- Demographic history of Jerusalem
Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5,000 year history. Since medieval times, the Old City of Jerusalem has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Armenian quarters.
Most population data pre-1905 is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the Jerusalem District. These estimates suggest that since the end of the Crusades, Muslims formed the largest group in Jerusalem until the mid-nineteenth century. Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews or Muslims were the largest group during this period, and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became a majority of the population.
In 2003, the total population of Jerusalem was 693,217 including 464,527 Jews and 228,690 "Arabs and others" (Choshen 1), that same year the population of the Old City was 3,965 Jews and 31,405 "Arabs and others" (Choshen 12).
- 1 Overview
- 2 Historical population by ethnicity
- 3 Demographic key dates
- 4 References
Jerusalemites are of varied national, ethnic and religious denominations and include European, Middle Eastern and African Jews, Christian Armenians, and Muslim, Protestant, Greek Orthodox Arabs, Syrian Orthodox and Coptic Orthodox Arabs, among others. Many of these groups were once immigrants or pilgrims that have over time become near-indigenous populations and claim the importance of Jerusalem to their faith as their reason for moving to and being in the city.
Jerusalem's long history of conquests by competing and different powers has resulted in different groups living in the city many of whom have never fully identified or assimilated with a particular power, despite the length of their rule. Though they may have been citizens of that particular kingdom and empire and involved with civic activities and duties, these groups often saw themselves as distinct national groups (see for example, the Armenians). The Ottoman millet system, whereby minorities in the Ottoman Empire were given the authority to govern themselves within the framework of the broader system, allowed these groups to retain autonomy and remain separate from other religious and national groups.
Since 1967, when Israel recaptured East Jerusalem, the Jewish population in Jerusalem has declined from 76% to 64% and is continuing to drop about 1% per year. The Arab population of Jerusalem has increased from 24% to 36%. The Arab population is burgeoning, outpacing Jewish growth in the city. While Jews remain a significant majority of the population, as they have been since as early as 1845, their numbers have grown just 114% in the thirty years since the city's unification in 1967. The Arab population, in contrast, has expanded by 163% in the same time period. At 36% of the total in 2006, Jerusalem is now far more Arab than it was in 1967 when East Jerusalem was recaptured.
Historical population by ethnicity
The tables below provide data on demographic change over time in Jerusalem, with an emphasis on the Jewish population. Readers should be aware that the boundaries of Jerusalem have changed many times over the years and that Jerusalem may also refer to a district or even a sub-district under Ottoman, British, or Israeli administration, see e.g. Jerusalem District. Thus, year-to-year comparisons may not be valid due to the varying geographic areas covered by the population censuses.
First Century Jerusalem
During the first Jewish-Roman war (66–73 CE) the population of Jerusalem was estimated at 600,000 persons by Roman historian Tacitus, while Josephus, estimated that there were as many as 1,100,000, inhabitants of Jerusalem of whom 97,000 were sold as slaves According to Josephus("B. J." v. 13, § 7),after the Roman victory over the Jews, as many as 115,880 dead bodies were carried out through one gate between the months of Nisan and Tammuz.
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in c.1130 0 0 30,000 30,000 ? Runciman 1267 2* ? ? ? Nachmanides, Jewish Scholar 1471 250* ? ? ? ? Baron 1488 76* ? ? ? ? Baron 1489 200* ? ? ? ? Yaari, 1943
* Indicates families.
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1525–6 1,194 3,704 714 5,612 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis 1538–9 1,363 7,287 884 9,534 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis 1553–4 1,958 12,154 1,956 16,068 Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis 1596–77 ? 8,740 252 ? Ottoman taxation registers* Cohen and Lewis 1723 2,000 ? ? ? Van Egmont & Heyman, Christian Travellers 
Muslim "relative majority"
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1806 2,000 4,000 2,774 8,774 Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, Frisian explorer Sharkansky, 1996 1815 4 - 5,000 ? ? 26,000 William Turner Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1824 6,000 10,000 4,000 20,000 Fisk and King, Writers  1832 4,000 13,000 3,560 20,560 Ferdinand de Géramb, French monk Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001
Muslim or Jewish "relative majority"
Writing in 1841, the biblical scholar Edward Robinson noted the conflicting demographic estimates regarding Jerusalem during the period, stating in reference to an 1839 estimate by Sir Moses Montefiore: "As to the Jews, the enumeration in question was made out by themselves, in the expectation of receiving a certain amount of alms for every name returned. It is therefore obvious that they here had as strong a motive to exaggerate their number, as they often have in other circumstances to underrate it." Between 1856 and 1880, Jewish immigration to Palestine more than doubled, with the majority settling in Jerusalem. The majority of these immigrants were Ashkenazim from Eastern Europe, who subsisted on Halukka.
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1838 3,000 4,500 3,500 11,500 Edward Robinson Edward Robinson, 1841 1844 7,120 5,000 3,390 15,510 Ernst-Gustav Schultz, Prussian consul Harrel and Stendel, 1974 1846 7,515 6,100 3,558 17,173 Titus Tobler, Swiss explorer Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1850 13,860 ? ? ? Dr. Ascher, Anglo-Jewish Association 1850 630* 1,025* 738* 2,393* ? Alexander Scholch, 1985 1851 5,580 12,286' 7,488 25,354 Official census Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1856 5,700 10,300 3,000 18,000 Ludwig August von Frankl, Austrian writer Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1857 7,000 ? ? 10-15,000 HaMaggid periodical Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1862 8,000 6,000 3,800 17,800 HaCarmel periodical Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1866 8,000 4,000 4,000 16,000 John Murray travel guidebook Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1867 4 - 5,000 6,000 ? ? Ellen-Clare Miller, Missionary  1869 3,200* n/a n/a n/a Rabbi H. J. Sneersohn New York Times 1869 9,000 5,000 4,000 18,000 Hebrew Christian Mutual Aid Society  1869 7,977 7,500 5,373 20,850 Liévin de Hamme, Franciscan missionary Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1871 4,000 13,000 7,000 20,560 Karl Baedeker travel guidebook Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1876 12,000 7,560 5,470 25,030 Liévin de Hamme, Franciscan missionary Harrel and Stendel, 1974 1876 4,000 13,000 3,560 20,560 Bernhard Neumann  Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001
Jews as a full or relative majority
During the First Aliyah, which began in 1881, the population of Jerusalem began to increase from around 20,000 to around 60,000 by the time of the British mandate. The relative proportion of Jews began to increase during this period, constituting more than half the city's population by the turn of the century.
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1882 9,000 7,000 5,000 21,000 Wilson Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1885 15,000 6,000 14,000 35,000 Goldmann Kark and Oren-Nordheim, 2001 1893 >50% ? ? ~40,000 Albert Shaw, Writer Shaw, 1894  1896 28,112 8,560 8,748 45,420 Calendar of Palestine for the year 5656 Harrel and Stendel, 1974 1905 13,300 11,000 8,100 32,400 1905 Ottoman census U.O.Schmelz
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1922 33,971 13,413 14,669 62,578 Census of Palestine (British) Harrel and Stendel, 1974 1931 51,200 19,900 19,300 90,053 Census of Palestine (British) Harrel and Stendel, 1974 1944 97,000 30,600 29,400 157,000 ? ? 1947 100,000 ? ? 205,000 ? United Nations (1983) includes
Bethlehem and surrounding Arab villages
1948 100,000 40,000 25,000 165,000 ? Harrel, 1974 1967 195,700 54,963 12,646 263,307 ? Harrel, 1974
* Indicates families.
After Jerusalem Law
Year Jews Muslims Christians Total Original Source As quoted in 1980 292,300 ? ? 407,100 Jerusalem Municipality 1985 327,700 ? ? 457,700 Jerusalem Municipality 1987 340,000 121,000 14,000 475,000 Jerusalem Municipality 1990 378,200 131,800 14,400 524,400 Jerusalem Municipality 1995 417,100 182,700 14,100 617,000 Jerusalem Municipality 1996 421,200 ? ? 602,100 Jerusalem Municipality 2000 448,800 ? ? 657,500 Jerusalem Municipality 2004 464,500 ? ? 693,200 Jerusalem Municipality 2005 469,300 ? ? 706,400 Jerusalem Municipality 2007 489,480 ? ? 746,300 Jerusalem Municipality
As of May 24, 2006, Jerusalem's population is 724,000 (about 10% of the total population of Israel), of which 65.0% were Jews (approx. 40% of whom live in East Jerusalem), 32.0% Muslim (almost all of whom live in East Jerusalem) and 2% Christian. 35% of the city's population were children under age of 15. In 2005, the city had 18,600 newborns. (Source: Israel Central Bureau of Statistics)
These official Israeli statistics refer to the expanded Israel municipality of Jerusalem. This includes not only the area of the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities, but also outlying Palestinian villages and neighbourhoods east of the city, which were not part of Jordanian East Jerusalem prior to 1967.
Demographic key dates
- 4500–3500 BCE: First settlement established near Gihon Spring (earliest archeological evidence)
- c.1550–1400 BCE: Jerusalem becomes a vassal to the Egyptian New Kingdom
- c. 1000 BCE: King David attacks and captures Jerusalem, which becomes capital of the United Kingdom of Israel. (Biblical source only)
- 732 BCE: Jerusalem becomes a vassal of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
- 587–6 BCE: Nebuchadnezzar II fought Pharaoh Apries's attempt to invade Judah. Jerusalem mostly destroyed including the First Temple, and the city's prominent citizens exiled to Babylon (Biblical sources only)
- 539 BCE: Cyrus the Great allows Babylonian Jews to return from the Babylonian captivity and rebuild the Temple (Biblical sources only, see Cyrus (Bible) and The Return to Zion)
- 350 BCE: Jerusalem revolts against Artaxerxes III, who retakes the city and burns it down in the process. Jews who supported the revolt are sent to Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea.
- 332–200 BCE: Jerusalem capitulates to Alexander the Great, and is later incorporated in to the Ptolemaic Kingdom (301BCE) and Seleucid Empire (200BCE).
- 175 BCE: Antiochus IV Epiphanes accelerates Seleucid efforts to eradicate the Jewish religion, outlaws Sabbath and circumcision, sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it.
- 164 BCE: The Hasmoneans take control of part of Jerusalem, whilst the Seleucids retain control of the Acra (fortress) in the city and most surrounding areas.
- 63 BCE: Roman Empire under Pompey takes city
- 70 CE: Titus ends the major portion of Great Jewish Revolt and destroys Herod's Temple. The Sanhedrin is relocated to Yavne, and the city's leading Christians relocate to Pella
- 136: Hadrian formally reestablishes the city as Aelia Capitolina, and forbids Jewish and Christian presence in the city. Restrictions over Christian presence in the city are relaxed two years later.
- 324–325: Emperor Constantine holds the First Council of Nicaea and confirms status of Jerusalem as a Christian patriarchate. A significant wave of Christian immigration to the city begins. The ban on Jews entering the city remains in force, but they are allowed to enter once a year to pray at the Western Wall on Tisha B'Av
- c.380: Tyrannius Rufinus and Melania the Elder found the first monastery in Jerusalem on the Mount of Olives
- 614: Jerusalem falls to Khosrau II's Sassanid Empire until it is retaken in 629. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is burned and much of the Christian population is massacred. A Jewish leader was made governor of the city, but was replaced by a Christian after being killed by a mob of Christian citizens.
- 636–7: Caliph Umar the Great conquers Jerusalem. Patriarch Sophronius and Umar are reported to have agreed the Covenant of Umar I, which guaranteed Christians freedom of religion but prohibited Jews from living in the city according to Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. The Armenian Apostolic Church began appointing its own bishop in Jerusalem. in 638.
- 797: Abbasid–Carolingian alliance – the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was restored and the Latin hospital was enlarged, encouraging Christian travel to the city.
- 1009–30: Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim orders destruction of churches and synagogues in the empire, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Caliph Ali az-Zahir authorizes them rebuilt 20 years later.
- 1077: Jerusalem revolts against the rule of Emir Atsiz ibd Uvaq who re-takes the city and massacres the local population.
- 1099: First Crusaders capture Jerusalem and slaughter most of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. The Dome of the Rock is converted into a church.
- 1187: Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders and allows Jewish and Orthodox Christian settlement. The Dome of the Rock is converted to an Islamic center of worship again.
- 1229: A 10-year treaty is signed allowing Christians freedom to live in the unfortified city. The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places.
- 1244: Mercenary army of Khwarezmians destroyed the city.
- 1260: Jerusalem raided by the Mongols under Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa. Hulagu Khan sends a message to Louis IX of France that Jerusalem remitted to the Christians under the Franco-Mongol Alliance
- 1267: Nachmanides goes to Jerusalem and prays at the Western Wall. Reported to have found only two Jewish families in the city
- 1482: The visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssianians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a sect possibly Druzes, Mamelukes, and "the most accursed of all", Jews. Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".
- 1517: The Ottoman Empire captures Jerusalem under Sultan Selim I who proclaims himself Caliph of the Islamic world
- 1604: First Protectorate of missions agreed, in which the Christian subjects of Henry IV of France were free to visit the Holy Places of Jerusalem. French missionaries begin to travel to Jerusalem.
- 1700: Judah the Pious and 1,000 followers settle in Jerusalem.
- 1774: The Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca is signed giving Russia the right to protect all Christians in Jerusalem.
- 1821: Greek War of Independence – Jerusalem's Christian population (the majority being Greek Orthodox), were forced by the Ottoman authorities to relinquish their weapons, wear black and help improve the city's fortifications
- 1837: Galilee earthquake of 1837 results in Jews from Safed and Tiberias resettling in Jerusalem.
- 1839–40: Rabbi Judah Alkalai publishes "The Pleasant Paths" and "The Peace of Jerusalem", urging the return of European Jews to Jerusalem and Palestine.
- 1853–4: A treaty is signed confirming France and the Roman Catholic Church as the supreme authority in the Holy Land with control over the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, contravening the 1774 treaty with Russia and triggering the Crimean War.
- 1860: The first Jewish neighborhood (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) is built outside the Old City walls, in an area later known as Yemin Moshe, by Sir Moses Montefiore and Judah Touro.
- 1862: Moses Hess publishes Rome and Jerusalem, arguing for a Jewish homeland in Palestine centered on Jerusalem
- 1873–75: Mea Shearim is built.
- 1882: The First Aliyah results in 35,000 Zionist immigrants entering the Palestine region
- 1901: Ottoman restrictions on Zionist immigration to and land acquisition in Jerusalem district take effect
- 1901–14: The Second Aliyah results in 40,000 Zionist immigrants entering the Palestine region
- 1917: The Ottomans are defeated at the Battle of Jerusalem during the First World War and the British Army takes control. The Balfour Declaration had been issued a month before.
- 1919–23: The Third Aliyah results in 35,000 Zionist immigrants entering the Palestine region
- 1924–28: The Fourth Aliyah results in 82,000 Zionist immigrants entering the Palestine region
- 1929–39: The Fifth Aliyah results in 250,000 Zionist immigrants entering the Palestine region
- 1948–49: 1948 Arab-Israeli War. All Jewish residents of the eastern part of the city were kicked out by Arab forces, dozens of synagogues dating back to Roman times were destroyed by Arab forces. The entire Jewish Quarter was destroyed.
- 1967: The Six Day War. The Old City is captured by the IDF and the Moroccan Quarter including 135 houses and the Al-Buraq mosque is demolished, creating a plaza in front of the Western Wall. Israel declares Jerusalem unified and announces free access to holy sites of all religions.
- 1980: The Jerusalem Law is enacted leading to UN Security Council Resolution 478 (it states that the Council will not recognize this law)
- ^ Usiel Oskar Schmelz, in Ottoman Palestine, 1800-1914: studies in economic and social history, Gad G. Gilbar, Brill Archive, 1990 
- ^ a b c Preserving Identity in the Holy City
- ^ Avraham Yaari, Igrot Eretz Yisrael, p. 98.(Tel Aviv, 1943)
- ^ a b c d Amnon Cohen and Bernard Lewis (1978). Population and Revenue in the Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century. Princeton University Press. pp. 14–15, 94. ISBN 0-691-09375-X. The registers give counts of tax-paying households, bachelors, religious men, and disabled men. We followed Cohen and Lewis on taking 6 as the average household size, even though they call it "conjectural" and note that other scholars have suggested averages between 5 and 7.
- ^ Christian travelers Johann Aegidius Van Egmont and John Heyman, Jewish history timeline; Turkish/Ottoman Rule, 1517—1917
- ^ A Brief Account of the Countries Adjoining the Lake of Tiberias, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea
- ^ Sharkansky, Ira (1996). Governing Jerusalem: again on the world's agenda. Wayne State University Press. p. 121. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jKdKSqe78DIC&dq=1876+7,560+jerusalem&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 24 Dec 2010.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kark, Ruth; Oren-Nordheim, Michal (2001). Jerusalem and its environs: quarters, neighborhoods, villages, 1800-1948. Wayne State University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0814329098. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=KzOAxmHDzHUC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- ^ Journal of a Tour in the Levant, Published by J. Murray, Item notes: v.2
- ^ Fisk and King, 'Description of Jerusalem,' in The Christian Magazine, July 1824, page 220. Mendon Association, 1824. (The figures are preceded by the comment "the following estimate seems to us as probably correct as any one we have heard". The authors also note that, "some think the Jews more numerous than the Mussulmans.")
- ^ Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea ..., Volume 2 page 86
- ^ a b Perpetual dilemma: Jewish religion in the Jewish State By S. Zalman Abramov, page 27
- ^ Edward Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: a journal of travels in the year 1838, Volume 2, 1841, page 85
- ^ Bibliographia geographica Palaestinae: zunächst kritische Uebersicht gedruckter und ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins Heilige Land 265 pages
- ^ Scholch, Alexander (1985). "The Demographic Development of Palestine". International Journal of Middle East Studies 17 (4): 485–505. JSTOR 163415.
- ^ Wolff, Press, "The Jewish Yishuv", pp 427-433, as quotes in Kark and Oren-Nordheim
- ^ Ellen Clare Miller, Eastern Sketches – notes of scenery, schools and tent life in Syria and Palestine. Edinburgh: William Oliphant and Company. 1871. Page 126: 'It is difficult to obtain a correct estimate of the number of inhabitants of Jerusalem...'
- ^ New York Times, February 19, 1869 ; See also I. Harold Scharfman, The First Rabbi, Pangloss Press, 1988, page 524 which reports the figure as 3,100.
- ^ Burns, Jabez. Help-Book for Travelers to The East. 1870. Page 75
- ^ Hebrew Christian Mutual Aid Society. Almanack of 1869
- ^ Die heilige Stadt und deren Bewohner in ihren naturhistorischen, culturgeschichtlichen, socialen und medicinischen Verhältnissen Published by Der Verfasser, 512 pages
- ^ Review Of Reviews. Volume IX. Jan-Jun, 1894. Albert Shaw, Editor. Page 98. "The present population of Jerusalem is not far from forty thousand, and more than half are Jews."
- ^ Usiel Oskar Schmelz, in Ottoman Palestine, 1800-1914: studies in economic and social history, page 35, Gad G. Gilbar, Brill Archive, 1990 
- ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
- ^ Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils: First Nicaea: Canon VII: "Since custom and ancient tradition have prevailed that the Bishop of Aelia [i.e., Jerusalem] should be honored, let him, saving its due dignity to the Metropolis, have the next place of honor."; "It is very hard to determine just what was the “precedence” granted to the Bishop of Aelia, nor is it clear which is the "metropolis" referred to in the last clause. Most writers, including Hefele, Balsamon, Aristenus and Beveridge consider it to be Cæsarea; while Zonaras thinks Jerusalem to be intended, a view recently adopted and defended by Fuchs; others again suppose it is Antioch that is referred to."
- ^ Hussey, J.M. 1961. The Byzantine World. New York, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, p. 25.
- ^ Karen Armstrong. 1997. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York, New York: Ballantine Books, p. 229. ISBN 0-345-39168-3
- ^ Heck, Gene W.. Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab roots of capitalism. p. 172. http://books.google.com/books?id=5qNgiv-ZOEAC&pg=PA179.
- ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 2007. "Historic Cities of the Islamic World
- ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/geo/mishkenot.html
- ^ http://www.mishkenot.org.il/en/secmain.asp?secid=1
- ^ http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/A8138AD15B0FCAC385256B920059DEBF
- Jewish National Council (1947). "First Memorandum: historical survey of the waves of the number and density of the population of ancient Palestine; Presented to the United Nations in 1947 by Vaad Leumi on Behalf of the Creation of a Jewish State" (PDF (0.1 MB)). http://www.crethiplethi.com/download/memoranda1.pdf.
- Jewish National Council (1947). "Second Memorandum: historical survey of the Jewish population in Palestine from the fall of the Jewish state to the beginning of zionist pioneering; Presented to the United Nations in 1947 by Vaad Leumi on Behalf of the Creation of a Jewish State" (PDF (0.3 MB)). http://www.crethiplethi.com/download/memoranda2.pdf.
- Jewish National Council (1947). "Third Memorandum: historical survey of the waves of Jewish immigration into Palestine from the arab conquest to the first zionist pioneers; Presented to the United Nations in 1947 by Vaad Leumi on Behalf of the Creation of a Jewish State" (PDF (0.1 MB)). http://www.crethiplethi.com/download/memoranda3.pdf.
- Salo Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Columbia University Press, 1983.
- Maya Choshen, ed. (2004). "Table III/14 - Population of Jerusalem, by Age, Quarter, Sub-Quarter, and Statistical Area, 2003" (pdf). Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem. http://www.jiis.org.il/imageBank/File/shnaton_2004/shnaton_c1404.pdf. Retrieved February 27, 2006.
- Manashe Harrel, "The Jewish Presence in Jerusalem through the Ages" and Ori Stendel "The Arabs in Jerusalem", in Sinai and Oestericcher, eds., Jerusalem, John Day, 1974. The Harrel numbers are also used in Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Middle East Conflict, Alpha, 2002.
- Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics information page
- Jerusalem: Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Population (1910-2000) at israelipalestinianprocon.org
- Bruce Masters, Christians And Jews In The Ottoman Arab World Cambridge University Press, 2004.
- Population of Jerusalem until 1945 (Table 10) at mideastweb.org
- United Nations (1983). "International Conference on the Question of Palestine—The Status of Jerusalem". United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. http://domino.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/dd53e072b16b507485257003004fe1fa!OpenDocument. Retrieved February 26, 2006. [dead link]
- Time Magazine (April 16, 2001). "Jerusalem". http://www.time.com/time/2001/jerusalem/cover.html. Retrieved March 25, 2006.
- Runciman, Steven (1980). The First Crusade. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-23255-4.
- Martin Gilbert (1987). "Jerusalem Illustrated History Atlas". p. 35. http://www.scribd.com/doc/19551586/JERUSALEM-Illustrated-History. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
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