):
- Možeš li? (Can you?) (spoken Croatian)
- Both Možeš li? and Da li možeš? (Can you, Do you can?) are common in Serbian.
In addition, non-grammatical je li ("Is it?"), usually elided to je l' , is vernacular for forming all kinds of questions, e.g. Je l' možeš?. In standard language, it is used only in questions involving auxiliary verb je (="is"):
- Je li moguće? (Is it possible?) (spoken Croatian)
- Both Je li moguće? and Da li je moguće? are common in Serbian.
In summary, the English sentence "I want to know whether I'll start working" would typically read:
- ''Želim da znam hoću li početi da radim. (spoken Serbian)
- Želim znati hoću li početi raditi. (spoken Croatian)
although many in-between combinations could be met in vernacular speech, depending on speaker's dialect, idiolect, or even mood.
In formal Croatian, verb trebati (need or should) is transitive, as in English. In Serbian and Bosnian, it is impersonal, (as French il faut, or English construct is necessary (to)); the grammatical subject is either omitted (it), or presents the object of needing; the person that needs something is an indirect grammatical object, in dative case. (Such usage is, however, also encountered in Croatian, especially spoken.):
Serbian and Bosnian English (literal trans.) Croatian English Petru treba novac. Money [is necessary] to Peter. Petar treba novac. Peter needs money. Ne trebam ti. I [am not necessary] to you Ne trebaš me. You don't need me. Treba da radim. (It) [is necessary] that I work. Trebam raditi. I should work.
The greatest differences between the languages is in vocabulary. However, most words are well understood, or even occasionally used, in other languages; in most cases, common usage favors one variant while the other(s) are regarded as "imported", archaic, dialectal or simply, more rarely used. The preference for certain words depends on the speaker's geographic origin rather than ethnicity; for example, Serbs from Bosnia use "mrkva" and "hlače" rather than "šargarepa" and "pantalone".
English Serbian Croatian Bosnian one thousand hiljada tisuća hiljada January januar siječanj januar factory fabrika tvornica fabrika
rice pirinač riža riža carrot šargarepa mrkva mrkva trousers pantalone hlače hlače
music muzika glazba ? library biblioteka knjižnica ? bread hleb kruh hljeb spinach spanać špinat špinat football fudbal nogomet fudbal
train voz vlak voz wave talas
uncivil nevaspitan neodgojen neodgojen one's own sopstveno
road toll drumarina
cestarina putarina But: dad tata tata tata
tomato paradajz rajčica paradajz
1 Bosniak linguists claim that word "nogomet" is "used in Bosnian" (same in Croatian); still, the form "fudbal" is in majority use among Bosniaks, compare FK Sarajevo, FK Velež.
English Serbian Croatian Bosnian to accept prihvatati prihvaćati prihvatati happy, lucky srećan
sretan sretan to comprehend shvatati shvaćati shvatati But: to catch hvatati hvatati hvatati
Note that there are only a few differences that can cause confusion, for example the verb "ličiti" means "to look like" in Serbian and Bosnian, but in Croatian it is "sličiti"; "ličiti" means "to paint".
The word "bilo" means "white" in ikavian, "pulse" in official Croatian and "was" in all official languages, although it is not so confusing when pronounced because of different accentuation (bîlo or bílo = white, bı̏lo = pulse, bílo = was).
In Serbian, the word izvanredan (extraordinary) has only the positive meaning (excellent), vanredan being used for "unusual" or "out of order"; however, only izvanredan is used in Croatian in both contexts. Thus, Croatian phrase izvanredno stanje (martial law) sounds funny to Serbian ears (Croatians would more naturally use 'izvrsno' (can be used in Serbian too) for excellent).
Also note that in most cases Bosnian officially allows all of the listed variants in the name of "language richness", and ambiguities are resolved by preferring the Croatian variant. Bosnian vocabulary writers based their decisions on usage of certain words in literary works by Bosnian authors.
Names of the months
In the Croatian language months have Slavic names, while Serbian and Bosnian use the same set of international Latin-derived names as English. But Slavic names may also be used in the Bosnian language as well (although, rarely understood); Latin-derived names are preferred.
English Croatian Serbian Bosnian January siječanj januar januar February veljača februar februar March ožujak mart mart April travanj april april May svibanj maj maj June lipanj jun juni July srpanj jul juli August kolovoz avgust august September rujan septembar septembar October listopad oktobar oktobar November studeni novembar novembar December prosinac decembar decembar
International names of months are well understood in Croatia and several names of internationally important events are commonly known using the international name of the month: "1. maj", "1. april", "oktobarska revolucija". In spoken Croatian and Bosnian in western Bosnia (Bosanska Krajina) it is common to refer to a month by its number. Therefore many speakers of Croatian and Bosnian often say "peti mjesec" ("the fifth month").
Notes on comprehension
It is important to notice a few issues:
- Pronunciation and vocabulary differs among dialects spoken within Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia themselves. Each larger region has its own pronunciation and it is reasonably easy to guess where a speaker is from by their accent and/or vocabulary. Colloquial vocabulary can be particularly different from the official standards.
This is one of the arguments for claiming it is all one and the same language: there are more differences within the territories of the official languages themselves than there are between the standards (all[which?] of which inherit from the standards established in Yugoslavian times, when Serbo-Croatian was the official language). This is not surprising, of course, for if the lines between the languages were drawn not politically but linguistically, then there would be no borders at all. As Pavle Ivić explains, the continuous migration of Slavic populations during the five hundred years of Turkish rule has scattered the local dialects all around.
- When Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs talk amongst each other, the other speakers usually understand them completely, save for the odd word, and quite often, they will know what that means (much as with British and American English speakers). Nevertheless, when communicating with each other, there is a habit to use terms that are familiar to everyone, with the intent to avoid not being understood and/or confusion. For example, to avoid confusion with the names of the months, they can be referred to as the "first month", "second month" and so on, or the Latin-derived names can be used if "first month" itself is ambiguous, which makes it perfectly understandable for everyone. In Serbia, the names of the months are the international ones so again they are understandable for anyone who knows English or another Western European language.
- Even during the time of Yugoslavia it was common for publishers to do some adaptations to "Eastern" or "Western" standard. Especially translations were and are changed by the lectors. It is to be considered that Croatian and Serbian standards have completely different scientific terminology. Jung's masterpiece "Psychology and Alchemy" was translated into Croatian in 1986, and adapted in late 1990s into Serbian. Ivo Andrić had some problems in Croatia with publishers who changed his infinitive constructions and other expressions. Eventually, he managed to forbid that kind of intervention. In Montenegro, the publisher CID changes since the Montenegrin independence all ekavian translations into jekavian.
The following samples, taken from article 1 to 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, are "synonymous texts, translated as literally as possible" in the sense of Ammon designed to demonstrate the differences between the standard varieties treated in this article in a continuous text.
Croatian Bosnian Serbian English Opća deklaracija o pravima čovjeka Opća deklaracija o pravima čovjeka Opšta deklaracija o pravima čov(j)eka Universal Declaration of Human Rights Članak 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sviješću i trebaju jedno prema drugome postupati u duhu bratstva. Član 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sviješću i treba da jedno prema drugome postupaju u duhu bratstva. Član 1. Sva ljudska bića rađaju se slobodna i jednaka u dostojanstvu i pravima. Ona su obdarena razumom i sv(ij)ešću i treba da jedno prema drugome postupaju u duhu bratstva. Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Članak 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, spol, jezik, vjera, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno podrijetlo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne smije se činiti bilo kakva razlika temeljem političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neka osoba pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod skrbništvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Član 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, spol, jezik, vjera, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno porijeklo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne smije da se čini bilo kakva razlika na osnovu političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neka osoba pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod starateljstvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Član 2. Svakome su dostupna sva prava i slobode navedene u ovoj Deklaraciji bez razlike bilo koje vrste, kao što su rasa, boja, pol, jezik, v(j)era, političko ili drugo mišljenje, narodnosno ili društveno por(ij)eklo, imovina, rođenje ili drugi pravni položaj.
Nadalje, ne sm(ij)e da se čini bilo kakva razlika na osnovu političkog, pravnog ili međunarodnog položaja zemlje ili područja kojima neko lice pripada, bilo da je ovo područje nezavisno, pod starateljstvom, nesamoupravno, ili da se nalazi ma pod kojim drugim ograničenjima suverenosti.
Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Članak 3. Svatko ima pravo na život, slobodu i osobnu sigurnost. Član 3. Svako ima pravo na život, slobodu i ličnu sigurnost. Član 3. Svako ima pravo na život, slobodu i ličnu bezb(j)ednost. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Članak 4. Nitko ne smije biti držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim oblicima. Član 4. Niko ne smije biti držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim formama. Član 4. Niko ne sm(ij)e da bude držan u ropstvu ili ropskom odnosu; ropstvo i trgovina robljem zabranjuje se u svim njihovim formama. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Članak 5. Nitko ne smije biti podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovječnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Član 5. Niko ne smije biti podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovječnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Član 5. Niko ne sm(ij)e da bude podvrgnut mučenju ili okrutnom, nečovečnom ili ponižavajućem postupku ili kažnjavanju. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Članak 6. Svatko ima pravo svugdje se pred zakonom priznavati kao osoba. Član 6. Svako ima pravo da se svuda pred zakonom priznaje kao osoba. Član 6. Svako ima pravo da se svuda pred zakonom priznaje kao lice. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
- A language is a dialect with an army and navy
- Ausbausprache – Abstandsprache – Dachsprache
- Mutually intelligible languages
- Shtokavian dialect
- Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language
- ^ Croatian and Serbian: Delusions and Distortions, Miro Kačić, Novi Most, Zagreb 1997
- ^ (Croatian) Interview with Ivo Pranjković, Slobodna Dalmacija, February 7, 2006
- ^ (Croatian) "Croatian language and the policy of language unity", Vijenac, 1998
- ^ A Handbook of Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian, Wayles Brown and Theresa Alt, SEELRC 2004
- ^ a b Lexical, Pragmatic, and Positional Effects on Prosody in Two Dialects of Croatian and Serbian, Rajka Smiljanic, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-97117-9
- ^ a b "Trebati" (in Croatian). Hrvatski jezični portal. http://hjp.srce.hr/index.php?show=search_by_id&id=f19kXhJ9&keyword=trebati.
- ^ "VI.Sintaksa §4" (in Serbian), Kartoteka jezičkih nedoumica, Odbor za standardizaciju srpskog jezika, http://www.rastko.rs/filologija/odbor/odluka012.html#_Toc33157657
- ^ 1) All month names are different. See below for full table.
- ^ a b Roland Sussex; Paul V. Cubberley (2006). The Slavic languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-521-22315-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=G2bsJdYrwD4C. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- ^ Ulrich Ammon, Die deutsche Sprache in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Das Problem der nationalen Varietäten. Berlin, New York 1995, p. 6.
- ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Croatian". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=src2.
- ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Bosnian (Latin script)". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=src1.
- ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Serbian (Latin script)". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=src3.
- ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/UDHR/Pages/Language.aspx?LangID=eng.
- Kovačić, Marko (December 2005). "Serbian and Croatian: One language or languages?". Jezikoslovlje (Faculty of Philosophy in Osijek) 6 (2). http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/48911.
- Peter Trudgill, Glocalisation and the Ausbau sociolinguistics of modern Europe (2004)
- Piper, Predrag (2008-05-01). "O prirodi gramatičkih razlika između srpskog i hrvatskog jezika" (in Serbian) (zip/pdf). Jezik danas, Matica srpska. p. Lm159.3.pdf:840. http://www.maticasrpska.org.yu/download/lm159.zip.
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