Timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy


Timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy
Countdown to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi

This timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy includes both megaprojects, costing over $1 billion, and other large investment projects, typically costing between $100 million and $1 billion. Projects with investments below $100 million also may be included here, either as parts of larger projects, or in case of major international significance and media coverage. In case of projects involving new vehicle models, the cost of development is taken into account as well as the cost of production.

The timeline starts from 1992, the first year after the formation of the modern Russian Federation. Main project areas covered here include infrastructure, energy, industry, weaponry, communications, science & technology, education, sports, and housing.

The projects are arranged by the actual or expected date of full completion, or completion of their first stage. Certain subprojects, that have been completed already, may be listed under their parent projects yet in development. Megaprojects are listed in bold, while planned projects are listed in italics.

Contents

Project areas

  • Airport symbol.svg Airports: new international airports, large expansions and reconstructions of airports (millions of passengers per year capacity)
  • Arctic blank map.png Arctic: major projects aimed into scientific exploration and economic development of the Arctic
  • Farm-Fresh autos.png Automotive industry: major serial car models, new car factories
  • AB-Brücke.svg Bridges: large-scale bridge construction projects (over 1000 metres in length)
  • AVIA BUTTON big.png Civilian aviation: new serial models of civilian aircraft
  • MapMarkerMuseum.png Culture: construction and reconstruction of major cultural objects (museums, temples, theatres, etc.)
  • Dam icon.svg Dams & Hydropower: large hydropower plants (over 100 MW installed capacity); major protective dams
  • Education - Grad Hat.svg Education: large-scale projects in education; major new universities and education centers
  • Digital Electronics Icon.svg Electronics: major projects in electronics
  • BSicon HELI.svg Helicopters: new serial models of civilian and military helicopters
  • BSicon LDER.svg High-speed rail: new high-speed rail services and lines
  • Buildings.svg Housing: major projects of new residential, public and commercial areas, technologically unique and superlative buildings
  • Factory icon.svg Industry: new industrial parks, large factories, major projects in heavy industry
  • Transportation template.svg Infrastructure: complex infrastructural projects, involving renovation and expansion of infrastructure of the entire regions or urban areas; major mixed transport corridors and sea lines of communication
  • Crystal Clear app Internet Connection Tools.svg Internet: national-scale Internet-related projects
  • Su-27 silhouette.svg Military aviation: new serial models of military aircraft
  • Mine de charbon.svg Mining: large-scale mines launched, major mining-related projects in industry
  • Nuclear power plant.svg Nuclear energy: new nuclear power plants
  • Derrick.svgCrystal pipe.png Oil and gas: major projects in natural gas industry (over 100 bln cubic metres of recoverable gas) and oil production (over 100 mln tonnes of recoverable oil)
  • Crystal pipe.png Pipelines: large scale oil and natural gas pipelines
  • Legenda port.svg Ports: major sea ports, large expansions and reconstructions of port terminals
  • Bahn aus Zusatzzeichen 1024-15 A.png Railways: large-scale railway lines, major railway terminals, new services and train models
  • Metro OV Logo.png Rapid-transit: new rapid transit systems, additional metro lines, technologically unique and superlative metro stations
  • Autoroute icone.svg Roadways: federal motorways, major urban ring roads and freeways
  • Rocktet icon201002.svg Rockets: new classes of military and civilian launch vehicles
  • Satellite icon1.png Satellite systems: space-based communication and monitoring systems
  • Science-symbol.png Science: major scientific projects
  • Ciudad.svg Skyscrapers: tallest skyscrapers (over 150 metre in height for individual projects; 100 metre for subprojects)
  • RocketSunIcon.svg Space exploration: major space research missions and projects of the Russian Space Agency
  • Rocktet icon201001.svg Spaceports: new rocket launch complexes and modes of launching
  • Sports and games.png Sport and games: major sport venues, top international sporting events and new international tournaments
  • Submarine.svg Submarines: new diesel and nuclear submarine classes, new nuclear submarines
  • Legenda prom.svg Surface ships: new military and civilian ship classes, new nuclear ships
  • AWB logo draft.png Technology: complex integrated technology projects, new innovation centers, technoparks and technology-oriented special economic zones
  • TV-icon-2.svg Television: international Russian-based TV channels, broadcasting of major international events held in Russia
  • Farm-Fresh factory.png Thermal power: large thermal power plants (over 100 MW installed capacity)
  • Legenda tunel.svg Tunnels: longest tunnels (over about 1000 metres in length)
  • Icon vojn.png Weaponry: major serial types of weaponry, technologically unique and superlative weapons

1992

1993

1994

Runet logo

1995

Kamov Ka-50 "Black Shark" of the Russian Air Force

1996

1997

A Topol M during a rehearsal of the 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade

1998

Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station
  • Dam icon.svg Irganai Dam[34] YesY Done (the largest derivational HPS in Russia; the date of the first powerblock installation is given; construction proceeds)
  • Legenda prom.svg Battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiy[35] (April) YesY Done (a Kirov class nuclear powered battlecruiser; currently the largest, heaviest and most powerful surface combatant warship in the world)
    A launch of Zenit 3SL rocket from the Sea Launch platform Ocean Odyssey
  • AB-Brücke.svg Khabarovsk Bridge reconstruction and doubling[36] (June) YesY Done (with a length of 2.600 kilometres, and 3.890,5 kilometres if the high-way is taken into account, it is the sixth longest bridge in Russia; the second stage of the new railway bridge was completed in November 2009)
  • Rocktet icon201001.svg Rocktet icon201002.svg Shtil' submarine-based launch vehicle[37] (July) YesY Done (the first submarine-launched spacecraft system; first launched from the Delta IV submarine K-407 "Novomoskovsk")
  • Factory icon.svg _TagAZ_car_plant[38]_(September)_Farm-Fresh autos.png TagAZ car plant[38] (September) YesY Done
  • RocketSunIcon.svg Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station[39] (November) YesY Done (the date when the first ROS and ISS module was launched; ISS construction proceeds)

1999

  • Rocktet icon201001.svg Sea Launch[40] (March) YesY Done (International cooperation with major Russian role in technology; Russia controls the reorganized project from 2010 on)
  • Derrick.svg_Sakhalin-II_(oil_and_gas)[41]_(July)_Crystal pipe.png Sakhalin-II (oil and gas)[41] (July) YesY Done (international project in Russian EEZ; the largest integrated oil and gas project in the world, involving the usage of the first ever offshore oil rig in Russia; the date of the start of oil production is given)

2000

2001

Soyuz-FG launching the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft
  • Airport symbol.svg Surgut International Airport reconstruction and expansion[49] (March) YesY Done (in 2008 the passenger traffic exceeded 1 million; the completion date of the first new terminal is given)
  • Nuclear power plant.svg Rostov Nuclear Power Plant[50] (March) YesY Done (construction of additional powerblocks proceeds)
  • Rocktet icon201002.svg Soyuz-FG[51] (May) YesY Done (an improved version of the Soyuz-U, from the R-7 family of rockets; since October 30, 2002 the only vehicle used by the Russian Federal Space Agency to launch Soyuz-TMA manned spacecraft to the ISS)
  • _Caspian_Pipeline_Consortium_(oil)[52]_(October)_Crystal pipe.png Caspian Pipeline Consortium (oil)[52] (October) YesY Done
  • _Baltic_Pipeline_System_(oil)[53]_(December)_Crystal pipe.png Baltic Pipeline System (oil)[53] (December) YesY Done (In April 2006 the Baltic Pipeline System reached full design capacity)
  • Legenda port.svg Primorsk Oil Port[54] (December) YesY Done (the date of the 1st stage opening is given; the 2nd and the 3rd oil terminals were opened in 2004 and 2006)
  • Legenda port.svg Ust-Luga Sea Port[55] (December) YesY Done (the date of the 1st coal terminal opening is given; more terminals were opened in 2000s, construction proceeds)

2002

Aeroexpress station in Sheremetyevo International Airport, Moscow

2003

Beriev Be-200 dropping the water painted into the Russian flag colours

2004

2005

  • _GAZ-2330_Tigr[81]_Farm-Fresh autos.png GAZ-2330 Tigr[81] YesY Done (a high-mobility multi-purpose off-road vehicle, primarily used by police and army)
  • Airport symbol.svg Krasnodar International Airport reconstruction[82] YesY Done (currently the 7th largest airport in Russia by passenger traffic; the completion date of the first stage of reconstruction is given)
  • Airport symbol.svg Yemelyanovo Airport reconstruction and expansion (Krasnoyarsk)[83] YesY Done (currently the 14th largest airport in Russia by passenger traffic; the completion date of the first stage of reconstruction is given; another major expansion was made in 2008)
  • Derrick.svg_Nakhodkinskoye_gas_field[84]_(April)_Crystal pipe.png Nakhodkinskoye gas field[84] (April) YesY Done
  • _UAZ_Patriot[85]_(August)_Farm-Fresh autos.png UAZ Patriot[85] (August) YesY Done (a mid-size SUV model)
  • Legenda tunel.svg Akhtsu Tunnel in Sochi[86] (August) YesY Done (2625.7 metres long roadway tunnel)
  • _MapMarkerMuseum.png Transportation template.svg Millennium of Kazan[87] (July–August) YesY Done
  • _Arctic blank map.png AB-Brücke.svg Kola Bay Bridge[92] (October) YesY Done (with a length of 1.6 kilometres, and 2.5 kilometres if the high-way is taken into account, it is the 9th longest bridge in Russia and the world's longest automobile bridge north of the Polar Circle)
  • Derrick.svg_Sakhalin-I_(oil_and_gas)[93]_(October)_Crystal pipe.png Sakhalin-I (oil and gas)[93] (October) YesY Done (international project in Russian EEZ; the date of the start of oil production is given)
  • _Blue_Stream_gas_pipeline[94]_(November)_Crystal pipe.png Blue Stream gas pipeline[94] (November) YesY Done (actually the first gas flows from Russia to Turkey started in February 2003)
  • TV-icon-2.svg RT (TV network)[95] (December) YesY Done (global multilingual television news network based in Russia, the first all-digital Russian TV network)
  • Airport symbol.svg Koltsovo International Airport reconstruction and expansion (Yekaterinburg)[96] (December) YesY Done (currently the 5th largest airport in Russia by passenger traffic; the completion date of the first stage of reconstruction is given; further expansions were made in 2007 and 2009)

2006

The general overview render of the Skolkovo Moscow School of Management
NS 50 Let Pobedy, the world's largest icebreaker

2007

A Mil Mi-28 at the 2007 MAKS airshow

2008

2009

  • Factory icon.svg Derrick.svg_Sakhalin_Energy_LNG_plant_in_Prigorodnoye[133]_(February)_Crystal pipe.png Sakhalin Energy LNG plant in Prigorodnoye[133] (February) YesY Done (the first LNG plant in Russia, a part of Sakhalin-II project)
  • TV-icon-2.svg 2009 Eurovision Song Contest in Moscow[134] (May) YesY Done (the most expensive Eurovision edition ever)
  • _Antonov_An-148_regional_jet[135]_(June)_AVIA BUTTON big.png Antonov An-148 regional jet[135] (June) YesY Done (Ukrainian-Russian plane, designed mostly in Ukraine, produced mostly in Russia and from Russian-made details; the date of introduction into service is given)
  • Su-27 silhouette.svg Yakovlev Yak-130 advanced jet trainer[136] (July) YesY Done (the date of introduction into service is given)
  • _Arctic blank map.png Derrick.svg_Vankor_Field_(oil_and_gas)[137]_(August)_Crystal pipe.png Vankor Field (oil and gas)[137] (August) YesY Done
  • _Dzuarikau–Tskhinval_pipeline_(gas)[138]_(August)_Crystal pipe.png Dzuarikau–Tskhinval pipeline (gas)[138] (August) YesY Done (gas pipeline from Russia to South Ossetia over the Large Caucasus ridge; the world's highest gas pipeline)
  • Digital Electronics Icon.svg _AWB logo draft.png Buildings.svg Technopolis Gusev[139] (August) YesY Done (a modern electronics industrial park in Kaliningrad Oblast started in 2008; the date of launching of the first new plants is given; development proceeds)
  • _Arctic blank map.png Transportation template.svg Northern Sea Route international commercial navigation[140] (September) YesY Done
  • AB-Brücke.svg Volgograd Bridge[141] (October) YesY Done (with a length of 1.260 kilometres, and 7.100 kilometres if the high-way is taken into account, it is the fourth longest bridge in Russia; construction of the second stage proceeds)
  • AB-Brücke.svg New Ulyanovsk Bridge[142] (November) YesY Done (with a length of 5.85 kilometres, and 12.98 kilometres if the high-way is taken into account, it is the second longest bridge in Russia and the longest bridge in Europe; the first stage is complete)
  • BSicon LDER.svg Sapsan HST on the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway[143] (December) YesY Done (the first regular line of high-speed rail in Russia)
  • Rocktet icon201002.svg RS-24 Yars[144] (December) YesY Done (the newest type of ICBM currently in service with the Russian military; the date of introduction to service is given)
  • _Eastern_Siberia_–_Pacific_Ocean_oil_pipeline[145]_(December)_Crystal pipe.png Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline[145] (December) YesY Done (the first stage of the project is ready, construction proceeds)
  • Submarine.svg K-152 Nerpa[146] (December) YesY Done (an Akula class nuclear submarine; the date of introduction into service is given)

2010

2011

2012

Angara launch vehicle mock-ups at the 2009 MAKS Airshow
Yo-mobile coupe

2013

A MiG-35D
  • Bahn aus Zusatzzeichen 1024-15 A.png Amur Yakutsk Mainline[199] (the first part of the TKM-World Link)
  • Factory icon.svg Mine de charbon.svg Boguchany Aluminium Smelter[200]
  • Legenda tunel.svg Bahn aus Zusatzzeichen 1024-15 A.png Kuznetsovsky Tunnel[201] (at 3,890 metres, one of the longest railway tunnels in Russia; expected to double the traffic on the Eastern part of the Baikal Amur Mainline)
  • Nuclear power plant.svg Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II[202]
  • RocketSunIcon.svg Luna-Glob program[203] (a mission to Moon, the first of four missions planned before the creation of a fully robotic lunar base scheduled for after 2015)
  • Su-27 silhouette.svg Mikoyan MiG-35 4++ generation jet fighter[204] (the expected date of the start of serial production is given)
  • BSicon HELI.svg Mil Mi-38 transport helicopter[205] (has both military and civil versions; the expected date of the start of serial production is given)
  • Nuclear power plant.svg Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II[206]
  • Airport symbol.svg Pulkovo International Airport reconstruction and expansion (Saint Petersburg)[207] (currently the fourth largest airport in Russia by passenger traffic; the expected completion date of the first stage of expansion is given)
  • _Sports and games.png Buildings.svg 2013 Summer Universiade in Kazan[208] (July)
  • Factory icon.svg Legenda prom.svg Admiralty Shipyard extension to Kronshtadt[209] (September) (construction of a new shipyard on Kotlin Island near Kronshtadt and relocation of the production facilities from Saint Petersburg)
  • Legenda prom.svg Admiral Grigorovich class frigate[210] (October) (the most modern frigate class currently under development for the Russian Navy)

2014

This sketch shows the Sochi Olympic Park concept with all venues gathered around the Medals Plaza
Vladimir Putin among the skiers in Krasnaya Polyana

2015

PAK FA fifth generation fighter
Location of South Stream gas pipeline

2016

Bagration Bridge and Tower 2000
Vystavochnaya metro station
Russia-shaped Federation Island off the coast of Sochi in the Black Sea

2017

2018

Inside view of the Luzhniki Stadium, the main arena of the 2018 FIFA World Cup
The model of Prospective Piloted Transport System's spacecraft, PTK-NP, at the 2009 MAKS Airshow
Yekaterinburg City under construction

2019

  • Science-symbol.png International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor[304] (November) (the world's largest and most advanced experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor; construction started in France under joint cooperation of Japan, the European Union, South Korea, the People's Republic of China, India, the United States and Russia; the expected date of production of the first plasma is given)

2020

Location of the future TKM-World Link and the Bering Strait Tunnel

2025

  • Bahn aus Zusatzzeichen 1024-15 A.png Baikal Amur Mainline reconstruction and expansion[308] (the cargo traffic is expected to triple by 2020)
  • Autoroute icone.svg Central Ring Road (Moscow Oblast)[309] (521 km long ring road in the Moscow Oblast aimed into reducing the transit traffic in the Moscow hub of the Russian federal motorways; the road will include several existing roadways, while the first new part is expected to be opened in 2012)
  • AVIA BUTTON big.png Tupolev Tu-244 supersonic transport[310] (second-generation supersonic transport aircraft; the expected timelimit of the start of exploitation is given)

2030

  • Su-27 silhouette.svg PAK DA stealthy strategic bomber[311] (the expected timeframe of introduction to service is given)
  • Arctic blank map.png Bahn aus Zusatzzeichen 1024-15 A.png Salekhard–Igarka Railway[312] (some parts are already built; the first part of the renewed project is expected to be completed by 2014)
  • Transportation template.svg TKM-World Link[313] (planned link between Eurasia and North America via the Bering Strait Tunnel, providing oil, natural gas, electricity, and railroad passengers between Russia and the United States/Canada; completion of the first part, the Amur Yakutsk Mainline, is expected in 2013)
    • Legenda tunel.svg Bering Strait Tunnel[313]
  • Legenda tunel.svg Sakhalin Tunnel[314] (the tunnel between mainland and Sakhalin, the largest Russian island; may be built together with Sakhalin–Hokkaidō Tunnel)

References

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  2. ^ K-456 Kasatka, Vilyuchinsk at deepstorm.ru (Russian)
  3. ^ Mission, history and overview at the State University – Higher School of Economics official site.
  4. ^ Thermal Power Plant 27 at the Mosenergo official site (Russian)
  5. ^ Nuclear Icebreakers at atomhistory.ru (Russian)
  6. ^ Neustrashimy class at naval-technology.com
  7. ^ Nuclotron overview at nucloweb.jinr.ru
  8. ^ Il-96-300 at the Ilyushin official site
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  20. ^ K-157 Vepr at submarines.narod.ru (Russian)
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  35. ^ Kirov class battlecruiser at atrinaflot.narod.ru (Russian)
  36. ^ Amur Bridge at khb.ru (Russian)
  37. ^ Shtil' at the makeyev.ru (Russian)
  38. ^ Taganrog Automobile Assembly Plant TAGAZ at taganrogcity.com
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  67. ^ Irkut — Be 200 at Irkut.com
  68. ^ Talwar (Krivak III) Class at bharat-rakshak.com
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  70. ^ Kineshma Bridge at zavolzhsk.narod.ru (Russian)
  71. ^ Severomuysky Tunnel at .bamts.ru (Russian)
  72. ^ The Third Ring Road is fully opened at restko.ru (Russian)
  73. ^ Moscow-Lefortovo Tunnel at Structurae
  74. ^ Airport Moscow Domodedovo at aviaport.ru (Russian)
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  104. ^ Project Implementation at the Skolkovo Moscow School of Management official site.
  105. ^ Rus/Soyuz-2 at plesetzk.ru (Russian)
  106. ^ SFedU history at the Southern Federal University official site.
  107. ^ Brief History at the Siberian Federal University official site.
  108. ^ Khakas Aluminium Smelter at the United Company RUSAL official site
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  110. ^ World's largest icebreaker Ships Monthly. May 2007.
  111. ^ Sheremetyevo International Airport Official site (Russian)
  112. ^ Lada Priora Official site (Russian)
  113. ^ Triumph for President at the Almaz-Antey official cite (Russian)
  114. ^ 2007 World Championship at the IIHF official website
  115. ^ History of the Palace of Sports at the Megasport Arena official site (Russian)
  116. ^ About the Arena at the Mytishchi Arena official site (Russian)
  117. ^ A second language for Russia Today, Eutelsat, France, May 2007
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  119. ^ The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, August 2007
  120. ^ Khrabrovo Airport at radioscanner.ru (Russian)
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  126. ^ MiG-29K at deagel.com
  127. ^ The new heart of the Hunter at lenta.ru (Russian)
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  132. ^ Volkovskaya will change traffic not only underground at www.fontanka.ru (Russian)
  133. ^ The ceremony of opening the LNG plant was hold in Prigorodnoye at www.sakhalin.info
  134. ^ Russian Press: Eurovision in Russia is the most expensive in history BBC Russian Service (Russian)
  135. ^ ANTK Antonov An-148 description page at antonov.com (Russian)
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  139. ^ Technopolis Gusev Official site
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  157. ^ a b c d About ChelPipe:History at the Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant official site
  158. ^ Restoration of the Eastern Wing of the General Staff Building at the Hermitage Museum official site (Russian)
  159. ^ Allegro Official site (Russian)
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  161. ^ a b Putin attends inauguration of St. Petersburg flood protection dam RIA Novosti
  162. ^ Big Obukhovsky Bridge at Structurae
  163. ^ Tunnel under the waves at spb-projects.ru (Russian)
  164. ^ Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok at Gazprom.com
  165. ^ Vice Premier Ivanov named the date of the GLONASS restoration at lenta.ru (Russian)
  166. ^ The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre of Russia: Reconstruction & Renovation at bolshoi.ru
  167. ^ Official illustrated report on the end of the 520-day isolation at the site of the MARS-500
  168. ^ Nord Stream at Gazprom.com
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  172. ^ Gryazovets – Vyborg at Gazprom.com
  173. ^ Dmitry Medvedev launched Severodvinsk at kommersant.ru (Russian)
  174. ^ Bulava can be commissioned in 2011 if the carrier sub is ready at rusnavy.com
  175. ^ Putin visits nuclear submarine "Alexander Nevsky" at flot.com (Russian)
  176. ^ Mosfilm tower at novostroiki-moskvy.ru (Russian)
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  182. ^ Yantar shipyard to deliver Ivan Gren vessel to MoD by 2012 at rusnavy.com
  183. ^ Press Center: Lokomosky project has been approved by the government of Ulyanovsk Oblast at the Lokomosky official site
  184. ^ Mariinka-2 delayed for three months at bn.ru (Russian)
  185. ^ The roadway part of the double-use bridge over Oka has been successfully tested at the site of Nizhny Novgorod government (Russian)
  186. ^ Future at the official site of the Skolkovo innovation center (Russian)
  187. ^ SSBN Alexander Nevsky was moved to floating dock at rusnavy.com
  188. ^ Yamal megaproject at Gazprom.com
  189. ^ Bovanenkovo at Gazprom.com
  190. ^ Bovanenkovo – Ukhta and Ukhta – Torzhok at Gazprom.com
  191. ^ Gazprom opened the Obskaya Bovanenkovo Railway at yamaltransstroy.ru (Russian)
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  194. ^ APEC Russia 2012 Official site.
  195. ^ Construction of a bridge across the Golden Horn Bay in Vladivostok APEC Russia 2012 Official site.
  196. ^ Construction of a bridge to the Russkiy Island across Bosporus the Eastern Strait APEC Russia 2012 Official site.
  197. ^ Far Eastern Federal University Official site.
  198. ^ Modernization of Vladivostok Airport APEC Russia 2012 Official site.
  199. ^ Russia BasEl's wins tender to build Yakutia railroad Reuters, November 6, 2008
  200. ^ BEMO project at the United Company RUSAL official site (Russian)
  201. ^ Press release on the Kuznetsovsky Tunnel at press.rzd.ru (Russian)
  202. ^ Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II at Spbaep.ru (Russian)
  203. ^ Russian spacecrafts will research the ice on the Moon at infox.ru (Russian)
  204. ^ The production of MiG-35 will start in 2013-2014 at volga.rian.ru (Russian)
  205. ^ Mi-38 helicopter production to begin in 2013 at RIAN
  206. ^ OAO "FSK EES" cancelled the construction organisations' applications because of the delay of NNPP II's first powerblock introduction date at Atominfo.ru (Russian)
  207. ^ Development project at the Pulkovo International Airport official site (Russian)
  208. ^ Universiade 2013 in Kazan Official site.
  209. ^ USC will spent 35 billion on the Kronshtadt project at rbcdaily.ru (Russian)
  210. ^ A new frigate is laid down in Kaliningrad for the Russian Navy at rian.ru (Russian)
  211. ^ 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  212. ^ Coastal Cluster at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  213. ^ Bolshoi Ice Palace at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  214. ^ Maly Ice Palace at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  215. ^ Olympic Oval at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  216. ^ Sochi Olympic Skating Centre at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  217. ^ Sochi Olympic Curling Centre at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  218. ^ Central Stadium at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  219. ^ Press Center at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  220. ^ Mountain Cluster at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  221. ^ Biathlon & Ski Complex at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  222. ^ Freestyle Skiing and Snowboard Park at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  223. ^ Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  224. ^ Russian National Sliding Centre at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  225. ^ Russian National Ski Jumping Centre at the 2014 Winter Olympics Official website
  226. ^ Sochi International Airport Official website
  227. ^ Sochi Thermal Power Plant at global-es.ru (Russian)
  228. ^ Siemens signs Russian Olympic train order at railwaygazette.com
  229. ^ About the M4 highway reconstruction at rosavtodor.ru (Russian)
  230. ^ Russian carmaker seals F1 deal with Virgin cnn.com
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  233. ^ Sakhalin III at Gazprom.com
  234. ^ Extension plans at the official site of the Moscow Metro (Russian)
  235. ^ Medvedev and Yanukovich agreed on the construction of the Kerch Strait Bridge Lenta.ru (Russian)
  236. ^ Titanium valley to draw investment at rt.com
  237. ^ Marine faсade Official website
  238. ^ New Passenger Port of St. Petersburg Official website
  239. ^ a b Territory development project at the Marine Facade official website
  240. ^ Western High-Speed Diameter Official website
  241. ^ International Airport "South Hub" at ipa-don.ru (Russian)
  242. ^ Olovozavodskoy Bridge: A new hope at news.ngs.ru (Russian)
  243. ^ PAK-FA Will Be Operational In 2015: Executive at Aviationweek.com
  244. ^ Vice-Head of the Russian Space Agency Viktor Remishevsky: We plan to start flight tests of the Rus-M by 2015 at federalspace.ru (Russian)
  245. ^ Russia Chooses Its Future Armament at www.ato.ru
  246. ^ SSBN Borei Class Nuclear Missile Submarine, Russia at naval-technology.com
  247. ^ A new port with a cost of 100 billion rubles to be built on a Black Sea lenta.ru
  248. ^ New Russian cosmodrome, Vostochny at Tvroscosmos.ru (Russian)
  249. ^ Port Vostochny APEC Russia 2012 Official site.
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  252. ^ 2016 Worlds go to Russia at the IIHF official website
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  258. ^ Tower 2000 and Bagration Bridge at drumsk.ru (Russian)
  259. ^ Moscow Expo Center Official website
  260. ^ City Palace at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  261. ^ Aquapark and Imperia Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  262. ^ Central core at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  263. ^ Order of Government of Moscow №564-PP of 24 June 2008
  264. ^ Vystavochnaya at the Moscow Metro Official site (Russian)
  265. ^ Mezhdunarodnaya at the Moscow Metro Official site (Russian)
  266. ^ City of Capitals at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  267. ^ Naberezhnaya Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  268. ^ Transport Terminal at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  269. ^ Eurasia Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  270. ^ Federation Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  271. ^ Mercury City Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  272. ^ City Hall and City Duma at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  273. ^ Mixed Use Residential, Office and Hotel space at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  274. ^ Northern Tower at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  275. ^ Exhibition-business complex at the Moscow City official website (Russian)
  276. ^ On construction of the Omsk Metro at kommersant.ru (Russian)
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  284. ^ Federation Island Official site
  285. ^ Federation Island in Russia - the giant artificial island project at s-sm.ru (Russian)
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  288. ^ Saint Petersburg at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  289. ^ a b c d Moscow at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  290. ^ Kazan at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  291. ^ Nizhny Novgorod at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  292. ^ Yaroslavl at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  293. ^ Samara at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  294. ^ Volgograd at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  295. ^ Saransk at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  296. ^ Krasnodar at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  297. ^ Rostov-on-Don at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  298. ^ Sochi at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  299. ^ Yekaterinburg at the Russia 2018 FIFA World Cup bid official website
  300. ^ Moscow – Saint Petersburg motorway to be complete by 2018 at rian.ru (Russian)
  301. ^ Prospective Piloted Transport System, PPTS/AC/tS at russianspaceweb.com
  302. ^ India says to have fifth-generation jets in 2018 at economictimes.indiatimes.com
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  308. ^ The second birth of BAM at rg.ru (Russian)
  309. ^ There will be no traffic jams in 2025 at rg.ru (Russian)
  310. ^ Tu-244 at infuture.ru (Russian)
  311. ^ Russia to develop new strategic bomber by 2017 atrian.ru
  312. ^ Industrial Urals & Polar Urals build $1.9bn Salekhard & Nadym railroad at marchmontcapital.com
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